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THE  LOEB  CLASSICAL  LIBRARY 

FOODED    BY    JAMES    LOEB,     LL.D. 
EDITED    BY 

T.  E.  PAGE,  C.H.,  Lirr.D. 
E.  CAPPS,  PH.D.,  LL.D.         W.  H.  D.  ROUSE,  liit.d. 


REMAINS   OF   OLD   LATIN 
I 

ENNIUS   AND   CAECILIUS 


EEMAINS  OF  OLD 
LATIN 

newly  edited  axd  translated  by 
E7%.AVaRMINGT0N,   m.a. 

RKAOER    IN   ANTIKST   HISTORY,    UNIVERSITY   OF 
LONDON,    king's   COLLEGE 

(in  three  volumes y 
I 

ENNIUS   AND   CAECILIUS 


CAMBRIDGE,    MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD    UNIVERSITY    PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM   HEINEMANN  LTD 

MCMXXXV 


?A 


Printed  in  Great  Britain 


CONTENTS 

PAOK 

INTEODUCTION vii 

BKNIUS 1 

CAECILITTS 467 

WORDS    FBOM    ENNniS    AND    CAECrLITJS    NOT    INCLUDED 

IN   THE   TEXT   OE   THE   NOTES   OF   THIS    VOLUME  .  562 

CONCOEDANCES — 

I. — ENNius  {for  rej.  from  Vahlen's  ed.  to  this)    .     .  565 

n. — EKNius  (for  ref.  from  this  ed.  to  Vahleti'a)    .     .  575 

I. — CAECiLius  (for  ref.  from  Ribbeck's  ed.  to  this)    .  585 

II. — CAECILIUS  (for  ref.  from  this  ed.  to  Ribbeck's)    .  587 

INDEX 591 


INTRODUCTION 

Scope  of  this  nork.     Limits  of  the  archaic  period. 
Archaic  spelling.     Contents 

In  three  volumes  entitled  Remains  of  Old  Latin, 
of  which  this  is  the  first  volume,  my  object  is  to 
present  a  Latin  text  and  an  English  translation  of 
Latin  remnants,  literary  and  epigraphic,  which 
belong  to  the  archaic  period  of  Roman  literary  historj-. 
I  have  fixed  the  limit  of  this  archaic  period  at  81 — 80 
B.C.,  which  are  the  years  of  Sulla's  dictatorship. 
It  is  indeed  true  that  the  limit  cannot  really  be 
defined  with  precision,  partly  because  archaisms 
in  spelling  and  in  form  survive,  especially  in  epi- 
graphic records,  during  many  years  after  the  date 
here  given.  However,  for  practical  purposes,  the 
time  of  Sulla's  supremacy  has  been  found  to  be  the 
best,  even  though  some  of  the  inscriptions,  which 
will  be  included  in  the  third  volume,  may  belong  to 
a  somewhat  later  period ;  for  the  year  80,  in  which 
Sulla  resigned  his  powers,  may  be  taken  to  mark 
the  beginning  of  the  golden  age  in  Latin  literature, 
and  the  archaisms  which  persist  during  this  age 
and  the  early  imperial  era  are  natural  survivals, 
some  conscious,  some  unconscious ;  while  some  are 
definitely  mistakes  or  false  archaisms.  I  therefore 
claim  to  present,  so  far  as  the  remains  allow,  a  picture 
of  Latin  in  the  making ;   but  there  is  one  important 


INTRODUCTION 

thing  which  must  be  stated  here.  I  have  not  tried 
to  reconstruct  the  spelling  used  by  the  old  writers,*^ 
but  have  retained  the  '  modernised '  spelling  which 
our  sources  for  the  literary  fragments  normally 
show.  Sometimes  indeed  these  sources  present 
or  seem  to  present  the  true  archaic  spelling.  In 
such  cases  I  have  reproduced  it.  With  the  exception 
of  remnants  like  those  of  the  Twelve  Tables  of 
Roman  Law,  the  most  valuable  of  the  literary 
remains  belonging  to  the  archaic  period,  as  defined 
above,  are  fragments  from  the  works  of  poets ; 
it  is  the  poetic  fragments  which  give  the  best  idea  of 
Latin  in  the  process  of  development.  Hence  the 
literary  remains  in  these  three  volumes  consist  of 
the  fragments  of  seven  poets,  namely,  Livius  Andro- 
nicus,  Naevius,  Ennius,  Caecilius,  Pacuvius,  Accius, 
and  Lucilius.  These  poets  are  not  taken  in  chrono- 
logical order,  owing  to  the  necessity  of  producing 
volumes  of  manageable  size ;  but  each  poet  is 
complete  in  his  volume,  this  first  volume  containing 
Ennius  and  Caecilius.  The  inscriptions  present  both 
poetry  and  prose ;  further  introductory  matter 
about  them  will  be  found  in  the  third  volume. 

Sources 

Our  sources  for  old  literary  fragments  are  nearly 
all  later  writers  of  prose.  These  writers  vary  very 
much  in  nature,  belong  to  widely  different  eras,  and 

"  The  inscriptions  are  an  obvious  exception  from  this  general 
ruling,  for  in  them  the  archaisms  in  spelling  and  form  are 
nearly  all  in  their  original  state.  Many  actual  archaisms  of 
Latin  will  thus  be  best  apprehended  by  readers  if  they  will 
study  the  inscriptions;  these  include  some  documents  which 
are  much  older  than  most  of  the  literary  remains. 


INTRODUCTION 

differ  greatly  in  the  reasons  for  which  they  quote  the 
old  Latin.  Some  of  them,  especially  those  nearest 
to  the  archaic  period,  quote  archaic  predecessors 
largely  because  the  renown  of  these  was  still  great, 
and  their  plays  were  still  widely  performed  or  read, 
and  their  whole  work  had  some  meaning  in  the  public 
life  of  Rome  and  Italy ;  while  others,  especially 
writers  from  the  beginning  of  the  imperial  epoch 
onwards,  were  interested  chiefly  in  linguistic  peculi- 
arities of  various  kinds,  and,  in  a  few  important 
cases,  in  the  imitation  of  the  archaic  poets  by  later 
ones.  There  is  no  need  to  re\iew  all  these  sources, 
but  I  have  thought  it  adxisable  to  ffive  here  some 
information  about  certain  late  sources  which  are 
not  often  read  but  which  are  the  most  fruitful  in 
gi\ing  us  fragments  of  archaic  Latin.  The  point  of 
\iew  of  these  writers  is  that  of  grammarians,  or  of 
persons  who  want  at  the  moment  to  deal  with  a 
point  of  grammar  or  philology .'' 

(i)  Nonius.  This  is  the  grammarian  and  lexico- 
grapher Nonius  Marcellus,  who  in  his  De  Coni- 
pendiosa  Doctrina  in  twenty  books,  WTitten  about  the 
beginning  of  the  fourth  century  after  Christ,  pro- 
\-ides  us  with  more  ancient  literary  fragments  than 
any  other  source  does.  He  consulted  a  limited 
number  of  '  classical  '  writers,  and  also  other  gram- 
marians and  lexicographers,  and  first  made  large 
catalogues  of  words  occurring  in  them,  and  then 
compiled  his  Doctrina  from  these  catalogues,  in  such 

'  I  wish  to  point  out  here  that  ancient  philology  was  largely 
ignorant  and  fanciful,  so  that  many  of  the  derivations  given  by 
the  sources  are  absurd  and  even  fantastic ;  and  in  quoting  them 
I  have  not  thought  it  worth  while  to  point  this  out  unless  the 
fact  is  relevant  to  the  right  interpretation  of  an  archaic 
fragment. 

ix 


INTRODUCTION 

a  way  that  the  order  of  the  fragments  as  he  finally 
quotes  them  is  sometimes  the  same  as  their  order 
in  the  original  writer ;  this  is  a  matter  of  greatest 
importance  in  considering  the  fragments  of  Lucilius 
which  will  be  given  in  our  third  volume ;  further 
details  on  this  point  will  be  found  there.  The  text 
of  Nonius  tends  to  be  very  corrupt  in  the  quotations 
from  old  WTiters,  and  I  have  thus  felt  it  advisable 
to  give  fuller  critical  notes  on  his  passages  than 
on  most  of  those  which  come  from  other  sources. 
The  extant  manuscripts,  all  come  (possibly  by  way  of 
an  intervening  MS.  now  lost)  from  a  lost  archetype, 
and  are  indicated  in  these  volumes  by  sigla  as 
follows  : 

Lu.     Lugdunensis  (Voss.,  lat.  fol.   73) ;    9th  cent. ; 

best    of    all.     Well    corrected    by    two    hands 

(L2,  L3). 
F.,  Flor.     Florentinus  (Laur.,  xlviii,  1);  9th  cent.; 

copied    from    Lu ;     corrected    by    two    hands. 

Books  I-III  only. 
Harl     Harleianus     (Mus.     Brit.     2719);     9th-10th 

cent. ;    copied  partly   from   F  and  from    Geii. 

(see  below)  in  book  IV ;  corrections  by  H2,  H3. 
Escorial.     Escorialensis    (M   III,    14) ;     10th    cent. ; 

copied  partly  from  the  same  source  as  Par.  7667 

(see  below),  partly  from  F  (corrected). 
G.     Gudianus  (Wolfenb.  96) ;   10th  cent,  (source  for 

correctors  7/2,  L3). 
Lugd.     Lugdunensis    (Voss.,    4to.    116);    lOth-llth 

cent. 
Bamb.     Barabergensis  (M.V.  18) ;  9th-10th  cent. 
Turic.     Turicense    fragmentum    (C796)    10th    cent. 

(bad). 


INTRODUCTION 

Par.  7666.     Parisinus  7666 ;    lOth  cent. 
Par.  7665         1  Parisinus  7665.     Beraensis  347,  357, 
Bern.  347,  357/     10th  cent.    All  portions  of  one  cd. 
Montepess.     Montepessulanus  (212) ;   9th-10th  cent. 
Ox.    Oxoniensis   (Bibl.   Bodl.   Can.   CI.    Lat.   279); 

10th  cent. 
Gen.     Genevensis  (84);    9th  cent.  (good). 
Bern.  83.     Bemensis  83;   10th  cent.  (bad). 
Par  7667.     Parisinus  7667 ;    10th  cent. 

There  is  also  Cantabrigiensis  (Mm.  V.  22);  9th 
cent. ;    copied  from  Gen. 

The  edition  which  I  have  used  is  that  of  W.  M. 
Lindsay,  Leipzig,  Teubner,  1903,  and  the  numeration 
that  of  Mercier. 

(ii)  Festus.  This  is  Sextus  Pompeius  Festus 
(probably  of  the  second  century  after  Christ),  whose 
work  is  an  abridgment  of  an  earlier  work  entitled 
De  Verhorum  Significatu  and  ^^Titten  by  M.  Verrius 
Flaccus,  a  famous  grammarian  of  Augustus'  time. 
Only  the  latter  part  of  Festus'  abridgment  has 
survived,  and  there  is  only  one  manuscript  of  it — ■ 
the  Codex  Farnesianus  IV.  A,  3  (11th  cent.)  at  Naples. 
Even  in  this  there  are  large  gaps,  which  can  be  re- 
stored in  part  from  copies  of  the  codex  made  before 
it  was  damaged  so  much  as  it  is  now,  and  in  part 
from  an  abridgment  of  Festus'  own  work  made  by 
Paul  us  Diaconus  (c.  720 — c.  800).  Paulus'  work  is 
extant  in  a  number  of  codices.  The  edition  used  in 
these  volumes  is  the  combined  Paulus  and  Festus 
edited  by  W.  M.  Lindsay,  Leipzig,  Teubner,  1913. 

(iii)  Servius.  The  elaborate  commentary  on 
Virgil  by  Maurus  (Marius  ?)  Ser\ius  Honoratus — - 
these  names  occur  in  varying  order — who  gives  us 


INTRODUCTION 

many  fragments,  was  composed  about  the  end  of  the 
fourth  century  after  Christ,  and  is  extant  in  very 
different  groups  of  manuscripts.  One  group  gives 
apparently  the  original  commentary  of  Servius, 
who  is  in  these  volumes  referred  to  simply  as 
Servius.  But  another  group  shows  the  same 
commentary  embedded  in  other  matter,  so  to  speak, 
or  rather  supplemented  or  augmented  from  an 
anonymous  writer  of  about  the  same  date.  Where 
the  source  of  an  old  fragment  comes  from  one  of 
these  supplemented  contexts,  the  author  is  referred 
to  as  '  Servius  auctus,'  '  Servius  (supplemented).' 
Readers  will  further  understand  from  this  the 
meaning  of  the  phrase  augmenter  of  Servius/* 

The  edition  used  for  these  volumes  is  that  of 
G.  Thilo  and  H.  Hagen,  Leipzig,  Teubner,  1878- 
1902,  re-issued  in  1923. 

(iv)  Several  late  grammarians,  in  particular 
Charisius,  Diomedes,  and  Priscianus,  who  give  us 
many  fragments  at  second  hand.*  These  are  all  to  be 
found  in  Grammatici  Latini,  ed.  H.  Keil  (and  others), 
Leipzig,  1857-1880,  referred  to  in  these  volumes  as 
G.  L.  K. 

(v)  Some  fragments  given  by  one  or  two  scholars 
of  the  medieval  and  early  modern  eras  have  been 
included,  but  they  differ  in  trustworthiness.  For 
example,  Ekkehart  or  Ekkehard  (there  are  four  with 
this  name),  a  monk  of  St.  Gall,  who  died  c.  1061 ; 
and  Osbern  of  Gloucester  (c.  1123-1200)  are  worthy 

"  Note  that  J.  J.  H.  Savage,  in  Harvard  Studies  in  Classical 
Philology,  1932,  77,  maintains  that  the  '  Servius  auctus ' 
commentary  is  a  mixture  or  conflation  of  two  commentaries — 
that  of  Servius  and  another  of  Aeliua  Donatus  who  wrote  about 
25  years  before  Servius. 

*  Priscianus  appears  to  quote  directly  from  Ennius. 
xii 


INTRODUCTION 

of  belief.  But  it  is  not  easy  to  decide  about  the 
German  philologist  Kaspar  von  Barth  (1587-1658). 
In  his  Adversaria  and  his  commentary  on  Stat  jus  he 
professes  to  quote  fragments  of  Ennius  from  old 
sources.  In  1636  his  library  and  manuscripts  were 
destroyed  by  fire,  so  that,  even  when  he  wrote  in 
good  faith,  he  often  depended  upon  his  memory. 
It  is  thus  difficult  to  trust  his  authority. 

This  point  leads  me  naturally  to  mention  the 
groups  of  fragments  which  I  have  classed  doubtfully 
as  spurious ;  I  have  included  only  such  as  readers 
who  are  already  familiar  with  the  old  poets  may 
expect  to  find  in  these  volumes.  There  are  others 
which  I  have  omitted  altogether.  Amongst  these 
are  a  number  given  as  genuine  by  Merula,  who 
acted  apparently  in  good  faith.  They  will  be  found 
in  Vahlen's  third  edition  of  Ennius,  on  pp.  240-242. 

Method  of  quotation  from  sources 

In  presenting  each  literary  fragment,  the  method 
used  in  these  three  volumes  is  to  give,  as  a  separate 
*  item,'  either  the  whole  passage  of  the  source  by 
which  the  fragment  of  old  Latin  is  quoted  or  referred 
to,  or  so  much  of  the  passage  as  may  reveal  the  old 
author  of  the  quotation  (>\-ith  or  without  the  title  or 
other  details  of  the  old  author's  work),  the  reason 
for  the  quotation,  and  maybe  something  of  its 
meaning  and  context,  or  of  the  nature  of  the  work 
from  which  it  is  quoted.  These  items  fall  into  two 
classes : 

(i)  Passages  which  quote  actual  words  of  the  old 
author.  These  passages  give  true  fragments  and 
form  the  bulk  of  the  text  and  translation  in  the 

xiii 


INTRODUCTION 

first  two  volumes  of  this  series.  They  are  numbered 
by  figures  placed  over  the  middle  of  each  item,  the 
numeration  representing  the  lines,  or  parts  of  lines, 
which,  printed  in  distinctive  type,  are  thus  deemed  to 
survive  from  among  the  lost  works  of  the  author." 
Single  words  not  placed  in  the  text  or  given  in  a  note 
are  collected  at  the  end  of  each  volume. 

(ii)  Passages  which  do  not  give  words  as  actually 
written  by  the  old  author.  Some  of  these  reveal  a 
'  hidden  fragment '  by  a  paraphrase ;  others  tell  us 
something  about  the  old  poet's  work,  or  about  its 
context  at  some  particular  point.  Such  items  as 
these  are  not  numbered,  but  they  are  placed  in  what 
is  apparently  the  best  position  for  them ;  where 
they  are  separated  by  spaces  from  numbered  items 
of  class  (i),  they  are  to  be  taken  as  separate  items. 
In  view  of  the  meagre  nature  of  our  knowledge 
about  the  lost  poets,  it  was  felt  advisable  to  include 
these  passages.* 

A  word  must  be  said  here  about  C.  lulius 
Hyginus,  from  whom  I  have  incorporated  a  number 
of  important  extracts  belonging  to  this  second 
class.  Under  Hyginus'  name  has  come  down  to 
us  a  mythological  treatise  written  in  Latin  "^  and 
entitled  Fahulae  or  Fabularum  Liber.  This  contains 
about  three  hundred  old  Greek  legends  and  gene- 

"  With  the  exception  of  Ennius'  Euhemerus,  the  lines  are 
lines  of  poetry;  in  Euhemerus  the  numeration  is  of  lines  of 
text  as  printed  in  this  volume. 

*  Many  '  testimonia  '  about  the  old  author's  life,  or  criti- 
cising his  work  as  a  whole  or  a  particular  work,  have  not  been 
included.  But  references  to  the  sources  for  the  lives  of  the  old 
authors  have  been  given  in  the  introductions  to  the  volumes. 

"^  There  are  also  fragments  of  a  version  or  original  in 
Greek. 


INTRODUCTION 

alogies,  and  consists  of  an  abridgment,  or  possibly 
a  union  of  two  abridgments,  of  the  original  work. 
The  extant  text  shows  a  poor  knowledge  of  good 
Latin  and  Greek ;  if  this  reflects  the  mind  of  the 
original  author,  then  Professor  H.  J.  Rose,  the 
latest  editor,  is  probably  right  in  rejecting  the  belief 
that  the  author  was  that  Hyginus  who  was  a  learned 
freedman  of  Augustus.  Although  it  is  not  easy  to 
decide  in  every  case,  lulius  Hyginus'  sources  appear 
to  have  been  very  often  epic  poems  and  Alexandrian 
works  WTitten  in  prose,  less  often  old  Greek 
tragedies,  or  hypotheses  of  these.  Sometimes  a 
Fabula  has  been  produced  from  the  plots  of  two  or 
more  Greek  tragedies  'contaminated.'  In  a  few 
cases  Hyginus'  source  for  a  legend  appears  to  be 
a  separate  old  Latin  play  or  its  hypothesis.  Where 
this  happens  I  have  incorporated  Hyginus'  plot  into 
the  extant  fragments  of  the  Latin  play ;  but  the 
correctness  of  this  use  of  Hyginus  should  not  be 
regarded  as  wholly  certain. 

The  references  added  at  the  end  of  any  item  in 
the  Latin  (not  the  English)  text,  and  prefixed  by 
the  abbreviation  Cf.  or  Cp.,  generally  indicate 
other  sources  which  give  all  or  part  of  the  old  frag- 
ment, but  are  not  quoted  in  this  text. 

Where  several  fragments  have  survived  from  one 
book  (for  example,  of  Ennius'  Annals)  or  one  play 
or  other  named  work  of  an  old  poet — especially 
where  the  fragments  of  this  particular  work  are  all 
or  mostly  quoted  by  one  or  two  sources  (for  example, 
by  Nonius) — there  the  ascription,  by  the  source, 
to  '  Ennius  in  such  and  such  a  book'  has,  as  a  rule, 
only  been  included  in  the  text  of  that  passage  which 
gives  the  first  fragment  of  a  group  as  arranged  by 

XV 

VOL.    I.  b 


INTRODUCTION 

me.  After  that,  the  ascription  has  been  omitted 
unless  there  was  a  special  reason ;  this  method  has 
excluded  some  needless  repetition.  Where  no 
work  of,  for  example,  Ennius  is  named  by  the  source 
in  quoting  a  fragment,  and  yet  the  fragment  is 
ascribed  in  this  edition  to  a  definite  work,  the  lack 
of  any  ascription  by  the  source  has  been  indicated 
in  some  way  ;  so  also  where  neither  the  old  work  nor 
the  old  author  of  a  fragment  is  mentioned  by  the 
source,  yet  the  author  or  his  work,  or  both  are 
known  or  can  be  deduced  with  probability. 

In  a  good  many  places  the  Greek  model  or  source 
of  an  old  Latin  fragment  is  known  or  deduced; 
in  such  cases  the  Greek  original  has  been  quoted  or 
referred  to  at  the  beginning  of  the  relevant  item  on 
the  Latin  page,  but  not  translated.  Again,  in  some 
cases  the  source  which  quotes  a  substantial  fragment 
shows  how  the  old  Latin  poet  not  only  drew  upon 
some  older  Greek  source,  but  also  inspired  some  later 
Latin  poet ;  thus  we  have  fragments  of  Ennius 
which  imitated  Homer  and  were  imitated  by  Virgil. 
In  such  cases  the  passages  from  the  original  Greek 
author,  from  the  old  Latin  poet,  and  from  the  later 
Latin  poet,  have  been  given  in  full,  both  in  text  and 
in  translation. 

Throughout  the  literary  fragments  the  recon- 
struction is  mine,  save  where  it  is  established,  well 
known,  and  indisputable.  There  was  no  room  to  give 
the  full  evidence  for  various  allocations  of  fragments 
to  probable  contexts ;  but  the  English  translation 
of  many  of  the  items  is  provided  with  a  heading  in 
italic  letters  giving  the  known  context,  or  indicating 
a  probable  context,  of  the  old  fragment.  In  those 
cases  where  the  context  cannot  be  regarded  as  known, 

xvi 


INTRODUCTION 

I  do  not  vouch  for  the  correctness  of  these  headings ; 
ijut  most  of  them  have  a  better  foundation  than  mere 
conjecture.  Their  function  is  to  indicate  the  reason 
\\  hy  I  have  put  various  items  in  the  places  where  they 
now  stand,  and  to  be  if  possible  a  help  and  a  guide. 
^n  order  to  make  the  series  more   useful,   I   have 

rapiled  two  concordances,  which  will  be  found 
near  the  end  of  the  volumes.  One  is  intended  for 
the  use  of  persons  who  possess  a  standard  complete 

itin  text  of  any  old  author  and  wish  to  compare, 

any  point,  that  text  with  this ;   while  the  other  is 

intended  to  assist  those  who  \\-ish  to  turn  from  the 

present  text  and  translation  and  to  consult  the  latest 

standard  predecessor. 

Life  of  Ennius 

Quintus  Ennius  was  born  in  239  "  b.c.  at  Rudiae, 
now  Rugge,  in  Calabria,*  or  Messapia,  and  claimed, 
as  a  Messapian,to  be  descended  from  King  Messapus.*^ 
It  was  probably  because  this  Italian  district  had  been 
deeply  influenced  by  Greek  culture  that  Ennius 
was  in  later  ages  called  '  Greek  '  or  '  Half-Greek.'  '^ 
He  was  probably  quite  young  when  he  leamt  to 
speak  not  only  Greek  but  Latin,  for  the  colony  of 

•  GelUus,  XVII,  21,  43;  Cicero,  Brut.,  18,  72;  Tusc.  Diap., 
I,  1,  3.  Jerome,  Euseb.  Chron.,  anno  ab  Abraham  1777, 
240  B.C.  and  Abr.  1849,  168  b.c  is  wTong. 

*  Cic,  pro  Archia,  9,  22;  Schol.  Bob.,  ad  loc.;  Cic,  de 
Oral.,  Ill,  42,  168;  Ausoniua,  Technopae^n.,  XIV,  17;  Silius, 
XII,  393  ff. ;  Strabo,  281-2c.  Mela,  II,  66  gives  the  wrong 
Rudiae  near  Canusium. 

«  Silius,  I.C.;  Ovid,  Are  Amai.,  Ill,  409;  Serv.,  ad  Aen., 
VII,  691 ;  Suidas,  s.v.  'Eitios  ;  Horace,  C.  IV,  8,  20  and 
Aero,  ad  loc. 

'  Festus,  412,  33;    Suetonius,  de  grammaticis,  1. 


62 


INTRODUCTION 

Brundisium  was  only  twenty  miles  or  so  from  Rudiae  ; 
he  spoke  Oscan  also,  and  used  to  say  that  he  had 
three  *  hearts  '  because  he  could  speak  Greek,  Oscan, 
and  Latin."  From  Jerome's  mistake  in  saying  that 
Ennius  was  born  at  Tarentum  *  it  is  perhaps  right 
to  conclude  that  he  was  educated  there. 

He  joined  the  Roman  army  and,  according  to 
Silius,  rose  to  the  rank  of  centurion.  While  he 
was  serving  in  Sardinia  in  204  b.c,  he  was  there 
brought  to  the  notice  of  M.  Porcius  Cato,  who  was 
at  that  time  quaestor.  He  is  alleged  to  have  in- 
structed Cato  in  '  Greek  letters,'  '^  which  means  that 
he  introduced  Cato  to  Greek  literature  if  not  to  the 
Greek  language.  In  any  case  he  made  a  great 
impression  on  Cato,  and  was  brought  by  him  to  Rome.'' 
There  he  lived  on  the  Aventine,  according  to  Jerome, 
and  apparently  tended  grounds  {loca  coluit)  sacred 
to  Tutilina  or  '  Guardian  Goddess,'  according  to 
Porcius  (Licinus  ?)  in  a  passage  of  Varro.*  He  was 
doubtless  attracted  to  the  Aventine  because  in  that 
region  had  been  built,  in  honour  of  Livius  Andronicus, 
a  temple  of  Minerva  for  the  use  of  poets  and  actors. 
During  the  first  years  of  his  residence  in  Rome  (which 
lasted  during  all  the  rest  of  his  life)  he  appears  to 
have  earned  his  living  chiefly  by  teaching  Greek  to 
Romans  ■'^;  but  at  the  same  time  he  took  to  writing 
original  poetry  which  increased  his  income,  the  death 
of  Livius  Andronicus  and  the  banishment  of  Naevius 
giving  him  a  good  opportunity  within  the  range  of 

"  Gellius,  XVII,  17,  1. 
"  Jerome,  ann.  1777,  240. 
<^  Sil.,  I.e. ;  '  Aurel  Vict.,'  de  vir.  illustr.,  47. 
^  '  Cornel.  Nepos,'  Cato,  1,  4;   Jerome,  ann.  1777,  240. 
'  Jerome,  I.e. ;  Varro,  L.L.,  V,  163. 
/  Suet.,  l.c. 
xviii 


INTRODUCTION 

drama.  In  the  course  of  his  ^\Titing  he  did  much  to 
estabhsh  a  reasonable  system  of  long  and  short 
syllables  in  poetry,  and  introduced  into  Latin  the 
Greek  hexameter.  In  due  course  he  made  friends 
>vith  some  of  the  most  enlightened  and  influential 
Komans  of  the  day,  as  is  shown  below.  We  can 
obtain  a  few  glimpses  of  his  character,  and  in  this 
connexion  it  is  worth  while  noting  the  good  story 
which  Cicero  tells  of  him  " :  Scipio  Nasica,  who  was 
consul  in  191,  when  he  once  went  to  call  on  Ennius, 
was  put  off  by  the  statement  of  Ennius'  maidservant 
that  the  master  was  not  at  home.  But  Nasica  had 
his  suspicions  that,  at  Ennius'  orders,  she  had  not 
told  the  truth.  So  a  few  days  later  when  Ennius 
called  on  Nasica,  and  asked  for  him  at  the  front  door, 
Nasica,  unseen  within,  shouted  that  he  was  not  at 
home.  When  Ennius  claimed  to  recognise  Nasica 's 
voice,  Nasica  replied  '  Shame  on  you.  When  / 
asked  for  you,  I  believed  your  maidservant  that 
you  weren't  at  home ;  don't  you  believe  me  in 
person  ?  '  It  is  probably  this  story  which  gave  rise 
to  the  tradition  that  on  the  Aventine  Eimius  lived  a 
thrifty  life  and  kept  only  one  maidservant  for  his 
needs.*  However,  it  is  probably  a  true  tradition 
with  regard  to  his  early  years  in  Rome,  and  it  may 
be  that  Ennius  never  became  a  rich  man ;  for  he 
appears  to  have  been  poor  even  at  seventy  years  of 
age."^  He  was  of  a  convivial  nature,  and  perhaps 
drank  more  >nne  than  was  good  for  him.  He  said 
of  himself  '  I  never  poetise  unless  I  have  the  gout,' 
and   Horace   says   of  him  that   he   never   '  leaped 

"  Cic,  de  Oratore,  II,  68,  276. 
*  Jerome,  ann.  1777,  240. 
'  Cic,  de  Senect.,  5, 14. 

xix 


INTRODUCTION 

forward  to  sing  of  arms  '  (that  is,  he  never  went 
ahead  with  the  composition  of  his  Annals)  unless  he 
was  drunk."  GelHus  quotes  a  fragment  of  Ennius 
in  which  the  poet  is  alleged  to  describe  his  own 
character  as  that  of  a  loyal,  trustworthy,  and  intimate 
friend  of  those  statesmen  who  chose  to  know  him.* 
Ennius  became  indeed  a  close  friend  with  some  of 
the  best  Romans  of  this  period,  above  all  perhaps 
with  Scipio  Africanus,  whom  he  celebrated  in  his 
poetry  <^ ;  and  with  Marcus  Fulvius  Nobilior  and  his 
son  Quintus.  When  Marcus,  consul  in  189  B.C., 
went  to  Aetolia,  he  took  Ennius  with  him.''  Ennius 
went  not  to  fight  but  doubtless  because  Marcus  was 
a  man  of  culture  and  Ennius  intended  to  celebrate 
the  coming  campaign,  as  he  afterwards  did.*  Marcus 
doubtless  rewarded  Ennius  well ;  a  very  late  record  f 
states  that,  to  his  discredit,  Marcus  did  no  more  than 
give  to  Ennius  one  military  cloak  out  of  the  spoils 
taken  at  Ambracia.  In  184  b.c.  Marcus'  son  Quintus 
caused  Ennius  to  be  made  a  full  Roman  citizen  with 
a  grant  of  land  either  at  Potentia  in  Picenum  or  at 
Pisaurum  in  Umbria ;  for  it  was  apparently  this 
Quintus  Fulvius  who  was  concerned  in  the  foundation 

"  Ennius,  Satires,  21,  pp.  390-1  of  this  book;  Horace, 
EpisL,  I,  19,  7-8,  Q.  Serenus  Sammonicus,  XXXVI,  706-7. 

'  Gell.,  XII,  4,  4;  Ennius,  Annals,  210 — 27,  as  given  in 
full  on  pp.  78-81. 

'  Horace,  C,  IV,  8,  15  ff.;  Cic,  pro  Arch.,  9,  22,  and 
Schol.  Bob.,  ad  loc.;  Ennius'  own  work  Scipio;  see  pp.  394 ff. 
In  later  ages  the  tradition,  apparently  a  true  one,  of  this 
friendship  was  much  exaggerated — Claudian,  XXIII. 

^  Cic,  pro  Arch.,  11,  27;  Tusc.  Disp.,  I,  2,  3;  Brut.,  20, 
79,  where  Cic.  inaccurately  says  of  E.  '  militaverat.' 

'  In  Ambracia  and  Book  XV  of  the  Annals;  see  pp.  142  ff., 
358-61.     Cp.  '  Aurel.  Vict.,'  de  vir.  illustr.,  52,  3. 

f  Symmachus,  Epiat.,  I,  20,  2. 


INTRODUCTION 

of  a  colony  at  both  places  in  that  year."  Ennius' 
friendship  with  Scipio  Nasica  has  already  been  in- 
dicated above.  In  the  case  of  Cato,  I  think  we  can 
trace  a  loss  of  that  old  friendship  which  had  been  the 
making  of  Ennius.  Cicero,  in  maintaining  that  the 
Romans  were  slow  to  appreciate  poetry  and  did  not 
honour  poets  as  they  should  have  done,  shows  * 
that  Cato  in  a  speech  laid  it  to  Marcus  Fuhius* 
charge  that  he  had  taken  poets  (Ennius  of  course  is 
meant)  into  his  pro\ince.  Now  it  might  be  said  that 
Cato  may  simply  have  used  this  argument  insincerely 
and  merely  as  a  poHtical  expedient  against  an  un- 
friendly statesman ;  or  that  Cato  implied  that  Rome 
and  not  a  province  was  the  right  place  for  a  good  poet, 
especially  one  whom  Cato  himself  had  brought  to 
Rome  in  the  first  place.  But  Cicero  did  not  thus 
interpret  Cato's  speech,  which  was  apparently 
extant  in  Cicero's  time  ;  and  we  must  remember  that 
Cato  had  developed  an  abiding  hatred  of  new  manners 
and  especially  of  Greek  culture  amongst  Romans, 
and  conclude  that  Ennius  had  ceased  to  be  a  friend 
of  Cato.  There  were  two  reasons,  I  think,  for  this 
estrangement:  Cato  found  that  Ennius  was,  after 
all,  for  his  taste  much  too  deeply  engaged  in 
Greek  culture  and  in  expounding  of  it  to  Romans 
and  in  transferring  it  into  Latin ;  Ermius  had  shovvii 
himself  to  be  something  of  an  Epicurean,  and  in 
works  like  Epicharmus  and  Euhemerus,  and  elsewhere, 
was  expressing  opinions  which  Cato  believed  to  be 
subversive  of  Roman  religion  and  manners.  And 
further,  Cato  had  already  quarrelled  with  Ennius' 

•  Cic,  Br«/.,  20,  79;  Livy,  XXXIX,  44, 10;  Cic,  pro  Arch., 
10,  22;   de  Oral.,  Ill,  42,  168. 

*  Tusc.  Disp.,  I,  2,  3. 


INTRODUCTION 

friends  such  as  the  Scipios,  partly  again  because  of 
their  love  of  Greek  culture. 

There  is  one  other  man  of  affairs  between  whom 
and  Ennius  we  can  certainly  trace  some  connexion. 
One  of  Ennius'  neighbours  was  Servius  Galba."  This 
was  probably  Servius  Sulpicius  Galba  who  was 
praetor  urbanus  in  187  b.c.  and  was  a  friend  of  M. 
Fulvius.  There  is,  however,  much  doubt  concerning 
A.  Postumius  Albinus,  who  was  praetor  in  155,  consul 
in  151.  He,  according  to  an  isolated  manuscript, 
dedicated ''  to  Ennius,  who  must  have  been  growing 
old  then,  a  history  written  by  Albinus  (obviously  as 
a  young  man)  in  Greek. 

Of  friendship  between  Ennius  and  other  primarily 
literary  men  we  can  discover  little.  We  do  not  know 
that  he  was  ever  acquainted  personally  with  his 
older  contemporaries,  the  poets  Livius  Andronicus 
and  Naevius,  for  the  former's  death  and  the  latter 's 
exile  came  about  the  time  in  which  Ennius  reached 
Rome.  Still,  years  after  Naevius'  death,  Ennius 
did,  in  his  Annals,  rightly  disparage  the  ruder  style 
of  Naevius'  Punic  War  while  recognising  its  value 
as  an  historical  record,  and  imitating  a  phrase  or 
two."^  Nor,  again,  is  there  evidence  that  he  was 
acquainted  with  Plautus,  who  lived  for  twenty  years 
after  Ennius  first  came  to  Rome,  though  we  know 
that  Plautus  was  acquainted  -with  Ennius'  plays."^ 
Plautus  was  a  writer  of  comedies,  whereas  Ennius' 
dramatic  talent  was  expended  almost  entirely  on 

«  Cic,  Ac.  Pr.,  II,  16,  51. 

*  Buecheler,  Rhein.  Mus.,  XXXIX,  623 ;  cp.  Riv.  di  fil. 
class.,  XII,  396.  But  the  document  is  justly  suspected  of 
being  a  forgery. 

«  Cic.,  Brut.,  19,  75-6.     On  this,  see  pp.  82-3. 

<*  Plant.,  Poen.,  prol.,  1  £f.     See  pp.  218-21. 
xxii 


INTRODUCTION 

tragedies.  But  Ennius  does  indeed  appear  to  have 
made  friends  with  the  comic  WTiter  Caecilius  Statius, 
an  Insubrian  Gaul ;  his  life  is  described,  so  far  as  we 
know  it,  below,  and  the  remains  of  his  work  are 
included  in  this  book.  Jerome  says  that  Caecilius 
was  '  at  first  '  (that  is,  at  one  time)  a  '  contubernalis  ' 
or  close  comrade  of  Ennius.  In  fact  Caecilius 
appears  to  have  remained  a  friend  until  Ennius' 
death  which  came  first,  and  to  have  been  cremated 
near  the  place  where  Ennius'  body  also  was  burnt." 
And  lastly,  Ennius  must  presumably  have  known 
the  tragic  poet  M.  Pacuvius,  a  Calabrian  of  Brundis- 
ium  (220  B.c.-c.  132),  because  he  was  a  son  of  Ennius' 
sister.''  But  it  is  doubtful  whether  Pacuvius,  who 
was  for  many  years  a  painter,  not  a  play^vTight,  by 
profession,  had  done  much  by  way  of  composition  of 
tragedies  before  his  uncle's  death  in  169  (see  below). 
According  to  one  Pompilius,*^  Pacuvius  was  a 
'  discipulus  '  of  Ennius.  This  may  mean  that 
Pacuvius  was  merely  inspired  to  emulate  Ennius  in 
the  composition  of  tragedy  and  possibly  too  of  satire, 
in  which  Pacuvius  is  knovvn  to  have  indulged. 

In  the  year  169,  at  the  age  of  seventy,  just  after 
he  had  produced  the  tragedy  Thyestes,  and  still, 
according  to  Cicero,  calmly  bearing  and  almost 
enjoying  poverty  and  old  age,  Ennius  died  of  gout."^ 
His  body  was  apparently  cremated  on  the  laniculum ; 
and  some  authorities  stated  that  his  bones  were  taken 

»  Jerome,  ann.  Abr.  1838,  179  B.C. 

»  Pliny,  N.H.,  XXXV,  19;  Jerome,  ann.  Abr.  1863,  154 
B.C.  (who  wrongly  makes  P.  son  of  E.'s  daughter). 

'  In  Nonius,  88,  5-7. 

<*  Cic,  Brut.,  20,  78;  de  senect.,  5,  14;  Jerome,  ann.  Abr. 
1849, 168  B.C.,  a  year  out. 

xxiii 


INTRODUCTION 

to  his  birthplace  Rudiae."  This  at  any  rate  was  a 
common  custom.  But  the  connexion  of  Ennius 
with  the  sepulchre  of  the  Scipios  is  doubtful.  Thus, 
according  to  Cicero,  a  statue  of  Ennius  in  marble 
was,  in  Cicero's  time,  believed  to  have  been  set  up  in 
the  Scipios'  sepulchre  because  of  Africanus'  affection 
for  him ;  *  in  Livy's  time,  of  three  statues  then  to  be 
seen  in  the  sepulchre,  one  was  said  at  that  time  to  be 
a  statue  of  Ennius  ;  "^  later  on  again,  the  elder  Pliny 
says  that  Africanus  ordered  that  a  statue  of  Ennius 
be  put  in  his  tomb,  and  that  Ennius'  name  could  still 
be  read  on  it ;  "^  yet  again,  as  a  fourth  stage  in  the 
development  of  what  is,  from  beginning  to  end, 
apparently  a  falsehood,  Jerome,  following  Suetonius, 
says  that  Ennius  himself  was  cremated  (sepultus) 
in  Scipio's  sepulchre. '^  Lastly,  we  may  mention 
the  ascription  to  Ennius  by  Woelfflin,  in  modern 
times,  of  at  least  some  of  the  old  elogia  still  extant 
on  the  monuments  of  the  Scipios.  The  existence  of 
such  a  statue  as  the  Romans  described  was  probably 
an  assumption  without  foundation.  A  sculptured 
portrait  inscribed  '  Q.  Ennius '  has  been  found  / 
at  Rome,  but  unfortunately  it  is  headless.  No 
portrait  of  Ennius  has  been  found  in  the  Scipios' 
sepulchre. 

With  regard  to  Ennius'  poetic  remains,  I  propose, 

"  Jerome,  I.e.,  and  arm.  Abr.  1838,  179. 

*  Cic,  pro  Arch.,  9,  22. 

'  Livy,  XXXVIII,  56;  Ovid,  Ars  Amai.,  Ill,  409,  assumes 
the  statement  to  be  one  of  fact. 

^  Pliny,  N.H.,  VII,  114;  Solinus,  I,  122  (from  Pliny); 
cp.  Val.  Max.,  VIII,  14,  1. 

'  Jerome,  ann.  Abr.  1849,  168;  cp.  Schol.  Bob.,  ad  Cic, 
pro  Arch.,  9,  22. 

/  Not.  d.  scav.,  1903, 600  ff. 

xxiv 


INTRODUCTION 

w-ith  the  help  of  notes  and  headings  given  in  the  text 
and  translation,  to  let  the  fragments  in  the  main 
speak  for  themselves,  but  I  give  here  a  few 
probabilities  and  knowTi  facts  about  his  various  works, 
though  we  can  trace  the  date  of  hardly  one  of  them. 
He  produced  tragedies  at  various  times  up  to  the 
year  of  his  death,  while  the  epic  poem  the  Annals, 
by  far  his  greatest  single  work,  was  apparently 
composed  over  a  long  period,  being  once  or  tA^ice 
resumed,  as  time  went  on,  after  a  tentative  ending. 
His  nainor  works  were  composed  for  special  occasions 
or  as  the  spirit  moved  him.  Thus,  his  poem  Scipio 
in  praise  of  Africanus,  \ictor  of  Hannibal  in  the  battle 
of  Zama,  and  possibly  the  Satires  (of  which  the  third 
book  apparently  alludes  to  Scipio),  were  >\Titten 
soon  after  the  triumph  celebrated  by  Scipio  in  201  in 
honour  of  that  last  contest  of  the  Second  Punic  War  ; 
and  Amhracia,  in  honour  of  M.  Fulvius,  very  soon  after 
188.  A  number  of  tragedies  were  probably  com- 
posed before  the  Annals  were  begun  or  had  gone  very 
far,  because  dramatic  composition  would  more  than 
any  poetry  except  comedies  enable  or  help  Ennius  to 
live  independently  of  literarA*  '  patrons  '  so  far  as  he 
could.  The  tragedy  Achilles  after  Aristarchus,  was 
Avritten  before  the  composition  of  Plautus'  Poenulus 
in  189.  The  Annals  had  reached  no  farther  than  the 
twelfth  book  (which  was  perhaps  intended  to  be  the 
last)  in  172,  for  in  that  book  Ennius  mentioned  his 
age  as  being  sixty-seven  years ;  thus  books  thirteen 
to  eighteen  were  composed  between  172  and  168; 
Ennius  intended  again  to  finish  with  book  fifteen, 
and  indeed  made  an  end  there ;  but  added  three 
more  books  for  a  particular  reason.  The  eighteenth 
was  probably  unfinished.     Lastly,  in  the  year  of  his 

XXV 


INTRODUCTION 

death,  169,  Ennius  produced  the  tragedy  Thyestes, 
which  was  his  last  work.« 

The  list  of  Ennius'  complete  works  comprises 
eighteen ''  books  of  Annals,  at  least  twenty  tragedies, 
two  historical  Roman  plays  (fabulae  praetextae),  two 
comedies  (fabulae  palliatae  ?),  at  least  four  books  of 
Satires,  the  poems  Scipio,  Sota,  Proirepticum  ( ?), 
Hedypkageiica  (}),  Epickarmus,  Etihemerus  or  Holy 
History,  and  epigrams.  There  was  a  later  grammarian, 
named  Ennius  (fl.  c.  100  B.C.),  whom  it  is  difficult  to 
distinguish  from  the  poet.  Two  books  on  *  letters 
and  syllables  '  and  one  (?)  on '  metres  '  were  generally 
attributed  by  later  Romans  to  this  grammarian." 
I  have  assumed  that  the  first  development  of 
shorthand  writing**  is  also  to  be  ascribed  to  the 
grammarian.  But  that  the  doubling  of  consonants 
was  begun  or  established  by  the  poet  Ennius  (and 
not  the  grammarian)  as  Festus  indicates  j*^^  I  take  to  be 
a  true  tradition ;  for  in  Latin  inscriptions  the  double 
consonants  do  not  appear  (except  in  one  name 
where  the  Greek  is  transliterated)  until  189  B.C.,  as 
will  be  seen  in  the  third  volume  of  this  series. 

"  For  further  particulars  about  the  points  dealt  with  in 
this  paragraph,  reference  should  be  made  to  the  text  and 
translation. 

*  Diomedes,  ap.  G.  L.,  I,  484,  3K.  From  this  passage 
it  appears  that  at  one  time  (in  the  Augustan  age  ?)  the  Annals 
of  E.  were  called  '  Romais  '  (cp.  Virgil's  Aeneis). 

'  Suet.,  de  grammat.,  1. 

"  Suet.,  fragm.  p.  135  Reiff.,  289  Roth;  Isid.,  Orig.,  I,  22, 
1 ;   cd.  Cass.  W.  Schmitz,  Symb.  Philol.  Bonn,  532. 

'  Fest.,  412,  30. 


XXVI 


a 


INTRODUCTION 

Life  of  Caecilius 

About  Caecilius  Statius  we  cannot  say  much. 
We  do  not  know  the  date  of  his  birth  at  all,  while 
the  date  of  his  death  is  doubtful ;  but  he  was  probably- 
born  about  the  year  220  b.c.     He  was  one  Statius, 

Gaul  or  Celt  of  the  Insubrian  tribe  in  northern 
Italy;  according  to  some,  his  birthplace  was 
Mediolanum"  (Milan).  He  was  brought  to  Rome  a 
slave,  probably  as  a  prisoner  of  war,  between  200 
and  194.  We  may  presume  that  he  then  came  into 
the  hands  of  a  Roman  Caecilius,  by  whom  he  was 
freed  from  slaverj-.  He  henceforth  bore  Caecilius' 
gentile  name,  according  to  the  custom  of  men  who 
were  manumitted  ;  the  name  Statius,  as  Gelhus  tells 
us,  becoming  thus  a  kind  of  surname.^  After  he  was 
made  a  freedman,  he  became  a  friend  of  Ennius,*^ 
as  we  described  above,  and  took  to  wTiting  comedies 
from  Greek  modeh  (fahulae  palliatae)  belonging  to  the 
*  New  Attic  '  t}'pe  and  apparently  WTote  nothing 
else  besides  plays  of  this  kind.  It  is  not  unreasonable 
to  suggest  that  Caecilius  chose  this  department  of 
drama  because  Ennius  was  already  composing  trage- 
dies ;  and  thus  the  two  poets  were  able  to  be  friends 
without  being  rivals  in  the  same  sphere.  At  first 
Caecilius  was  not  successful,  for,  says  Lucius 
Ambivius  Turpio,''  the  stage-manager  and  actor, 
'  at  first,  in  new  plays  of  CaeciUus  which  I  produced, 

"  Jerome,  ann.  Abr.  1838,  179. 

^  Gell.,  IV,  20,  13.  By  Cicero's  time  he  was  generally 
referred  to  simply  as  Caiecilius ;  he  is  hardly  ever  called 
Statius  alone  in  extant  authorities. 

'  Jerome,  l.c. 

■*  According  to  the  words  put  into  his  mouth  by  Terence 
in  the  second  prologue  to  Hecyra,  14-15. 


INTRODUCTION 

I  was  in  some  cases  hissed  off  the  stage,  in  others 
maintained  my  ground  with  difficulty.'  This  was 
perhaps  because  Caecilius  as  an  Insubrian  had  not  yet 
mastered  Latin  fully."  But  in  course  of  time,  as 
we  know,  he  became  famous,  reaching,  according  to 
Jerome,  the  height  of  his  renown  in  179,  and  was 
regarded  as  a  person  fit  to  judge  plays  offered  for 
exhibition.  In  his  own  stage-work  some  thought  him 
especially  skilful  in  handling  of  plots,  others  remarked 
on  his  power  to  stir  up  the  emotions,  others  again 
admired  his  surpassing  dignity  or  weight  (gravitas  ''). 
Some  indeed,  like  Vulcacius  Sedigitus  (c.  130  b.c), 
put  Caecilius  at  the  head  of  Roman  writers  of 
comedies ;  Cicero  too  was  inclined  to  do  the  same.'' 
Much  later,  Gellius  (c.  a.d.  130-180),  in  a  severe 
criticism  which  will  be  found  in  this  book  in  connexion 
with  the  fragments  of  Caecilius'  Plociuni,  seenns  to 
have  found  him  effective  enough  when  read  without 
reference  to  his  Greek  model  Menander,  but,  in 
comparison  with  the  Greek  original,  much  inferior 
to  it.  It  has  been  argued  that,  since  the  titles  of 
his  comedies  show  three  classes — plays  with  Latin 
titles,  like  the  plays  of  Plautus ;  plays  with  both  a 
Latin  and  a  Greek  title ;  and  plays  with  simply  a 
Greek  title, — and  since  the  last  kind  form  a  majority, 
Caecilius  was  at  first  very  free  with  his  models  but 
tended  later  to  keep  closer  to  them ;  but  we  can  see 
from  extant  fragments  of  Menander 's  UXokiov  that 
Caecilius  was  very  free  even  in  plays  which  are  quoted 
under  a  Greek  title  only. 

"  Cic,  ad  Ait.,  VII,  3,  10;  cp.  Brut.,  74,  258. 
*  His  plots  :  Varro,  in  Nonius,  374,  6 ;  emotions  :  Charisius, 
in  G.  L.,  I,  41K;   '  gravltas  ' :  Horace,  Ejnst.,  II,  1,  59. 
'  Sedigitus  in  GeU.,  XV,  24, 1. 

xxvlii 


INTRODUCTION 

CaeciUus  died  soon  after  Ennius,  perhaps  in  the 
year  after,  that  is,  in  168,  for  Jerome  "  seems  to  say 
tiiat  he  died  '  anno  post  mortem  Ennii.'  But 
Suetonixis ''  says  (y,-ith.  how  much  truth  we  cannot 
tellj  that  Terence  was  officially  ordered  to  read  his 
first  play  Andria  to  Caecilius,  who,  uninterested  at 
the  beginning,  approved  of  it  as  Terence  read  on. 
But  this  play  was  not  exhibited  until  166  B.C.,  so  that 
some  add  III  or  IIII  after  '  Ennii  '  in  the  text  of 
Jerome.  Caecilius'  remains  were  apparently  cre- 
mated near  the  laniculum  or  near  if  not  at  the  same 
place  in  which  those  of  Ennius  had  been  burnt 
before  him. 


Editions  and  Translations 
Ennius 

R.  and  H.  Stephanus.     Fragmenta  Poetarum  Veterum 

Latinorum  quorum  opera  non  extant.     Ennii  .  .  . 

a  Rob.  Stepkano  .  .  .  congesta,  ah  Henrico  .  .  . 

digesta.     1564.     pp.  78  ff. 
H.    Colonna.     Q.    Ennii  poetae  .  .  .    quae   supersunt 

Fragmenta  ah  Hieronymo  Columna  conquisita,  dis- 

posita,  et  explicata.     Naples.     1590. 
M.    A.    Del    Rio    (Delrius).      Syntagma    Tragoediae 

Latinae,   I.    Fragmenta    vetemtn   tragicorum,   pp. 

96  ff.     Paris.     1593. 
P.  Merula.'     Q.  Ennii  .  .  .  Annalium  lihh.  XIIX  quae 

apud    varios    auctores    superant   fragmenta    con- 

lecta  .  .  .  ah  P.  .  .  .   Merula.     Leyden.     1595. 

•  aim.  Abr.  1838,  179.  »  vita  Terentii,  28,  8. 

«  To  be  distinguishod  from  G.  Merula  or  )Iirlani. 

xxix 


INTRODUCTION 

P.  Schrijver.  P,  Scriverius.  Collectanea  Veterum 
Tragicontvi.  .  .  .  Q.  Ennii  .  .  .  aliorumque  frag- 
menta.  Castigationes  et  notae.  .  .  .  G.  J.  Vossii. 
Leyden.  1620  (bound  up  \vith  Schrijver's 
Seneca  Tragicus). 

F.  Hesselius.  Q.  Ennii  .  .  .  Fragmenta  ...  ab 
H.  Colunma  conquisita  .  .  .  recusa  accurante 
F.  H.  i.e.  Accedunt.  .  .  .  M.  A.  Delrii  opin- 
ationes.  .  .  .  G.  J.  Fossii  castigaticnies  et  notae  .  .  . 
Amsterdam.     1707. 

E.  P.  J.  Spangenberg.  Q.  Enii  An7ialium  libb. 
XF III  fragmenta.  Post  P.  Merulae  curas  iterum 
recensita.  .  .  .  Opera  et  studio  E.  S.  Leipzig. 
1825. 

F.  H.  Bothe.     Poetae  Latii  Sceneci,  V-VI.     1834. 

L.    Mueller.       Q.    Ennii    Carminum    Reliquiae.  .  .  . 

Emendavit  et  ad7iotavit  L.  M.     (St.  Petersburg). 

1885. 
Corpus    Poetarum    Latinorum.    ed.    J.    P.    Postgate. 

1894.     I.  contains  L.  Mueller's  revision  (in  1888) 

of  his  text  of  1885. 
A.     Baehrens.      Fragmenta     Poetarum     Romanorum. 

Leipzig.      1886.      (Does    not    include    Ennius' 

plays.) 
O.  Ribbecic.     Scaenicae  Romanorum  Poesis  Fragmenta. 

I.   Tragicorum   Rom.   Fr.;     II.   Comicorum   Rom. 

Fr.  praeier  Plautum  et  Terentium.     Leipzig ;    1st 

edition,   1852;    2nd   edition,   trag.    1871,   com. 

1873 ;     3rd   edition   ('  Teubner  Texts  '),   trag., 

1897,  com.,  1898. 
J.    Vahlen.      Ennianae    Poesis    Reliquiae.      Leipzig; 

1st  edition,  1854 ;  2nd  edition,  1903 ;  3rd  edition, 

1928. 
L.  Valmaggi.     Q.  Ennio ;    i  frammenti  degli  Annali 


INTRODUCTION 

editi    e    illustrati    da    Luigi     Falmaggi.     Turin. 

1900. 
E.  Diehl.     Poetarum  Romanorum    Veterum  Reliquiae. 

Selegit   E.    D.     Bonn:    Weber.     1911.      Kleine 

Texte,  69,  pp.  17-49. 
G.  Pascoli.     Epos,\.     Livomo  :  Giusti ;  2nd  edition. 

1911.     pp.  13  iF.     {Annals.) 
Ethel  M.  Steuart.     The  Annals  of  Quintus  Ennius  ; 

edited  by  E.  M.  S.    Cambridge.     1925. 

There  are  also  R.  Estienne,  Fragmenta  Poetarum 
Veterum  Latinorum.  1564 ;  Corpus  Omnium  veterum 
poetarum  Latinorum,  I.  1611.  Geneva;  Opera  et 
Fragmenta  Veterum  Poetarum  Latinorum.  II.  pp. 
1457  fF.  Q.  Ennii  Fragmenta,  ed.  M.  Maittaire. 
London,  1713,  1721 ;  Collectio  Pisaurensis  omnium 
poematum.  .  .  .  Latinorum.  IV.  1766,  ed.  P.  Amati, 
pp.  264  ff ;  J.  B.  Levee  et  G.  A.  Le  Monnier,  Theatre 
complet  des  Latins  (Latin  and  French),  XV.  Paris, 
1823.     But  these  are  not  important. 

There  are  selections  from  the  fragments  in  J. 
Wordsworth,  Fragments  and  Specimens  of  Early  Latin. 
Oxford.  1874  ;  and  in  W.  W.  Merrj',  Selected  Frag- 
ments of  Roman  Poetry.     Oxford.     2nd  ed.,  1898. 

Caecilius 

Fragments  will  be  found  in  the  following,  all  of 
which  are  mentioned  above  under  Ennius :  R.  and 
H.  Stephanus,  Fragmenta  Poetarum  Veterum  Latinorum, 
1564;  F.  H.  Bothe,  Poetae  Latii  Scenici,  1834; 
O.  Ribbeck,  Comicorum  Rom.  Fr.  (1st  ed.,  1852 ; 
2nd  ed.,  1873;  3rd  ed.,  1898);  E.  Diehl,  Poet.  Rom. 
Vet.  Rel.  1911,  pp.  59-65  ;  also  in  the  unimportant 
works  cited  above  at  the  end  of  the  Ennian  list, 

xxxi 


INTRODUCTION 

especially  in  Merry's  Selected  Fragments.  Lastly, 
the  fragments  were  edited  separately  by  L.  Spengel, 
Caecilii  Statii  deperditarum  fabularum  fragmenia. 
Monachii.     1829. 

Abbreviations 

A  large  amount  of  important  work  in  restoring 
and  annotating  fragments  of  the  old  poets  has  been 
done  by  scholars  such  as  editors  and  emendators  in 
their  studies  on  the  later  writers  who  quote  the  frag- 
ments ;  and  by  scholars  who  have  recorded  their 
labours  on  the  poets  themselves  in  separate  books 
or  in  periodical  publications.  It  is  not  possible  to 
give  a  full  list  of  these  here.  With  regard  to  Ennius 
and  Caecilius,  the  following  are  two  works  which 
have  been  often  referred  to  in  abbreviated  form  in 
notes  :  O.  Ribbeck,  Die  rbmische  Tragodie  im  Zeitalter 
der  Republik,  1875  (Rwn.  Trag.) ;  and  E.  Norden, 
Ennius  und  Vergilius  (Norden).  Readers  who  refer 
to  Ribbeck's  editions  of  the  dramatic  fragments 
(Scaenica  Romanorum  Poesis)  will  find  that  it  is  his 
second  edition  (not  his  third,  prepared  for  a  special 
purpose)  which  contains  the  completest  apparatus 
critici  and  the  best  introductions  (corollaria)  to  the 
tragic  and  the  comic  fragments  respectively.  For 
this  reason,  where  this  work  of  Ribbeck  is  cited  or 
referred  to,  without  indication  of  the  edition,  the 
second  edition  is  meant.  In  the  case  of  Vahlen's 
Ennius,  it  is  the  third  edition,  published  in  1928, 
which  is  meant;  the  Roman  figures  refer  to  his 
praefatio,  other  figures  to  the  pages  of  his  text, 
except  in  the  concordances,  where  the  figures  refer 
to  his  lines  of  Ennius'  poetry. 

With  regard  to  the  critical  notes   on  the   Latin 


INTRODUCTION 

text,  in  designating  the  names  of  scholars,  the 
following  abbreviations  have  been  used :  B  = 
Baehrens ;  D(I.)  =  Dousa  (lanus)  ;  D(F.)  =  Dousa 
(Franciscus)  ;  H  =  Housman;  lun.  =  lunius  {i.e. 
Adriaan  de  Jonghe)  ;  L  =  Lachmann  ;  Linds.  = 
Lindsay  ;  M  =  Marx ;  Mr.  =  L.  Mueller  (the  others 
of  that  name  are  given  with  their  initials) ;  Palmer. 
(Spic.)  =  J.  M.  Palmerius,  Spicilegia ;  Quich.  = 
Quicherat;  R  or  Ribb.  =  Ribbeck;  S  =  Scaliger; 
St.  =  Ethel  Steuart ;  T  =  Turnebus ;  V  =  Vahlen ; 
\V)SS.  =  Vossius  (G.  J.  Voss).  In  some  cases  I  have 
iriven  the  original  name  (for  example,  Colonna, 
Slercier,  Saumaise)  instead  of  a  Latinised  form  of 
it  :  but  I  shrank  from  giving,  for  example,  Jonghe 
for  lunius,  Schrijver  for  Scriverius ;  while  the 
(irifjinal  name  of  Turnebus  is,  I  beheve,  not  knoAVTi. 
1  iiiendations  suggested  by  me  are  marked  W. 
\  iriant  readings,  and  the  names  or  initials  of  scholars, 
have  been  sho-wn  in  Roman  type  ;  codices  and  their 
■^iirla,  and  all  other  words,  in  italic  t}'pe. 

I  give  sincere  thanks  to  Mr.  G.  Noel-Armfield  of 
C  ambridge  who  put  these  three  volumes  into  type- 
script ;  and  to  the  printers  and  publishers  for  their 
(are  and  skill  in  producing  a  very  difficult  piece  of 
printing. 

E.  H.  Warmington. 

King's  College,  University  of  London, 
Strand, 

London,  W.C.  2. 

29fA  of  May,  1935. 


ENNIUS 


VOL.  I. 


ENNIUS 

LIBER   I 


1 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  19  :    Ennii  .  .  .— 

Musae  quae  pedibus  magnum  pulsatis  Olympum  ; 

caelum  dicunt  Graeci  Olympum. 

Cp.  Varr.,  R.R.,  I,  1,  4;  Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  XI.,  660;  Horn.  //., 
II,  484  'ECTTrere  vvv  /xot  MoCaai  'OAv/xTrto  hdy^iar'  €)^ovaai. 

2-3 

[Probus],  ap.  G.L.,  IV,  23,  UK:  Neutro  genere  .  .  .  brevis 
est  (syllaba).  .  .  .  Ennius  in  I — 

Nam  populos  .  .  . 

.  .  .  Italos  res  atque  poemata  nostra  cluebunt. 

Fronto,  de  Eloq.,  146  N  :  Magistra  Homeri  Calliopa,  magister 
Emii  Homerus  et  Somnus. 

*~'  Italos  .  .  .  cluebunt  W  coZ/.  Lwcre<.,  I,  119,  'pergentes 
Italas  hominum   quae   clara   clueret '  cluvebunt   D   (I.) 

fort.   Namque   Italos  .  .  .  clarabunt   (cp.    Hor.,  C .,  IV,  3,  4 
— clarabit).     alii  alia  nam  latos  p.  res  cd. 

"  This  is  clear  from  Varro,  ^.jR.  1, 1,  4.     Vahlen's  second  line 
must  go — see  p.  463. 


ANNALS 


BOOK  I 

Prelude.     From  the  Sack  of  Troy  to  the  Death 
OF  Romulus 

1 

*     The  first  "  line  ;  invocation  of  the  Muses  : 
Varro  :   In  Ennius  there  is  .  .  .  — 

Muses,  who  with  your  feet  beat  mighty  Olympus ; 

by  Olympus  the  Greeks  mean  the  sky. 

2-3 

Exhortation  to  readers  : 

Pro  bus :  As  for  the  neuter  gender  the  syllable  *  is  short.  .  .  . 
Ennius  in  the  first  book — 

'  for  my  subject  and  my  poem  shall  have  renown 
among  the  peoples  of  Italy. 

Homer,  seen  by  Ennius  on  Mount  Helicon  in  a  dream,  toaa  the 
source  of  inspiration  : 

Fronto :  Homer's  instructress  was  Calliope;  Ennios' 
instructors  were  Homer  and  Sleep. 

*  sc.  the  final  syllable,  nom.  voc.  ace.  pi. 

'  The  readings  and  all  proposals  are  doubtful  (V.,  CXLVII). 
Miss  Steuart  puts  this  fr.  later,  joining  it  with  line  14.  St., 
pp.  95-7. 

3 
b2 


ENNIUS 

Fronto,  Epp.,  Vol.  I,  p.  94  (cp.  98)  Haines  :  Transeo  nunc 
ad  Q.  Ennium  nostrum,  quern  tu  ais  ex  somno  et  somnio 
initium  sibi  scribendi  fecisse.  Sed  profecto  nisi  ex  somno 
suscitatus  esset,  numquam  somnium  suum  narrasset. 

4 

Fronto,  Epp.,  Vol.  I,  pp.  204  H  :   Si  quando  te — 

somno  leni 
ut  poeta  ait — 

placidoque  revinctus 

video  in  somnis,  numquam  est  quin  amplectar  et  exosculer 
.  .  .  hoc  unum  ex  Annalibus  sumptum  amoris  mei  argu- 
mentum  poeticum  et  sane  somniculosum. 

5 

Cicero,  Ac.  Pr.,  II,  16,  51  :  Cum  somniavit  {Ennius) 
narravit— 

visus  Homerus  adesse  poeta. 

Cp.  Ac.  Pr.,  -21,  88  :  de  Re  Pub.,  VI,  10,  10. 

6 

Cicero,  Ac.  Pr.,  II,  27,  88  :  Nisi  vero  Ennium  non  putamus 
ita  totum  illud  audivisse — 


'  O  pietas  animi  ! 
si  modo  id  somniavit  ut  si  vigilans  audiret. 
Cp.  Donat.  in  Ter.,  Eun.,  Ill,  5,  12. 

7-10 


i 


Epicharmus,  ap.  Com.  Cr.  Fr.  I,  123  Kaibel :  Kal  yo^P  to 
0T]Xv  TU)V  aXeKTopiSuiv  yevos,  \  atXfjs  KarafiaOetv,  dreves  ourtKTCi 
Teicva  I  ^wvt'  oAA'  inc^^eL  Kol  noiel  tjivxav  ex^'"* 

Varro,  L.L.,  V,  59  :  Haec  duo  caelum  et  terra  quod  anima 
et  corpus.  Humidum  et  frigidum  terra,  eaque  corpus,  caldor 
caeli  et  inde  anima,  sive — 

*  <  In  somnis  mihi  >  visus  Colonna,  Merula  coll.  Aen.  II, 
270,  fortasae  recte. 

4 


i 


ANNALS 

Marcus  Aurelius  to  Fronto :  And  now  I  pass  to  our  poet 
Ennius,  who  you  say  began  to  write  after  sleeping  and 
dreaming.  But  surely  if  he  had  not  been  roused  out  of  his 
sleep  he  would  never  have  told  the  tale  of  his  dream. 

4 

Fronto  writes  to  Marcus  Aurelius  :  If  ever, — 

Fettered  in  soft  calm  sleep 

as  the  poet  says,  I  see  you  in  dreams,*  there  is  no  time  when 
I  do  not  embrace  you  and  fondly  kiss  you  .  .  .  this  is  one 
proof  of  my  love,  which  I  take  from  the  Annals,  a  poetic  and 
dreamy  one  indeed. 

5 

Homer  appears : 

Cicero  :    When  Ennius  hewl  dreamed,  this  is  what  he  told 
of  it- 
Homer  the  poet  appeared  at  my  side. 

6 

Opening  of  Homer's  speech  : 

Cicero :  Unless  indeed  we  choose  to  believe  that  Ennius, 
merely  because  he  dreamed  it,  did  not  hear  the  whole  of  that 
famous  speech — 

'  O  lo^^ng  kindness  of  thy  heart,  .  .  .* 

as  well  as  he  would  have  heard  it  if  he  had  been  awake, 

7-10 

Homer  tells  how  his  soul  migrated  into  Ennius'  body  : 

Varro  :  These  two,  sky  and  earth,  correspond  with  life  and 
body.  The  wet  and  cold  masses  form  the  earth,  and  she  is 
body;  heat  is  the  essence  of  the  sky,  whence  comes  life, 
whether  we  assume  that — 

"  This  suggests  that  the  fr.  is  rightlv  placed  here. 
*  Thus  Miss  Steuart. 


ENNIUS 

'  Ova  parire  solet  genus  pennis  condecoratum 
non  animam, 
ut  ait  Ennius — 

'  et  post  inde  venit  divinitus  pullis 
ipsa  anima ; 

sive,  ut  Zenon  Citieus,  animalium  semen  ignis  isque  anima  et 
mens. 

Cp.  Diomed.,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  383,  5  K;   Priscian.,  ap.  G.L.,  II, 
401,  3  K. 

11-12 

Varro,  L.L.,  V,  60:  Recteigitur  .  .  .  quod  ait  .  .  .  Ennius — 

'  terraque  corpus 
quae  dedit  ipsa  capit  neque  dispendi  facit  hilum . 


Cp.  V,  111  ;  IX,  53. 


13 


Donatus,  in  Ter.,  Andr.,  II,  5,  18  :  '  Memini  videre  '  pro 
'  vidisse  *  Ennius — 

'  Memini  me  fiere  pavum. 

Cp.  Ter.,  in  Addph.,  I,  2,  26;  in  Phorm.,  I,  2,  24;  Charis., 
ap.  O.L.,  I,  98,  4K;  Tertull.,  de  An.,  33  pavum  se  meminit 
Homerus  Ennio  somniante.     Lucret.,  I,  112-126. 

Schol.  ad  Pers.,  Prol.,  2-3  :  Tangit  Ennium  qui  dixit  se 
vidisse  per  somnium  in  Parnaso  Homerum  sibi  dicentem  quod 
eius  anima  in  suo  esset  corpore. 


"  It  is  difficult  to  believe  that  these  fragments  belong  to  any- 
thing but  Epicharmus  (see  pp.  410  S..).  In  this  part  of  his  work 
Varro  quotes  several  passages  from  Ennius'  Epicharmus,  and 

6 


ANNALS 

*  The  feather-furbished  tribe  is  wont  to  be  deUvered 
of  eggs,  not  of  life, 

according  to  the  words  of  Ennius  " — 

'  and   after   that   time   life    itself  comes   to   the 
chicks  by  a  god's  will ; 

or,  according  to  Zenon  of  Cition,  that  the  seed  of  living  things 
is  fire  and  this  is  their  life  and  soul. 


11-12 

Varro  :  Right  therefore  is  the  statement  of  .  .  .  Ennius  * — 

'  And  earth  who  herself  bestowed  the  body  takes 
it  back  and  wastes  not  a  whit. 


13 

Donatus  :  '  I  remember  seeing  '  instead  of  '  having  seen  ' : 
Ennius — 

I  remember  becoming '  a  peacock. 

A  scholiast :  Persius  alludes  to  Ennius,  who  states  that  in  a 
dream  he  saw  a  vision  of  Homer  on  Parnassus  (mistake  for 
Helicon) ;   Homer  said  that  his  soul  was  in  Ennius'  body. 


not  from  the  Annals.  Yet  we  must  agree  with  those  who 
assign  them  to  the  first  book  of  the  Annals  (V.,  CXLVIII ;  and 
3-4).  The  metre  is  not  the  same  as  that  of  known  frs.  of  Epi- 
charmus,  and  an  allusion  in  Lucretius  points  to  the  Annals. 

*  See  preceding  note. 

«  Macrob.,  G.L.,  V.,  645,  not«s  fiere  for  fieri  in  the  tenth 
book  also. 


ENNIUS 

U 

Persius,  S.,  VI,  9-11:— 

'  Lunai  portum,  est  operae,  cognoscite,  cives.' 

Cor  iubet  hoc  Enni  posquam  destertuit  esse  |  Maeonides, 
Quintus  pavone  ex  Pythagoreo. 

Schol.,  ad  loc.  :  Hunc  versum  ad  suum  carmen  de  Ennii 
carminibus  transtulit.  Merito  ergo  ait  '  cor  iubet  hoc  Enni 
postquam  destertuit.'  Sic  Ennius  ait  in  Annalium  suorum 
principio,  ubi  dicit  se  vidisse  in  somnis  Homerum  dicentem 
fuisse  quondam  pavonem  et  ex  eo  translatam  in  se  animam 
esse  secundum  Pythagorae  philosophi  deiinitionem. 

Cp.  Porphyr.,  ad  Hor.,  Ep.  II,  1,  50-3;  Comment,  in  Stat., 
Theb.,  Ill,  484;   Ov.,  Met.,  XV,  160  s. ;   Hor.,  C,  I,  28-9  s. 

15 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  97-8  K.  :  '  Veterrimus  quasi  a 
'  veter.'  .   .  .  Ennius — 

Quom  veter  occubuit  Priamus  sub  Marte  Pelasgo, 

16-17 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Georg.,  Ill,  35 :  Assaracus  avus  Anchisae. 
Ennius — 

Assaraco  natus  Capys  optimus  isque  pium  ex  se 
Anchisen  generat. 

11.,  XX,  239  :  ^  AaodpaKOS  8e  KaTruv,  58'  dp'  'Ay)(icnjv  t€K€  nalba. 

1*  trib.  Saturis  H 

^'  Anchisen  Serv.  and.  Anchisam  Valmaggi  ^ro6.  St. 

"  I  agree  with  Vahlen  (CXLIX  :  cp.  V.,  '  t)ber  die  A.  des  E.' 
in  Abh.  Kon.  Ak.,  1886,  37,  38),  who  concludes  from  Persius' 
language  that  the  mention  of  Luna  (Spezia)  came  after  the 
tale  of  the  dream.  But  Housman  (C.R.,  1934,  60-1)  may  well 
be  right  in  assigning  this  fr.  to  the  Satires.  Of.  also  St.,  pp. 
95  ff .  '  cor '  might  be  translated  here  '  a  heart ' ;  I  suggest  that 
Ennius'  statement  (Gellius,  XVII,  17,  1)  that  he  had  three 
hearts  because  he  spoke  Greek,  Oscan,  and  Latin,  was  made 
here  in  the  Annals. 

8 


I 


ANNALS 

14 

Romans  must  remember  the  place  where  Ennius  dreamed  : 
rsius : — 

Take  note,  ye  citizens,  of  Luna's  harbour — it  is 
worth  while. 

Thus  commanded  Ennius  in  his  senses  after  he  had  •  snored 
out  his  dream  that  he  was  the  Man  of  Maeonia — Quintus  at 
last  out  of  a  Pythagorean  peacock. 

A  scholiast  on  this  passage :  This  line  he  took  from  the  poems 
of  Ennius  to  put  into  his  own  poem.  It  is  well  then  that  he 
says,  '  thus  commanded  Ennius  in  his  senses  after  he  had 
snored  out.'  That  is  what  Ennius  says  in  the  beginning  of  his 
Annals  where  he  states  that  in  the  course  of  a  dream  he  saw 
a  vision  of  Homer  who  said  that  he  was  once  a  peacock  and 
from  it,  according  to  a  rule  *  laid  down  by  the  philosopher 
P}-thagoras,  his  soul  had  been  conveyed  into  Ennius. 

15 

Beginning  of  the  narrative.     The  Fall  of  Troy  : 

Priscianus :  '  Veterrimus '  is  as  it  were  derived  from  a 
positive  '  veter.'  .  .  .  Ennius  has — 

When  aged  Priam  was  laid  low  beneath  the  warring 
Pelasgian, 

16-17 

The  Lineage  of  Aeneas  :  Assaracus,  Capys,  and  Anchises  : 

Servius  (supplemented)  :  Assaracus  was  grandfather  of 
Anchises.   .  .  .  Ennius — 

From  Assaracus  sprang  Capys  best  of  men :  and 
he  was  from  his  loins  begetter  of  Anchises  the 
loyal. '^ 

*  See  pp.  5-7. 

*  In  the  story  followed  by  Ennius,  Achilles  was  the  rescuer. 
v.,  CLII  makes  Aeneas  (as  in  Homer)  speak  this  line  to  the 
King  of  Alba, 

9 


ENNIUS 

1&-19 

Probus  in  Verg.,  Ed.,  VI,  31  :   Ennius  Anchisen  augurii  ac 
per  hoc  divini  quoddam  habuisse  praesumit  sic — 

Doctusque     Anchisa,     Venus     quern     pulcherruma 

dium 
fari  donavit,  divinum  pectus  habere. 
Cp.  Schol.  Ver.  ad  Aen.,  II,  687. 

20 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Georg.,  IV,  59 :  '  Nare '  pro  volare  ut  apud 
Ennium  in  primo — 

transnavit  cita  per  teneras  caliginis  auras. 


A 


21 
Festus,  428,  11:'  Sos  '  pro  '  eos  '  .  .  .  ut  Ennius  lib.  I— 
Constitit  inde  loci  propter  sos  dia  dearum. 

Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  429,   11.     Cp.  11,  XVIII,  388,  etc.,  hla 
dedcov. 

22-3 

Festus,  234,  23  :    '  Orare '  antiques  dixisse  pro  agere  testi- 
monio.  .  ,  .  Ennius  quoque  cum  dixit  in  lib.  I  Annalium — 

'  face  vero 
quod  tecum  precibus  pater  orat.' 

1*  doctusque  Anchisa  Fleckeisen         atque  Anchises  doctus 
S         doctus  parens  Anchisa  Mr.         doctusque  Anchises  Prob.   j 
doctus  Anchisa  Schol.  Ver.  pulcherruma  dium  Fleckeisen 

pulchra  dearum  Prob.  pulcherrima  diu  Schol.  Ver. 

1'  fari  donavit  Prob.  fata  docet  Schol.  Ver.  fari 

Bernays  fari  fata  docet  coni.  V  | 

^^  face  vero  Golonna  facere  vero  cdd.  tu  face  vero   ( 

August.  tum  face  vero  (oUm  tu  vero  face)  V^  qui  un.  vers.   I 

constit.  f 

lO  I 


ANNALS 

18-19 

Anchises  : 

I'robus  :    Ennius    pictures  to  himself  Anchises  as  having 
-■  :  le  power  of  soothsaying  by  bird-lore,  and,  through  this, 
thing  of  the  prophet  in  him  :   thus — 

1  shrewd  Anchises  to  whom  Venus,  loveliest  of 

goddesses,  granted  power  to  foretell,  yea  to  have 
a  godly  heart  of  prophecy." 

20 

An  approach  *  of  Venus  : 

Servius  (supplemented)  :  '  To  float '  instead  of  '  to  fly,*  as 
in  a  passage  of  E.  in  the  first  book — 

Along  she  floated  swiftly  through  rare  wafts  of 
mistiness. 

21 
Venus  appears  to  Aeneas  and  his  companions  : 
Festus  :   '  Sos  '  for. '  eos  ' ;  for  example  Ennius  in  Book  I — 
Thereupon  she,  hallowed  among  the  holy  god- 
desses, took  her  stand  close  to  them. 

22-3 

Sfie  '  tries  to  perstuide  Aeneas  to  obey  Anchises  and  retire  to 
Mount  Ida  : 

Festus  :  That  the  ancients  used  the  term  '  to  plead  '  **  for  '  to 
deal.'  Ennius  also  was  a  witness  when  he  wrote  in  the  first 
book  of  the  Annals — 

'  But  be  sure  to  do  what  your  father  pleads  for 
in  prayers  with  you.' 

•  St.,  pp.  101-3. 

*  Cf.  the  excellent  note  of  Miss  St.,  pp.  103-4;    cp.  V.,  CL. 

•  For  this  variation  of  the  legend  cf .  Dionys.  Halic,  1, 48,  2 ; 
v.,  CLXIX;    St.,  pp.  104,  105. 

*  Festus  means  the  use  of  orare  cum  aliquo  (like  agere  c.  a.) 
instead  of  orare  alipiem. 

II 


ENNIUS 


24 


Macrobius,  VI,  I,  11  :    '  Est  locus,  Hesperiam  Grai  cogno- 
mine  dicunt '  (4era.,  I,  530;  111,163).     Ennius  in  I — 

Est  locus,  Hesperiam  quam  mortales  perhibebant, 


25 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  28  :  '  Cascum  '  vetus  esse  significat  E. 
quod  ait — 

quam  prisci  casci  populi  tenuere  Latini. 

Cp.  Cic.,  Tusc.  Disp.,  I,  12,  27. 

26 

Varro,  L.L.,  V,  42  {de  Capitolio)  :  Hunc  antea  montem 
Saturnium  appellatum  prodiderunt  et  ab  eo  late  Satumiam 
terrain  ut  etiam  Ennius  appellat — 

Saturnia  terra 


27-8 
Nonius,  197,  2  :  '  Caelum  '  neutro.     Masculino  .  .  .  Ennius — 

Saturno 
quem  Caelus  genuit. 
Cp.  Charis.,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  72,  13  K. 

29 
Nonius,  216,  31  :   '  Obsidio  '  .  .  .  neutro  Ennius — 
Quom  saevo  obsidio  magnus  Titanus  premebat,        _^M 

^*  quam  Macrob.        quem  St.  lapsu  typograph. ;  sed  rectef 
"•  saevo  lun.  sos  Havet  suo  cdd. 


'  Sc.  Greeks,  V.,  CL.  »  V.,  CL-CLI. 

«  v.,  CLI. 


12 


I 


ANNALS 

24 

Italy  and  the  Latins  : 

Macrobius  :  '  There  is  a  region  which  the  Greeks  call  by 
name  "  Western  Land."  '     Ennius  in  the  first  book — 

There  is  a  region  which  mortals"  used  to  call 
Western  Land,' 

25 

Varro  :  That  '  cascus  '  means  '  old  '  is  shown  by  Ennius 
because  he  says — 

which  the  ancient  Latin  folk  of  eld  did  hold.* 

26 

The  early  connexion  of  Latium  with  Saturn  :  ' 

Varro  says  of  the  Capitoline  Hill :  Men  have  recorded  that 
once  upon  a  time  this  hill  was  called  '  Saturn's '  and  hence  in  a 
broad  sense  they  record — 

Saturn's  Land 

as  Ennius  among  others  calls  it. 

27-8 

The  fortunes  of  Saturn  : 

Nonius :  '  Caelum  '  neuter.  In  a  masculine  form  .  .  . 
Ennius — 

To  Saturn  whom  Sky  begat. 

29 

Why  he  fled  to  Italy  : 

Nonius  :   '  Obsidio  '  .  .  .  neuter  in  Ennius — 
When  great  Titan  was  afflicting  him  with  cruel 
duress.** 

"^  Enniushimself  in  £'uAe7n€ru«  (see  pp.  420-3)  told  how  Titan 
kept  Saturn  imprisoned,  and  how  Saturn  fled  to  Italy.  This 
line,  however,  is  a  hexameter  and  surely  belongs  to  the  Annals, 
not  to  Euhemerus,  which  was  UTitten  in  septenarii. 

13 


ENNIUS 

30 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  337,  26  K  :  '  Laurentis '  etiam  pro 
'  Laurens.'     Eiinius  in  A. — 

quos  homines  quondam  Laurentis  terra  recepit. 

31 

Atilius  Fortunat.,  ap.  G.L.,  VI,  284,  20  K  :  Maximus  qui  est 
versus  syllabas  habet  XVII  .  .  .  minimus  habet  XII  ut  est 
Ennianus — 

Olli  respondit  rex  Albai  Longai. 

Cp.  Donat.,  ap.  Q.L.,  IV,  396,  19  K  :  Pompeius,  ap.  O.L., 
V,  297,  30  K  :  Explanat.  in  Donat.,  ap.  G.L.,  IV,  548,  2  K, 

Servius,  ad.4en.,  VI,  777:  .  .  .  Secundum  Ennium,  referetur 
(Romulus)  inter  decs  cum  Aenea. 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  VI,  777  :  Dicit  .  .  .  Iliam  fuisse  filiam 
Aeneae. 

32-48 

Cicero,  de  Div.,  I,  20,  40 :  Narrat  .  .  .  apud  Ennium  Vestalis 
ilia— 

Excita  quom  tremulis  anus  attulit  artubus  lumen, 
talia  turn  memorat  lacrumans  exterrita  somno  : 
'  Euridica  prognata,  pater  quam  noster  amavit, 
vires  vitaque  corpus  meum  nunc  deserit  omne.        35 
Nam  me  visus  homo  pulcher  per  amoena  salicta 
et  ripas  raptare  locosque  novos ;  ita  sola 
postilla,  germana  soror,  err^e  videbar, 
tardaque  vestigare  et  quaerere  te,  neque  posse 

^^  excita,  et  cita  cdd.  Cic.  de  Div.  fortasse  Vestalis 

Ilia  '  excita 

«  This  is  Vahlen's  decision  (V.,  CLIII);    but  St.,  p.  Ill, 
includes  the  fr.  in  the  story  of  Ilia's  fate. 
*  Cp.  p.  39. 
Cf.  St.,  pp.  106  £f. ;   v.,  CLIII  £f. 

14 


ANNALS 

30 

Aeneas  and  his  followers  arrive  at  Laurenium  in  Latium  : 

Priscianus  :  *  Laurentis  '  for  '  Laurens.'  Erinius  in  the 
Annals — 

These  men  one  day  Laurentum's  land  received. 

31 

Concourse  of  Aeneas  and  the  King  of  Alba  :  ' 

Atilius  :  The  shortest  hexameter  has  12  syllables  like  this  of 
Ennios — 

To  him  answer  made  the  King  of  Alba  Longa. 

Aeneas  is  deified  : 

Servius  :  According  to  Ennios,  he  (RomuluB)  will  be  reckoned 
with  Aeneas  among  the  gods.* 

The  story  of  Ilia  : 

Servius  goes  on  :  He  says  that  Ilia  was  a  daughter  of  Aeneas. 

32-48 

The  dream  of  Ilia,'  daughter  of  Aeneas,  after  his  death  : 
Cicero  :  in  Ennius  the  famous  vestal  tells  her  story — 
When  the  old  woman '^  roused  up,  had  %vith  limbs 
a-tremble  brought  a  light,  then  the  maid,*  frightened 
out  of  sleep,  spoke  thus  in  tears : — '  O  daughter  of 
Eurydica,-^  you  whom  our  father  loved,  now  strength 
and  hfe  too  leave  all  my  body.  For  a  man  of 
beautiful  looks  seemed  to  hurry  me  away  among 
pleasant  sallow-thickets  and  banks  and  places 
strange ;  so,  my  own  sister,  after  that  did  I  seem 
to  wander  alone,  and  slow-footed  to  track  and 
search  for  you,  but  to  be  unable  to  catch  you  to 

'  Probably  some  attendant  or  nurse.  '  Ilia. 

■^  According  to  Ennius,  wife  of  Aeneas  and  mother  not  of 
Ilia  but  only  of  Ilia's  step-sister,  though  both  sisters  were 
daughters  of  Aeneas. 

15 


ENNIUS 

corde  capessere  ;  semita  nulla  pedem  stabilibat.       40 

Exin  conpellare  pater  me  voce  videtur 

his  verbis :  "  O  gnata,  tibi  sunt  ante  ferendae 

aerumnae,  post  ex  fluvio  fortuna  resistet." 

Haec  ecfatus  pater,  germana,  repente  recessit, 

nee  sese  dedit  in  conspectum  corde  cupitus,  45 

quamquam  multa  manus  ad  caeli  caerula  templa 

tendebam  lacrumans  et  blanda  voce  vocabam. 

Vix  aegro  turn  corde  meo  me  somnus  reliquit. 


Ovidius,  Tr.  II,  259-260  : 

Sumpserit  annales  (nihil  est  hirsutius  illis) 
facta  sit  undlk  parens  Ilia  nempe  leget. 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Aen.,  I,  273  Naevius  et  Ennius  Aeneae 
ex  filia  nepotem  Romulum  conditorem  urbis  tradunt. 
Cp.  Senr.,  ad  Aen.,  VI,  777. 


49-50 

Nonius,  378,  15 :  '  Parumper,'  cito  ac  velociter.  .  .  .  Ennius 
Annali  lib,  I — 

'  Te  nunc  sancta  precor  Venus,  te  genetrix  patris 

nostri 
ut  me  de  caelo  visas  cognata  parumper,' 

**  ferendae  Davis        gerendae  cdd.  frdb.  V 

*®  turn  Voss.  A.        cum  Voss.  B.  Vind.  foriasse  rede 

**  nunc  sancta  Colonna  sale  nata  V  sane  alta 

Pascoli  dea  sancta  Ilberg  venerata  B  te  te 

sancta  coni.  St.  sane  neta  cdd. 

*"  rogitata  Haupt 

i6 


ANNALS 

my  heart:  no  path  made  sure  my  stepping.  Then 
it  was  father  who  seemed  to  hft  up  his  voice  and 
■^peak  to  me  in  these  words : — "  O  daughter,  first 
there  are  hardships  to  be  borne  by  you;  but  after 
that,  your  fortunes  will  rise"  again  from  a  river." 
With  these  words,  my  own  sister,  did  father  suddenly 
withdraw,  and  no  longer  gave  himself  to  my  gaze 
though  my  heart  longed  for  him ;  no,  even  though 
many  a  time  and  ^nth  tears  did  I  keep  holding  out 
mv  hands  tow^ards  the  blue  precincts  of  the  sky, 
and  called  and  called  him  with  caressing  voice. 
l^ven  then  did  sleep  scarcely  leave  me  all  sick  at 
heart. 

Ilia,  laved  by  Mars,  gives  birth  to  Romulus  and  Remus  : 

Ovid: 

If  a  woman  should  take  the  Annals  (there'a  no  poem 
shaggier  than  they)  she  will  perforce  read  how  Hia  became  a 
mother.* 

Servius  (sapplemented) :  Naevius  and  Ennius  record  that  the 
founder  of  the  city  was  Romulus,  grandson  of  Aeneas  through 
his  daughter. 

49-50 

Ilia,  arraigned  for  Tier  fault,  appeals  to  Venus  : 

Nonius :  '  Parumper,'  speedily  •  and  quickly.  .  .  .  Ennius 
in  the  first  book  of  the  Annals — 

'  Thee,  hallowed  Venus,  thee  now  the  mother  of 
my  father,  I  pray  look  down  on  me  from  heaven 
a  little  while,  my  kinswoman.' 

"  A  very  rare  use  of  the  verb.  The  vision  mysteriously 
mophesies  the  salvation  of  Romulus  by  a  flooding  of  the  Tiber. 
This  might  imply  that  the  council  of  the  gods  had  taken  place 
already;   but  see  note  on  line  57,  p.  20. 

»  Cf.  S.  G.  Owen,  Ov.  Nas.  Trist.,  II,  pp.  164-5. 

*  Nonius  here  mistakes  the  meaning  of  parumper. 

I? 
VOL.  I.  C 


ENNIUS 


51 


Macrobius    VI,  1,  12:  'Tuque  o  Thybri,  tuo  genitor  cum 
flumine  sancto  '  {Aen.,  VIII,  72).     Ennius  in  I — 

'  Teque  pater  Tiberine  tuo  cum  flumine  sancto, 


52 

Charisius,  ap.  O.L.,  I,  90,  26  K.  :    '  Neptis '  grammatici 
nolunt  dici  .  .  .  et  advocant  Ennium  quod  dixerit  ita — 

'  Ilia  dia  nepos,  quas  aerumnas  tetulisti 

Cp.  Non.,  215,  8  :  Test.,  402, 15;  Serg.,  Explanat.  in  Donat., 
ap.  G.L.,  IV,  563,  14  K. 


53-4 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Atn.,  IX,  653 :    '  Cetera '   id   est   in 
ceterum;  est  autem  Ennianum — 

'cetera  quos  peperisti 


55 

Nonius,  306,  26  :   '  Facessere  '  est  facere,  ...  — 

Haec  ecfatus,  ibique  latrones  dicta  facessunt. 

Porphyrio,  ad  Hor.,  C,  I,  2,  17  :  Ilia  auctore  Ennio  in 
amnem  Tiberim  iussu  Amulii  regis  Albanorum  praecipitata ; 
antea  enim  Anieni  matrimonio  iuncta  est. 

"  Aeneas,  according  to  Norden,  162,  because  he  is  the 
speaker  in  Virgil's  Ime.  But  cf.  St.,  pp.  109-10,  V.,  CLIX. 
The  speaker  might  be  even  Horatius  Codes  (Livy,  II, 
10,  1 1 — turn  Codes  '  Tiberine  pater '  inquit  '  te  sancte 
precor.  .  .  .'). 

*  If  these  are  words  of  comfort  to  Hia,  we  might  conclude 
that  the  council  of  the  gods  had  already  taken  place  (cp. 

l8 


I 


ANNALS 

51 

Ilia  '  appeals  also  to  Tiber  : 

Macrobius  :  '  And  thou,  sire  Thybris  with  thy  hallowed 
toeam  ' ;  Enniiis  in  the  first  book — 

'  And  thee,  Father  of  the  Tiber,  >\ith  thy  hallowed 
Ixeam, 

52 

Ventis  answers  Ilia's  prayer  : 

Charisius  :  The  grammarians  would  have  it  that  the  form 
neptis '  should  not  be  used  .  .  .  and  Ennius  is  appealed  to 
lecause  he  wrote  '  nepos '  as  a  feminine,  thus — 

*  Ilia,  godly  granddaughter,  the  hardships  you 
lave  borne  .   .  . 

53-4 

Serviua  (supplemented),  on  '  cetera  '  in  Virgil :    '  Cetera 
;hat  is,  '  in  ceterum  ' ;   and  it  is  an  Ennian  usage — 

'  For  the  rest,  take  ^  you  no  care  for  the  boys  to 
Nrhom  you  gave  birth. 

55 

Amulius  orders  Ilia  to  he  thrown  into  the  Tiber  : 
Nonius  :   '  Facessere  '  means  '  to  do.'  .  .  . — 
Thus  he  spake  out ;  and  then  the  hirehng  warriors 
prang  to  carry  '^  out  his  word. 

Porphyrio  :  According  to  Ennius'  account  Ilia  was  thrown 
leadlong  into  the  river  Tiber  by  order  of  Amulius,  King  of 
;he  AlbSns;  but  before  this  she  was  joined  in  marriage  to 
;he  Anio. 


3.  17,  n.  a).     But  I  have  put  this  debate  later.     See  below, 
3.  20. 

facessere  means  more  than  merely  facere. 

c2 


ENNIUS 

56 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Aen.,  Ill,  333  :  '  Reddita '  more  veteri 
pro  '  data  '  accipiendum  est  .  .  .  Ennius  Annalibus — 

At  Ilia  reddita  nuptum, 


57 

Tertullianus,  adv.  Vol.,  7  :  Ennius  poeta — 

cenacula  maxima  caeli 

simpliciter  pronuntiavit  de  elati  situs  nomine  vel  quia  lovem 
illic  epulantem  legerat  apud  Homerum. 

Cp.  Schol.  Ver.  ad  Aen.,  X,  1. 

58 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  X,  5  : — 

bipatentibus 

Eat  tem  sermo  Ennianus,  tractus  ab  ostiis  quae  ex  utraque 
parte  aperiuntur. 

59  j 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,   1,   9:    '  Axem  humero  torquet  stellifl  ] 
ardentibus  aptum.'     {Aen.,  IV,  4^2,  VI,  797.)    Ennius  in  I— 

qui  caelum  versat  stellis  fulgentibus  aptum. 

"  At  Ilia  Commelinus  ut  ilia  Daniel  ut  Ilia  V 

ad  ilia  cd.        nuptum  vulg.        nupta  B        nuptam  cd. 
*'-*  trib.  Ann.  I  ed.  Lips. 


"  It  is  not  known  where  the  debate  of  the  gods  should  be 
placed.  I  put  it  here  because  the  strange  preservation  of 
the  twins  might  well  be  the  result  of  divine  intervention. 
Cp.  v.,  CLIX  ft.  I  suggest  that  the  passage  in  Ovid,  Met., 
XIV,  812  ff.  leads  us  to  put  the  council  a  long  while  before 
Romulus'  death ;   Mars  speaks  at  a  time  when  Rome  was  well 

20 


ANNALS 

56 

Ilia  w  married  to  Tiber  : 

Servius  (supplemented)  on  '  reddita  '  in  Virgil:  '  reddita  ' 
aust,  as  an  archaic  usage,  be  taken  to  mean  '  data ' ; 
Simius  in  the  Annais — 

But  Ilia,  rendered  into  wedlock, 

57 

The  god«  assemble  to  decide  "  the  fate  of  Eomidus  : 

Tertullian  :  Ennius  the  poet  spoke  simply  of — 

nost  mighty  dining-halls  of  heaven 

lither  on   account  of  their  lofty   position   or  because   in   a 
iBSsage  of  Homer  *  he  had  read  of  Jupiter  feasting  there. 

58 

Servius,  on  '  bipatentibus  '  in  Virgil : — 

with  tviin  openings  ' 

This  mode  of  expression  is  Ennian,  and  is  drawn  from  the 
o  of  doors  which  we  unclose  both  to  right  and  left. 

59 

The  tissemUed  gods  ;  Jupiter  :  * 

Macrobius  :  (Atlas) '  whirls  on  his  shoulders  the  sky  dotted  ' 
irith  blazing  stars.     Ennius  in  the  first  book — 

who  spins  round  the  sky  dotted  with  shining 
stars. 

38tablished,  and  he  refers  to  a  concilium  held  quondam  and 
jan  only  recall  Jupiter's  promise  by  an  effort  of  memory. 

*  Not  in  the  extant  poems. 

*  The  attribution  to  this  context  is  suggested  by  the 
passage  in  which  Virgil  (Aen.,  X,  Iff.)  uses  the  word. 

'  Or  Atlas;  if  so,  we  should  place  this  fr.  among  those 
which  describe  the  ancestors  of  Aeneas,  p.  9  (V.,  CLII). 

'tangled   in   a   skein   of — ^Miss   Steuart.      But   Eimius 
was  a  man,  and  he  meant  simply  dotted. 

ax 


ENNIUS 


60-1 


Martianus  Capella,  I,  42  :  Ipsius  collegae  lovis  .  .  .  bis 
seni  cum  eodem  Tonante  nuraerantur  quos  .  .  .  distichum 
complectitur  Ennianum — 

luno  Vesta  Minerva  Ceres  Diana  Venus  Mars 
Mercurius  lovis  Neptunus  Vulcanus  Apollo 

Cp.  Apulei.,  de  deo  Socr.,  2,  6,  23. 


62 

Servius  ad  Aen.,  IV,  576:  Aut  distinguenduin  'sancte' 
aut  '  sancte  deorum '  secundum  Ennium  dixit — 

Respondit  luno  Saturnia  sancta  dearum. 

Cp.  Donat.,  ap.  G.L.,  IV,  394,  1  K. :  Serg.,  explanat.  in 
Donat.,  ap.  G.L.,  IV,  563,  20  K. :  Pompei.,  ap.  O.L.,  V,  291, 
17  K.:  Mar.  Plot.  Sac,  ap.  G.L.,  VI,  450,  20  K.  {jndchra 
dearum). 


63-4 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  5  :    Dicam  in  hoc  libro  de  verbis  quae  a 
poetis  sunt  posita  .  .  .  incipiam  hinc — 

'  Unus  erit  quern  tu  toUes  in  caerula  caeli 
tempi  a.' 

Cp.  Ovid.,  Met.,  XIV,  812  ff.;   Fasti.,  II,  485  ff. 


60-2  (j-if,^  ^„^.  lif,^  J  Merula 
22 


i 


ANNALS 

60-1 

Martianus  Capella :  The  colleagues  of  Jupiter  himself 
amount  to  twice  six  in  number,  including  the  Thunderer  just 
mentioned;  whose  names  are  contained  in  a  pair  of  lines  in 
Ennius  " — 

Juno  Vesta  Minerva  Ceres  Diana  Venus  Mars 
Mercury  Jupiter  Neptune  Vulcan  Apollo 

62 

Speech  of  Juno  ;  she  agrees  *  to  the  deification  of  Romulus  : 

Servius,  on  '  sancte  deorum  '  in  Virgil :  We  must  either  put 
a  comma  after  '  sancte  '  or  else  he  used  the  phrase  '  sancte 
deorum  '  after  Ennius — 

Juno,  hallowed  among  goddesses,  daughter  of 
Saturn,  made  answer, 

63-4 

Jupiter  foretells  to  Mars  that  ordy  one  of  his  sons  shall  he 
deified  : 

Varro  :  In  this  book  I  shall  speak  of  words  which  find  a 
place  in  the  poets.  ...  I  will  begin  with  this — 

'  One  there  will  be  whom  thou  shalt  raise  up  to 
the  blue  precincts  of  the  sky/ 

*  If,  as  is  probable,  there  was  only  one  council,  this  list  of 
gods  is  rightly  placed  here. 

*  This  fir.  may  belong  to  Book  VIII;  see  p.  109.  But  cf. 
Hor.  0.,  Ill,  3,  16  : 

Quirinus  |  Martis  equis  Acheronta  fugit  ]  gratum  elocuta 
consiliantibus  |  lunone  divis.  .  .  . 

<=  The  attribution  to  Ennius  is  not  certain,  but  provided 
that  this  is  right,  the  fr.  certainly  belongs  to  the  description 
of  the  council,  if  we  may  judge  from  the  passage  in  Ovid, 
Met.,  XIV,  812  £E.  Ovid  seems  to  recall  the  unplaced  fr. 
'divumque  hominumque  pater  rex  '  (see  p.  168),  which  might 
be  placed  somewhere  in  this  context. 

23 


ENNIUS 

65 
Festus,  392,  35  :   '  Remanant,'  repetunt.     Ennius  lib.  I — 
.  .  .  destituunt  rivos  camposque  remanant 
Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  393,  11. 

66-9 

Fronto,  de  Oral.,  160  N :  '  Factum  est '  :  eodem  hoc 
verbo  Ennif.  urmiak  ...  — 

(\dy  ca  claudi : 

ait — 

factum  est  ,  .  .  <Tiberis) 

.  .  .  et  facinua  commemorabile.  Tiberis  est  Tusce  Tiber 
quern  iubes  cludi.  Tiber  aranis  et  dominus  et  fluentium 
circa  regnator  undarum.     Ennius — 

Postquam  fl 
constituit  sese  fluvius  qui  est  omnibus  princeps 
cui  succidit  Ilia 

Cp.  Cic,  Oral.,  48,  161. 


*^  destituunt  S  clivis  decedunt  olim  V  desubito 
linquent  Bergk  desunt  Fest.  prcb.  V  qui  (Rh.  Mus.  XIV, 

552)  <  iam  stabulis  d.  >  add.  rivos  camposque  Fest.,  Paid, 
campos  ripisque  Mr.  (qui  unda«  add.)  campos  rivoque  B  (an 
rede  1)  alii  alia. 

**  Fronto,  de  Orat.,  160  Jortasse  verbo  Ennius  utitur  in  I  A. 
<  lO  ca    supplevi.  vocabula    loca    claudi  .  .  .  factum 

est.  .  .  .  Tiberis  puto  esse  Ennii  postquam  constituit 

sese     W  postquam     consistit     Bekker  Postquam- 

consisiiiiseiluuiu  cd. 

®'  cui  succidit  (vel  subiacet,  succubat,  succinit)  Ilia  W  lac. 
indicavi  sec.  Kuebler  qui  sub  civilia  cd,  trib.  Ann.  lib.  I 
ed.  Lips. 

24 


I 


ANNALS 

65 
The  Tiber  overflows  a  second  time  : 

Festus :  *  Remanant,'  they  seek  again.    E.  in  the  first  book — 
The  waters  left  their  channels  and  flowed  back 
into  the  plains.** 

66-9 

Jupiter  orders  *  Tiber  to  subside  : 

Fronto :  '  It  was  done.'  This  same  verb  is  used  by 
Ennius  ...  — 

the  broken  places  to  be  dammed  up  ; 

he  says — 

it  was  done  .  .  .  the  Tiber 

.  .  .  and  a  noteworthy  act.  '  Tiberis '  is  in  Tuscan  dialect 
'  Tiber,'  which  you  order  to  be  dammed  up.  The  river  Tiber 
is  lord  and  ruler  of  all  flowing  waters  round  those  parts. 
Ennius — 

After  the  river  which  is  chief  over  all  settled 
down  .  .  .  for  whose   sake   Ilia  did   sink  beneath 

<»  I  keep  the  order  of  Festus — rivos  camposque — which 
points  to  a  second  flooding  of  the  river;  otherwise  the  fr. 
expresses  the  return  of  flooding  waters  to  their  right  channel, 
v.,  CLXI  seems  to  me  to  be  wrong. 

*  I  suggest  that  we  have  here  fragments  of  Ennius  describing 
how  Jupiter  commanded  Tiber  to  draw  back  his  waters,  and 
how  Tiber  obeyed.  However,  even  such  meagre  scraps  as  I 
have  added  to  Fronto's  text  are  quite  uncertain.  But  com- 
pare Horace,  Odes,  I,  2,  17-20  : 

Iliae  dum  se  nimium  querenti 
iactat  ultorem  vagus  et  sinistra 
labitur  ripa  love  non  probante  u- 
xorius  amnis. 

Cp.  also  Virgil,  E.,  Ill,  14;  Claudite  iam  rivos  pueri;  sat 
prata  biberunt. 

25 


ENNIUS 


70 

Charisius,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  128,  31  K :  '  Fici.' 
fici  dulciferae  lactantes  ubere  toto 


Ennius — 


71 

Servius   (auctus)   ad   Aen.,   II,   355 :    Sane   apud   veteres 
'  lupus  '  promiscuum  erat,  ut  Ennius — 

lupus  femina  feta  repente 

Cp.  Fest.,  402,  4 ;  Quintil.,  I,  6,  12. 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  VIII,  631  Sane  totus  hie  locus  Ennianus 
est. 


72-4 
Nonius,  378,  15  :   '  Parumper  '  cito  ac  velociter  ... 
Indotuetur  ibi  lupus  femina,  conspicit  omnis  : 
hinc  campum  celeri  passu  permensa  parumper 
coniicit  in  silvam  sese. 


75-6 
Nonius,  134,  11  :    '  Licitari,'  congredi,  pugnare.     Ennius — 

pars  ludicre  saxa 
iactant,  inter  se  licitantur 


'o-'i  trih.  lib.  I  Colonna 
"  hinc  campum  Colonna 
75-6  ij.^1,  iijj  J  ^_  Lips. 


in  campo  cdd. 


<•  ubere,  perhaps  an  udder-shaped  mass;  cp.  Pall.,  Jun., 
7,  6,  9 ;  so  that  Ennius  maybe  simply  completes  a  metaphor 
of  milk  and  udder.  But  the  tree  was  indeed  '  rumirudis  ' 
and  I  take  vhere  as  the  tree's  udders  of  figs. 


26 


1 


ANNALS 
70 

The  trough  holding  Ilia's  twins  Romulus  and  Remus  is  cast 
up  by  a  fig-tree  which  was  later  called  the  '  Fig-Tree  of  the  Paps.' 

Charisius  :   '  Fici.'     Ennius — 

sweet-bearing  figs,  dripping  milk  from  the  whole 
udder.* 

71 

The  she-wolf: 

Serviusn  (supplemented) :  The  noun  '  lupus '  was  in  old 
writers  certainly  common  to  both  genders,  as  in  Ennius — 

Suddenly  a  she-wolf  big  with  young 

jS^e  suckles  Romulus  and  Remus  : 

Servius :  The  whole  *  of  this  passage  {Aen.,  VIII,  630-4) 
is  certainly  modelled  on  Ennius. 

72-4 
The  wolf  sees  the  shepherds  and  flees  : 
Nonius  :   '  Parumper,'  speedily  and  quickly  ...  — 
Thereupon  the  she-wolf  gazed  and  saw  them  all ; 

then  she,  passing  over  the  plain  with  quick  lope, 

hurriedly  betook  herself  into  a  wood. 

75-6 
Romulus  and  Remus  sport  with  the  shepherds  : 
Nonius  :   '  Licitari,'  to  engage  in  battle,  to  fight.    E. — 
Some  hurled  stones  in  play  and  justled  one  with 
another. 

"  I  suggest  that  in  that  passage  the  words  tereti  cermce 
rtflexam  (cp.  Lucret.,  I,  35)  are  directly  copied  from  Eimius, 
for  Cicero,  in  a  passage  of  translation  from  the  Phaenotnena 
(de  Nat.  Deor.,  II,  41),  has  obstipum  caput  a  tereti  cenice 
reflexum  where  obstipum  is  a  word  favoured  bv  Ennius 
(see  lines  278,  398). 

27 


ENNIUS 


77 


Fesfcus,  376,  22  :  '  Ratus  sum  '  significat  '  putavi  ' :  sed 
alioqui  pro  '  firmo,'  '  certo,'  ponitur  '  ratus  est,'  et  '  ratum.' 
Ennius — 

Occiduntur  ubi  potitur  ratus  Romulus  praedam. 


78 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  1,  13  :    '  Accipe  daque  fidem,  sunt  nobis 
fortia  bello  |  pectora '  (Aen.,  VIII,  150).     Ennius  in  I — 

'  Accipe  daque  fidem  foedusque  feri  bene  firmum. 


79 

Macrobius,  VI,  1,  14  :   '  Et  lunam  in  nimbo  nox  intempesta 
tenebat '  (Aen.,  Ill,  597).    Ennius  in  I — 

Quom  superum  lumen  nox  intempesta  teneret, 


80-100 

Cicero,  de  Div.,  I,  48,  107  S. :  Itaque  Romulus  augur  ub 
apud  Ennium  est,  cum  fratre  item  augure — 

"  Or  perhaps  as  a  defender  of  the  shepherds  against  the 
attacks  of  robbers,  whose  spoils  Romulus  captured.  V., 
CLXII.  Miss  St.  takes  the  incident  as  one  in  a  conflict  with 
royal  shepherds  (St.,  113).  Some  take  occiduntur  as  the  last 
word  of  a  sentence.  Balus  was  probably  a  permanent  nick- 
name of  Romulus. 

*  v.,  CLIX  sees  in  this  fr.  an  agreement  between  Aeneas 
and  the  King  of  Alba ;  Miss  Steuart  makes  it  a  part  of  Hersilia's 
speech  (see  below);  there  can  be  little  doubt,  however,  that 
Macrobius,  in  his  quotations  from  Ennius  in  VI,  1,  11-15, 
has  given  them  in  the  order  of  Ennius'  text  (cf.  G.  Regel,  De 
Vergilio  poetarum  imitatore  testimonia,  37,  n.  36),  which 
Miss  Steuart  (Pref.,  X)  admits  as  a  possibility.  This  forces 
28 


ANNALS 

77 

Romulus  as  a  hunter  '  : 

Festus  :  '  Ratus  sum  '  means  '  I  thought  '  :  bat  apart 
from  this  '  ratus  '  and  '  ratum  '  are  put  for  '  firm,'  '  sure.' 
Ennius — 

They  were  cut  down  when  Romulus  the  Resolved 
won  his  quarr}'. 

78 
Romulus  is  reconciled  *  toith  Numitor  : 

Macrobius  quoting  Virgil :  '  Give  and  take  you  plighted 
troth  :  there  are  within  us  hearts  brave  in  war.'  Ennius  in 
the  first  book — 

'  Give  and  take  you  plighted  troth  and  make  a 
treaty  truly  firm. 

79 

Romulus  and  Remus  are  about  to  take  the  auspices  for  fouruiing 
a  city  ; '  they  wait  for  daybreak  : 

Macrobius  :  '  And  the  dead  of  night  held  hid  the  moon  in 
a  black  mist.'     Ennius  in  the  first  book — 

When  the  dead  of  night  held  hid  the  light  above, 

80-100 

Romulus  and  Remus  take  the  auspices  at  dawn  ;  Romulus 
stands  on  the  Aventine,  Remus  on  the  Remuria.* 

Cicero  :  And  thus  Romulus,  as  augur  with  his  brother, 
likewise  as  augur,  as  takes  place  in  a  passage  of  Ennius — 

us  to  put  this  fr.  earlier  than  that  which  is  rightly  beheved 
to  refer  to  Remus  (p.  32).  The  context  which  I  suggest  here 
seems  to  me  to  be  the  most  natural  one. 

'  St.,  113  is  I  think  right  (V.,  CXIV  differs).  On  the 
position  of  this  fr.,  cf.  preceding  note. 

"*  On  this  point,  cf.  St.,  113  ff.  The  Remuria  may  have 
been  part  of  the  Aventine.  Cf.  also  V.,  CLXII  fit.,  and  in 
Sitzungsber.  d.  k.  Ak  1894,  1143  ff.  ;  and  Mommsen,  Herm., 
XVI,  13  ff. 

29 


ENNIUS 

Curantes  magna  cum  cura  turn  cupientes 
regni  dant  operam  simul  auspicio  augurioque ; 

in  monte 

.  .  .  Remus  auspicio  se  devovet  atque  secundam 
solus  avem  servat.  At  Romulus  pulcher  in  alto 
quaerit  Aventino,  servat  genus  altivolantum.  85 

Certabant  urbem  Romam  Remoramve  vocarent. 
Omnibus  cura  viris  uter  esset  induperator  : 
expectant,  veluti  consul  quom  mittere  signum 
volt,  omnes  avidi  spectant  ad  carceris  oras 
quam  mox  emittat  pictis  e  faucibus  currus  :  90 

sic  exspectabat  populus  atque  ora  tenebat, 
rebus  utri  magni  victoria  sit  data  regni. 
Interea  sol  albus  recessit  in  infera  noctis. 
Exin  Candida  se  radiis  dedit  icta  foras  lux  ; 
et  simul  ex  alto  longe  pulcherruma  praepes  95 

laeva  volavit  avis,  simul  aureus  exoritur  sol. 
Cedunt  de  caelo  ter  quattuor  corpora  sancta 
avium,  praepetibus  sese  pulchrisque  locis  dant. 
Conspicit  inde  sibi  data  Romulus  esse  propritim 
auspicio  regni  stabilita  scamna  solumque.  100 

Cp.  Cell.,  VI,  6,  9. 

Excerpta  ex  cod.  Cassin.  90  C,  ap.  C.G.L.,  V,  578,  3  :  Romae 
conditor  certus  nescitur.     Ennius  et  alii  a  Romulo. 
Cp.  Servius  (auct.)  ad  Aen.,  I,  273. 


•^  ore  timebat  cdd.  opt. 

**  propritim  Mr.  propriam  Voss  A   Vind.  priora 

Voss  B 


°  Here  sol  has  been  taken  to  mean  the  moon.  But  if 
Ennius  meant  moon,  why  did  he  not  write  '  hina  alba '  ? 
It  may  be  that  Romulus  and  Remus  went  out  at  night  and 

30 


ANNALS 

Then,  careful  A\ith  a  great  care,  each  in  eagerness 
for  royal  rule,  they  are  intent  on  the  watching  and 
soothsapng  of  birds  ...  on  a  hill.  .  .  .  Remus 
devotes  himself  to  watching  and  apart  looks  out  for 
a  favourable  bird.  But  handsome  Romulus  makes 
his  search  on  high  Aventine  and  so  looks  out  for 
the  soaring  breed.  Whether  they  should  call  the 
city  Roma  or  Remora — this  was  their  contest. 
Anxiety  filled  all  the  men  as  to  which  of  the  two 
should  be  ruler.  As,  when  the  consul  means  to 
give  the  signal,  all  men  look  eagerly  at  the  barrier's 
bounds  to  see  how  soon  he  will  send  the  chariots 
forth  from  the  painted  mouths — so  they  waited. 
Thus  were  the  people  waiting,  and  held  their  tongues, 
wondering  to  which  of  the  two  the  ^^ctory  of  right 
royal  rule  should  be  given  by  the  event.  Meanwhile 
the  white  sun  "  withdrew  into  depths  of  night.  Then 
clear  shot  forth,  struck  out  in  rays,  a  light :  just 
when,  winging  to  the  left,  there  flew  from  the  height 
a  bird,  the  luckiest  far  of  flying  prophets,  just  then 
all  golden  there  rose  up  the  sun.  Thrice  four 
hallowed  forms  of  birds  moved  down  from  the  sky, 
and  betook  themselves  to  places  lucky  and  of  happy 
omen.  From  this  saw  Romulus  that  to  him,  to  be 
his  own,  were  duly  given  the  chair  and  throne  ^  of 
royalty,  estabUshed  firm  by  the  watching  of  birds. 

Romulug  founds  the  city  of  Rome  : 

An  excerpt  from  a  glossary  :  Of  Rome  there  is  no  known 
foxmder  common  to  tradition.  .  .  .  Enniua  and  others  say 
it  was  founded  by  Romulus. 

waited;  at  dawn  came  the  crowd  of  followers.  The  sun  has 
risen;  is  hidden  by  a  cloud  (infera  noctis);  it  shines  again 
brightly.    Then  come  the  birds. 

*  Or  perhaps  '  land,'  '  territory.'     Cp.  Bk.  Ill,  line  155. 

31 


ENNIUS 

101 
Festus,  348,  4  :  '  Quamde  '  pro  quam  ...  — 
'  luppiter,  ut  muro  fretus  magis  quamde  manus  vi !  ' 


102-3 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  1,  15  :    Tu  tamen  interea  calido  mihi 
sanguine  poenas  |  persolves  {Aen.,  IX,  420).     Ennius  in  I — 

'  Nee  pol  homo  quisquam  faciei  inpune  animatus 
hoc  nee  tu;  nam  mi  calido  dabis  sanguine  poenas.' 

Cp.  Serv.  auct.  ad  Aen.,  IX,  420. 


104 
Nonius,  516,  11:  'Torviter'  .  .  . — 
'  Ast  hie  quem  nunc  tu  tam  torviter  increpuisti 

105 
Festus,  426,  2  :  '  Sum  '  pro  '  eum  ' — 
'  At  tu  non,  ut  sum  summam  servare  decet  rem, 


I 
I 


^"^  manus  vi  S  manu  stat  Lambinus  manu  sa 
imperat  olim  0.  Mueller  manus  vi  ide  in  secundo  V 
manus  impe  .  .  .  secto  cd.        fortasse  manum  vi 

^"^  nee  B  prob.'  St.  neque  Morula  nisi  cdd.  prob,  V 
dabis  Serv.  auct.         das  Macrob.  prob.  V 

^"^  at  tu  cd,  astu  non  vi  coni.  V  at  te  non  ut 
Colonna 

32 


ANNALS 

101 

Remits  scoffs  at  Eomidus  and  his  wall  on  the  Palatine  : 

Festua  :   '  Quanide,'  for  quam  ...  — 

'  Jupiter !  Yes,  truly  relies  he  more  on  a  wall 
than  the  might  of  his  arm  !  ' 

102-3 

Romulus  threatens  Remus  with  death  : 

Macrobins,  quoting  Virgil :  Meanwhile  yon  shall  none  the 
le33  pay  full  recompense  to  me  with  your  life-blood.  Ennius 
ill  the  first  book — 

Neither  you  nor  any  man  alive  shall  do  this 
unpunished :  no,  you  shall  give  recompense  to  me 
with  your  life-blood.' 

104 
A  mediator  {or  Romulus  ?)  seeks  to  heal  the  quarrel :  " 
Nonius  :   '  Torviter  '  .  .  .  — 
'  But  he  whom  you  just  now  so  fiercely  noised  at 

105 

Festus  :   '  Sum  '  for  '  enm  '  .  .  .  — 

'  But  it  is  not  your  part  to  guard  the  state,  as  it 
behoves  him  to  do.* 

"  v.,  CLXII  doubtfully  assigns  this  to  Romulus  upbraiding 
Amulius  for  treating  Remu£  roughly  before  he  was  recognised. 
»  v.,  CLXIII  and  p.  15. 


ENNIUS 

106 

Orammat.,  Brevis  Expos.  Verg.  Georg.,  ad  II,  384  :  Romulus 
cum  aedificasset  templum  lovi  Feretrio  pelles  unctas  stravit 
et  sic  ludos  edidit  ut  caestibus  dimicarent  et  cursu  contende- 
rent,  quam  rem  Ennius  in  Annalibus  testatur. 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Aen.,  Ill,  384  :  Et  quidam  '  lentandua ' 
nove  verbum  fictum  putant,  sed  in  Annalibus  legitur — 

conque  fricati  oleo  lentati  adque  arma  parati. 


Paulus,  F.,  25,  17  :  '  Bellicrepam '  saltationem  dicebant 
quando  cum  armis  saltabant,  quod  a  Romulo  institutum 
est,  ne  simile  pateretur  quod  fecerat  ipse  cum  a  ludis  Sabinorum 
virgines  rapuit. 


107 

Festus,  476,  17  :  '  Sas  '  Verrius  putat  significare  '  eas  ' 
teste  Ennio  qui  dicat  in  lib.  I — 

[*  virgines ;]  nam  sibi  quisque  domi  Romanus  habet 

sas.' 

Pavl.,  25,  17  bellicrepa  vocab.  trib.  Enn.  0.  Mueller,  Ann. 
lib.  I  Ilberg. 

^''*  confricati  o.  1.  paratique  a.  a.  Serv.  auct.  corr.  B 
confricti  ...  et  ad  a.  p.  Ilberg  confricati  .  .  .  paratique 
ad  arma  Servius  auct.  fortasse  cumque  ficati  trib.  Enn.  Ann. 
Barth,  lib.  I,  Ilberg 

107  virgini  sive  virgine  L        fortasse  sedudend.  ut  gloss. 

"  V.  in  his  first  ed,  (p.  16)  kept  this  fr.  in  Bk.  I  of  Ennius' 
Annals  but  rejected  it  in  the  3rd  ed.  (p.  16).     Valmaggi  may 

34 


ANNALS 

106 

The  war  with  the  Sabines.  Having  huUt  temples  after  the 
defeat    of   tht  Sabines,  Romulus  celebrates  public  games  and 

I  dances  : 
A  grammarian  :  When  Romulus  had  built  a  temple  to 
Jupiter  Feretrius,  be  caused  greased  hides  to  be  spread  out 
and  held  games  in  such  a  manner  that  men  fought  with 
gauntlets  and  competed  in  running  races;  Ennius  bears 
iritness  to  this  fact  in  the  Annals. 

Serviua  (supplemented)  on  '  lentandus  '  in  Virgil :  And 
some  think  that  'lentandus'  is  a  coined  word  of  Virgil's; 
but  in  the  Annals  "  we  read — 

Rubbed  down  with  oil,  suppled  and  ready  for 
taking  arms. 

Paulus  * :  '  Noise  o'  War '  was  a  term  the  Romans  were  wont 
to  use  of  dancing  when  they  danced  with  weapons;  this  was 
an  institution  of  Romulus  bo  that  he  should  not  suffer  the  Uke 
of  what  he  himself  did  when  he  dragged  off  the  maidens  of  the 
Sabines  at  their  public  games. 


107 

Sape  of  the  Sabine  women.    A  Sabine  speaks  : 

Festus  :   '  Sas.'     Verrius  believes  it  means  '  eas,'  his  witness 
being  Ennius  on  the  ground  that  he  says  in  the  first  book — 

'  maidens ;  for  the  Romans  have  each  their  own  at 
home. 

where  it  seems  rather  to  mean  '  suas.' ' 

1  be  right  in  his  bebef  (op.  Miiller)  that  what  Servius'  augmenter 
quotes  is  prose. 
*  Paulus  probably  alludes  to  a  passage  of  Ennius. 
•■  It  is  impossible  to  decide  this  matter. 


35 
d2 


ENNIUS 

108 

Priscianus,  ap,  G.L.,  II,  591,  5  K:  .  .  .  nominativo  .  .  . 
brevem  te  syllabam  pro  met  .  .  .  addere  solent  auctores. 
.  .  .  Ennius — 

O  Tite  tute  Tati  tibi  tanta  tyranne  tulisti ! 

Cp.  Pompei.,  ap,  G.L.,  V,  303,  33  K  :  Priscian.  ap.  Ill, 
492,  25  K  :   al. 

109 

Festus,  460,  12  :  '  Stolidus  '  stultus  .  .  .  — 

nam  vi  depugnare  sues  stolidi  soliti  sunt. 


110 

Charisius,  ap.  O.L.,  I,  196,  15  K  :   '  Concorditer'  .  . 
'  Aeternum  seritote  diem  concorditer  ambo. ' 

111 

Gellius,  XIII,  23,  19  :  Ennius  ...  in  primo  Annali  , 

Nerienem  Mavortis  et  Herem 

si  quod  minime  solet  numenim  servavit,  primam  syllabam 
intendit,  tertiam  corripuit. 

108  trib.  Lucil.  St.,  C.Q.,  XVIII,  24. 
"»  soliti  S        solidi  cd. 

"  Steuart  (Ann.,  235;  and  C.Q.,  XCIII,  24)  attributes 
this  fr.  to  Lucilius  as  one  of  the  hundred  solecisms  which 
he  enumerated.  I  suggest  that  we  have  here  a  scornful 
speech  (of  Romulus?)  uttered  against  Tatius  during  one 
of  the  indecisive  struggles  of  which  tradition  tells.  I  would 
point  out  that  Sophocles  (Oed.  Tyr.,  371 )  makes  Oedipus  in  a 
rage  say  to  Teiresias,  with  a  similar  alliteration,  rv<f>X6s  to.  t' 

36 


\ 


ANNALS 

108 

Bage  of  the  Romans  ofjainst  Titus  Tatius  : 

Priscian  :  In  the  nominative  .  .  .  authors  are  wont  to  add 
the  short  syllable  te  instead  of  met.  .  .  .  Ennius —  « 

'  Thyself  to  thyself,  Titus  Tatius  the  t\Tant,  thou 
tookest  those  terrible  troubles.' 

109 

Hersilia  mediates  between  the  Romans  and  the  Sabines  : 

Feetiis  :   '  Stolidus,'  silly  ...  — 

'  for  to  fight  out  a  quarrel  by  force — it  is  a  thing 
of  boorish  boars  beloved. 

110 

Charisius  :    '  Concorditer '  .  .  .  — 

'  Both  of  you,  while  away  your  days  in  friendliness 
for  ever.' 

Ill 

Hersilia's  prayer :  * 

Gellius :   Ennius  also  in  the  first  book  of  Annals — 

'  Nerio,  consort  of  Mars,  and  Here  like\nse  ' 

if  he  has  preserved  the  metre  (which  is  certainly  not  always 
the  case  with  him),  has  lengthened  the  first  syllable  and 
shortened '  the  third. 

ctrra  tov  tc  vovv  ri  t'  ofifiar'  el.  Cp.  Homer's  TroMa  o  avavra 
K.T.X.,  quoted  on  p.  70.  Others  refer  the  fir.  to  the  death  of 
Tatius. 

»  Cp.  Gell.,  XIII,  23,  13  :  V.,  CLXIV  :  St.,  p.  121,  suggests 
settlement  of  Sabines  on  the  Aventine  or  a  general  gift  of  land 
to  citizens. 

'  Gellius  scans  Nerienem;  but  the  true  scanfflon  ia 
Nerifenem. 

37 


ENNIUS 

112-13 

Nonius,  III,  39  :   '  Fortunatim,'  prospere  ...  — 

'  Quod  mihi  reique  fidei  regno  vobisque,  Quirites, 
se  fortunatim  feliciter  ac  bene  vortat. 


Varro,   L.L.,    V,   55 :    Ut   ait   Ennius,   Titienses   a  Tatio, 
Ramnenses  a  Romulo,  Lucenis,  ut  Junius,  ab  Lucumone. 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  VI,  777  :    secundum  Ennium,  referetur 
{Romvliis)  inter  deos  cum  Aenea. 


114-15 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  VI,  763  :  '  Aevum,  proprie  aetemitas  est 
quae  non  nisi  in  deos  venit.     Ennius — 

*  Romulus  in  caelo  cum  dis  genitalibus  aevum 
degit. 

Cp.  Cic,  Tusc,  Disp.,  I,  12,  29.    C.I.L.,  IV,  3135. 

116 
Nonius,  120,  1  :  '  Hora,'  iuventutis  dea  ...  — 
'  Teque  Quirine  pater  veneror  Horamque  Quirini. 

^^*  quod  olim  V  ea  cdd.  reique  fide  M  (reique 
Roth)  reliquae  fidei  cdd.  quod  mihi  meaeque  fide  et  olim  V 
(mique  meaeque  vel  quae  mihi  meaeque  fide  et  Grauert) 
et  postea  ea  uti  res  (vel  ea  res  ut)  mique  meaeque  fidei  vel 
resque  ea  mi,  fidei  B 

114-15  ijrif)  j[nn.  lib.  II  Colonna 

^^*  <teque>  ckW.  Colonna         <bene>  Horamque  Mr. 

38 


ANNALS 

112-13 

Romulus  to  Titus  Tatius  after  the  establishment  of  double 
kingship  ?  : 

Nonius  :   '  Fortunatim,'  prosperously  ...  — 

'  And  may  this,  I  pray,  turn  out  in  fortune 
, prosperous  and  fair  for  me,  our  task,  our  plighted 
troth,  our  kingdom,  and  for  you,  my  citizens." 

The  Sabines  form  a  new  tribe  at  Rome  : 

Varro  :  According  to  Ennius,  the  Titienses  were  so  called 
from  Tatius,  the  Ramnes  fix)m  Romulus;  the  Luceres, 
according  to  Junius,  &om  Lucumon. 

Romulus  is  deified : 

Servius :  According  to  Ennius,  Romulus  will  be  reckoned 
with  Aeneas  among  the  gods. 

114-15 

Proculus  tells  the  people  of  his  vision  of  Romulus  : 

Servius  :  '  Aevum  '  properly  means  eternity,  which  comes 
to  none  but  gods.    Ennius — 

'  Romulus  lives  from  age  to  age  in  heaven  with  the 
gods  that  gave  him  birth.' 

116 

Romulus  and  Hersilia  are  worshipped  by  the  Romans  : 

Nonius  says  :  '  Hora,'  goddess  of  youth.  .  .  . 

'  Thee  I  worship,  sire  Quirinus,  and  thee,  Hora,* 
consort  of  Quirinus.' 

•  Cp.  v.,  CLXV. 

*  Hersilia  deified.  Quirinus  was  the  name  given  to  deified 
-Romulus. 

39 


ENNIUS 

LIBER  II 

117-21 

Cicero,  de  Rep.,  I,  41,  61  :  lusto  quidem  rege  cum  est 
populus  orbatus  pectora  diu  tenet  desiderium,  sicut  ait 
Ennius,  post  optimi  regis  obitum — 

simul  inter 
sese  sic  memorant :  '  O  Romule  Romule  die 
qualem  te  patriae  custodem  di  genuerunt !  «  ■ 

O  pater  o  genitor  o  sanguen  dis  oriundum !  * 

Non  eros  nee  dominos  appellabant  eos  qui  bus  iuste  paruerunt 
denique  ne  reges  quidem,  sed  patriae  custodes  sed  patres  et 
decs.     Nee  sine  causa;   quid  enim  addunt  ? — 

*  Tu  produxisti  nos  intra  luminis  oras. 

Cp.  Lactant.,  Div.  Inst.,  I,  15,  30  :  Priscian.,  ap.  G.L.,  II, 
250,  15  K. 


122 

Festus,  492,  6  :  '  Speres  '  antiqui  pluraliter  dicebant,  ut  E' 
lib.  II— 

'  Et  simul  effugit  speres  ita  funditus  nostras  .  .  . 

11'  it-  trib.  lib.  II  Prise,  lib.  I  Colonna  sec.  vetws  exemplar 
Prise.  vocabvla  pectora  tenet  desiderium  fortasse  Ennio 

tribuenda.  diu  cd.  m.  1  dia  m.  2  dura  Steinacker       fida  Krarup 

"  There  is  no  need  to  question  Priscian's  authority  for 
putting  this  fr.  in  Bk.  II.  I  make  the  direct  quotation  begin 
from  simul.     At  any  rate  it  is  clear  that  Cicero  began  by 

40 


1 


ANNALS 


BOOK   II 

The  Reigns  of  Numa  Pompilius,  Tullus  Hostilius 
AND  Angus  Marcius 

117-20 

The  people  mourn  Bomidus  : 

Cicero  :  Indeed  when  a  people  is  bereaved  of  a  jnst  king, 
then  even  as  Ennius  says,"  after  the  passing  of  the  best  of 
kings,  for  many  days  longing  filled  their  breasts — 

And  at  the  same  time  they  talked  thus  among 
themselves — '  O  Romulus,  godly  Romulus,  what  a 
guardian  of  your  country'  did  the  gods  beget  you ! 
O  father  and  begetter,  O  blood  sprung  from  the  gods  ! 

They  used  to  call  those  whom  they  had  lawfully  obeyed 
not  lords  and  masters,  nor  yet  again  kings,  but  guardians  of 
their  country,  yes  and  fathers  and  gods.  Nor  was  this 
without  reason.     For  what  do  they  say  next  ? — 

'  You  it  was  who  brought  us  forth  into  the  world  of 
light. 

122 

Feetus :  '  Speres.'  The  archaic  writers  used  this  plural 
form,  for  example  Ennius  in  the  second  book  * — 

'  And  so  soon  as  he  fled  away,  our  hopes  he  thus 
utterly  .  .  . 

a  paraphrase  which  slips  into  the  real  quotation,  and  all 
changes  are  doubtful.    St.,  p.  123. 

*  v.,  CLXVI  suggests  the  combat  of  the  triplets  as  the 
context — see  lines  131  ff. 

41 


ENNIUS 


123 


Festus,  346,  5 :  '  Quadrata  Roma '  in  Palatio  ante  templum 
Apollinis  dicitur  .  .  .  eius  loci  Ennius  meminit  cum  ait — 

Et  qui  se  sperat  Romae  regnare  Quadratae  ? 


124 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  42  :  Apud  Ennium — 
Olli  respondit  suavis  sonus  Egeriai, 
*  olli '  valet  dictum  '  illi '  ab  '  olla '  et '  olio.' 

Cp.  Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  XI,  236. 


125-6 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  4 :  3  Apud  Ennium — 

Mensas  constituit  idemque  ancilia ; 

dicta  ab  ambecisu  quod  ea  arma  ab  utraque  parte  ut 
Thracum  incisa ; — 

libaque  fictores  Argeos  et  tutulatos. 

Liba  quod  libandi  causa  fiunt :  fictores  dicti  a  fingendis 
libis,  Argei  ab  Argis  .  .  .  tutulati  dicti  hi  qui  in  sacris  in 
capitibus  habere  solent  ut  metam. 


1*'  qui  se  sperat  Saumaise        qui  sextus  erat  Hertz        quis 
est  erat  cd. 

1**  ancilia  <primus>   S        <bis  sex>   Corssen 

42 


ANNALS 

123 

Question  of  a  successor  to  Romulus  :  " 

Festus  :  '  Square  Rome,'  a  name  given  to  a  site  on  the 
Palatine  in  front  of  the  temple  of  Apollo.  .  .  .  Ennins  has 
this  place  in  mind  when  he  says — 

And  what  man  hopes  that  he  will  be  king  of  Square 
Rome? 

124 

The  reign  of  Numa  PompUiv^.  Intercourse  of  Numa  and 
Egeria : 

Varro  :  In  a  passage  of  Ennins — 

To  him  replied  Egeria  with  sweet  sound, 

The  word  '  olli '  has  the  force  of  '  illi,'  from  '  ollus,'  '  olla.' 

125-6 
The  religious  institutions  of  Numa  : 
Varro  :  In  a  passage  of  Ennius — 
He  established  the  Tables,  he  also  the  Shields  .  .  . 

*  ancUia  '  is  a  word  derived  from  '  ambicisus,'  because  those 
arms  were  indented  on  either  edge  like  those  of  Thracians ; — 

.  .  .  and  the  Pancakes,  the  Bakers,  the  Rush- 
Dummies,  and  the  cone-haired  Priests. 

'  liba '  are  so  called  because  they  are  made  to  be  used  at 
libations.  The  '  fictores  '  are  so  called  '  a  fingendis  Ubis  ' ; 
the  t^im  Argei  is  derived  from  Argos.  .  .  .  '  tutulati '  is  a 
term  used  for  those  who  at  sacrifices  are  accustomed  to  wear 
a  kind  of  cone  on  their  heads. 

*  My  chief  reason  for  not  reading  sextus  erat  and  putting  the 
fr.  in  Bk.  Ill  (V.,  CLXIX-CLX)  is  that  when  Servius  Tullius 
came  to  rule,  the  city  was  no  longer  Square  Rome. 

43 


ENNIUS 

127-9 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  45 :  Eundem  Pompilium  ait  fecisse  flamines 
qui  cum  omnes  sunt  a  singulis  deis  cognominati  .  .  .  sunt 
in  quibus  flaminum  cognominibus  latent  origines  ut  in  his 
qui  sunt  versibus  plerique — 

Volturnalem  Palatualem  Furinalem 
Floralemque  Falacrem  et  Pomonalem  fecit 
hie  idem. 

130 

Festus,  156,  5  :  '  Me  '  pro  '  mihi '  dicebant  antiqui  ut 
Ennius  cum  ait  lib.  II — 

'  Si  quid  me  fuerit  humanitus  ut  teneatis. 

Propertius,  III,  3  (IV,  2),  5-7  : 

Parvaque  tam  magnis  admoram  fontibus  ora 

unde  pater  sitiens  Ennius  ante  bibit : 
et  cecinit  Curios  fratres  et  Horatia  pila.  .  .  . 


131 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  III,  3,  6  K  :  Sic  ergo  e'/ioC  aov  oS  mei 
tui  sui  €fiovs  aovs  ovs  mis  tis  si  .  .  .  Ennius — 

'  Ingens  cura  mis  cvun  co'ncordibus  aequiperare ; 

^*'~*  hexam.  constit.  0.  Mueller  iamb.  scaz.  T  saturn. 

alii        Volturnales    |     Palatuales    Furinales    Floralesque     | 
Falacres  et  Pomonales  f.  h.  i.  L        alii  alia 

"  It  is  not  certain  whether  Varro  has  here  quoted  Ennius; 
if  he  has,  then  this  is  clearly  the  right  place  for  the  fr.  The 
proper  names  excuse  the  ugliness  of  the  lines.  Cf.  Skutsch, 
in  Pavly,  s.v.  Ennius,  2623 ;   Norden,  78. 

*  Elsewhere  called  Curiatii.  Whether  we  read  cecinit  or 
cecini  we  can  assume  that  the  examples  given  by  Propertius 
were  incidents  which  Ennius  described  in  noteworthy  passages 
of  poetry. 

44 


ANNALS 

127-9 

He  inatitutea  the  flamines  : 

Varro :  Ennius  states  that  Pompilius  also  established  the 
'  special  priests  ' ;  although  all  are  sumamed  from  individual 
gods  .  .  .  there  are  special  priests  whose  surnames  remain 
obscure  in  origin  .  .  .  as  is  the  case  with  most  of  the  following 
which  are  enumerated  in  these  verses — 

He  likewise  established  the  priests  of  Voltumus, 
of  Palatua,  of  Furina,  of  Flora,  of  Falacer,  and  of 
Pomona,** 

130 

Xuma  desires  that  his  institutions  he  maintained  : 

Festus  :  The  ancients  used  to  say  '  me  '  instead  of  '  mihi,' 
as  does  Ennius  when  he  says  in  the  second  book — 

If  something  of  man's  fate  should  happen  to  me, 
do  you  keep  my  ordinances. 

The  reign  of  TuUus  HostUius.  War  between  Borne  and  Alba, 
which  agree  to  settle  their  quarrels  by  a  combat  between  two  sets  of 
triplet  brothers. 

Propertius : 

And  I  had  already  put  puny  lips  to  m^hty  fountains, 
whence  once  father  Ennius  did  slake  his  thirst  and  sang  of 
the  brothers  Curii*  and  of  the  Horatii  and  their  spears.  .  ,  . 

131 

The  triplets  are  ready  to  fight '  : 

Priscianus :  In  this  way,  therefore,  efioO  oov  and  ov 
correspond  to  mei  tni  and  sui,  ifiovs,  aoCs,  ovs  to  mis  tis 
sis.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

'  A  great  and  strong  anxiety  is  mine  to  do  equal 
deeds  with  my  heartfellows. 

'  I  take  it  one  of  them  speaks.  Others  (St.,  p.  127  and 
v.,  CLX\^-CLXVII)  put  this  later  as  spoken  by  the  surviving 
Horatins.  Certainly  the  meaning  is  doubtful;  Ennius  seems 
to  use  Concordes  in  a  special  sense — '  men  nearest  to  my 
heart.'     Note  that  the  s  in  mis  is  elided  in  recitation. 

45 


ENNIUS 

132 

Festus,  194,  12  :  '  Occasus '  interitus  vel  solis  cum  decidit  a 
superis  infra  terras;  quo  vocabulo  Ennius  pro  occasione 
est  usus  in  lib.  II — 

Hie  occasus  datust :   at  Horatius  inclutus  saltu  .  .  . 


133 

Priscianus,  ap.  O.L.,  II,  504, 22  K  :  Vetustissimiinveniuntur 
etiam  produxisse  .  .  .  paenultimam.  ...  — 

*  Adnuit  sese  mecum  decernere  ferro. 


134 
Festus,  540,  10  :    '  Tolerare,'  patienter  ferre  ...  — 
ferro  se  caedi  quam  dictis  his  toleraret. 

135 
Festus,  348,  4  :    '  Quamde  '  pro  quam  ...  — 
'  quamde  tuas  omnes  legiones  ac  populares. 

136 

Festus,  426,  2  :    '  Sum  '  pro  '  eum  '.  .  .  — 
At  sese,  sum  quae  dederat  in  luminis  oras, 

1'*  datus  est  cd.  trib.  lib.  IV  Ilberg  (de  Horatio  Codite 

cogitans) 

"  St.,  p.  126,  refers  this  fr.  to  the  conference  between 
Mettius  and  TuUus  in  Livy,  I,  23.  Cf.  also  V.,  CLXVI, 
CLXVII,  who  refers  the  words  to  Tullus. 

46 


ANNALS 

132 

The  fight :  the  surviving  Horatius  escapes  a  thrust : 

Festua  :  '  Occasus,'  a  passing  away  of  the  sxin,  for  example, 
when  it  drops  down  firom  the  heights  to  r^ons  beneath  the 
earth ;  Ennius  used  this  noon  for  '  occasio '  in  the  second 
book — 

This  chance  was  given  him,  but  renowned  Horatius 
with  a  leap  .  .  . 

133 

Horaliua  justifies  kimsdf  to  his  sister,  who  loved  one  of  the 
Curiatii  : 

Priscianus :  We  find  very  ancient  writers  who  even 
lengthened  the  penultimate  (sc.  of  perfects  in  -tti)  .  .  . — 

'  He  agreed  that  he  would  join  issue  with  me  by 
the  sword. 

134 
Horatius^  sister  heaps  reproaches  on  him  t 
Festns  :   '  Tolerare,'  to  bear  patiently  ...  — 
She   would   fain   suffer  slaughter    by   the    sword 
rather  than  by  words  such  as  these. 

135 

She  cares  more  for  her  dead  Curiatius  than  for  all  the  Romans : ' 
Festns :  '  Qnamde '  .  .  .    for  '  quam '  .  .  . — 
'  than  for  all  your  legions  and  commoners. 

136 

Horatius'  father  pleads  for  his  son  at  his  trial  for  killing  his 
sister  ;  he  pictures  the  mother's  grief  f  : 

Festus  :   '  Sum  '  for  '  eum  *  .  .  .  — 

'  But  that  him  whom  she  gave  forth  into  the  world 
of  light,  she  .  .  . 

47 


ENNIUS 

137 

Festus,  188,  30:    '  Ningulus  '  nullus  .  .  . — 
'  qui  ferro  minitere  atque  in  te  ningulus  .  .  .' 

138 

Festus,  630,  25 :    '  <Tu>ditante8,'  tundentes,  <negotium  id 
est  ag/'entes  ...  — 

Haec  inter  se  totum  egere  diem  tuditantes. 


139 

Quintilianus,  I,  5,  12  :  Nam  duos  in  uno  nomine  faciebat 
barbarismos  Tinga  Placentinus  .  .  .  preculam  pro  pergula 
dicens.  ...  At  in  eadem  vitii  geminatione — 

Mettoeoque  Fufetioeo 

dicens  Ennius  poetico  iure  defenditur. 


Macrobius,   ap.   O.L.,   V,   651,   32   K:     '  Tractare '   saepe 
ahere.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

traetatus  per  aequora  campi 


^"  egere  diem  {olim  turn  certabant)  V  se  tota  vi  tudi- 
tantes S  tota  turn  vi  Mr.  sese  t.v.  illi  tuditantes  O. 
Mueller  sese  tuditant  vi  contendentes  Ilberg  se  totum 
.  .  .  tes  cd. 

i"  Mettoeoque  Fufetioeo  Skutsch        alii  alia,  cf.  St.  ad  \ 
loc. 

^*"  trib.  Ann.  lib.  II  Colonna 

48 


ANNALS 

137 

The  prosecutor  {or  one  of  the  two  judges  ?  ")  accuses  Horatius  : 
Festus  :   '  Ningulus,'  no  one  ...  — 
'  Who  are  one  to  threaten  -with  the  sword,  while 
against  you  no  one  ..." 

138 

Progress  of  the  tried  : 

Festus:  '  Tuditantes'  means  ' tundentes,'  that  is,  conduct- 
ing an  affair  ...  — 

They  spent  the  whole  day  threshing  out  this  trial 
among  themselves. 

139 

The  punishment  of  Metiius  Fufettius  by  TitUus  for  refusing 
to  help  Rome  : 

Quintilian  :  Tinga  of  Placentia  ...  by  A^-riting  '  precula  ' 
for  '  pergula  '  was  guilty  of  two  barbarisms  in  one  noun. 
.  .  .  But  Ennius  arraigned  on  a  like  charge  of  a  double  mis- 
take *  by  saying — 

Mettoeoque  Fufetioeo 
is  defended  on  the  plea  of  poet's  licence. 

140 

He  is  torn  apart  by  horses  : 

Macrobius :  '  Tractare '  means  to  pull  again  and  again. 
.  .  .  Ennius — 

Dragged  over  the  smooth  flat  plain 

•  Or  it  may  be  Horatius'  sister. 

*  I  translate  Gellius  ambiguously  here  because  it  is  not 
oertain  in  what  form  Ennius  reaUy  wrote  the  names  Mettius 
Fufettius.  If  Ennius  committed  two  faults  in  the  names, 
then  vilii  geminaiione  means  '  with  the  commission  of  two 
fifialts.'  Perhaps  eiusdem  should  be  read.  Ennius  apparently 
imitates  the  Homeric  genitive — /xeyaAoio  Kpovoio  and  the  like. 

49 

VOL.  I.  E 


ENNIUS 

Ul-2 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  206,  22  K :  Vetustissimi  .  .  . 
'  homo  homonis '  declinaverunt.    Ennius — 

Vulturus  in  silvis  miserum  mandebat  homonem. 
Heu !    Quam  crudeli  condebat  membra  sepulchre ! 

Cp.  Charis.,  ap.  O.L.,  I,  147,  15  K  :  Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  VI,  595. 
Schol.  Bamb.,  ad  Stat.,  Theb.,  Ill,  508. 

143 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  II,  313  :  '  Clangor' :  Plerumque  ...  ad 
tubam  evertuntur  civitatea  sicut  Albam  TuUus  Hostilius 
iussit  everti. 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  450,  2  K :  ...  in  nominationibus 
id  est  ovofiaroTTouats,  sive  nominuiu  seu  verbomm  novis 
conformationibus  non  omnes  declinationes  motus  sunt 
quaerendi  .  .  .  taratantara  Ennius — 

At  tuba  terribili  sonitu  taratantara  dixit. 

Cp.  Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  IX,  501  :   '  At  tuba  terribilem  sonitum.' 


Serviua  ad  486  :  '  At  domus  interior ' :  de  Albano  excidio 
translatus  est  locus. 

U4 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Aen.,  Ill,  333  :  '  Reddita '  more  veteri 
pro  '  data  '  accipiendum  est  ...  — 

isque  dies  postquam  Ancus  Marcius  regna  recepit, 

pro  '  accepit.' 

1*1-*  trib.  Ann.  lib.  II  Merula 

1*^  silvis  Prise,  Serv.  cdd.  CSM  campo  cdd.  HFC  in  campos 
cd.  R  spineto  Charis.        spinis  Koch  coll.  Aen.  VIII,  645 

i«  trib.  Ann.  lib.  II  V 

^**  trib.  lib.  II  Ilberg  postquam  A.  M.,  Ilberg         post 

aut  Marcus  quam  Serv.  auct. 

50 


I 


ANNALS 

141-2 

and  birds  devour  his  corpse  : 

Priscianus :  The  oldest  writers  declined  '  homo,'  gen. 
'  homonis.'     Ennios — 

A  vulture  did  craunch  the  poor  wight  in  the  forest. 
Ah !   In  what  a  cruel  tomb  buried  he  his  limbs ! 

143 

The  destruction  of  Alba  Longa  by  TuUus  : 

Servius,  on  '  clangor '  in  Virgil :  States  are  generally 
overthrown  to  the  sound  of  a  trumpet,  in  the  way  in  which 
Tullus  HostUius  ordered  Alba  to  be  overthrown." 

Priscianus :  In  '  nominationes,'  that  is  in  onomatopoeias 
whether  nouns  or  verbs,  of  unusual  structure,  we  must  not 
look  for  all  the  turns  of  inflexion  .  .  .  '  taratantara.' 
Ennius — 

And  the  trumpet  in  terrible  tones  taratantara 
blared. 


Servius  on  Virg.,  Aen.,  II,  486  :   '  And  the  dwelling  within.* 
This  passage  (II,  486  fi.)  is  taken  from  the  Sack  of  Alba. 

lU 

The  reign  of  Anciis  Marcius.     His  accession  : 

Servius  (supplemented),  on  '  reddita '  in  Virgil :   '  Reddita' 
must,  as  an  archaic  usage,  be  taken  to  mean  '  data  "...  — 

and  that  day  when  Ancus  Marcius  *  received  the 
kingship, 

Here  '  recepit '  stands  for  accepit. 


•  Servius  is  probably  thinking  here  of  Ennius*  narrative  in 
iinb  Annals. 

*  The  text  is  not  clear,  but  the  reference  is  c«tain. 

e2 


ENNIUS 


145 


Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  4,  3  (ad  Georg.,  II,  462) :  Pulchre  '  vomit 
undam  '  et  antique  :   nam  Ennius  ait— 

et  Tiberis  flumen  vomit  in  mare  salsum, 


146-7 

Festus,  346,  14 :  '  Quaesere '  ponitur  ab  antiquis  pro 
quaerere  ...  — 

Ostia  munita  est :   idem  loca  navibus  celsis 
munda  facit  nautisque  mari  quaesentibus  vitam. 

Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  397,  3;   121,3;   Feat.,  20,  7. 

148 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Aen.,  XI,  326 :  Quidam  '  texamua ' 
proprie  dictum  tradunt  quia  loca  in  quibus  naves  fiunt  Graeco 
vavm^yia  Latine  textrina  dici :    Enniua — 

Isdem  campus  habet  textrinum  navibus  longis, 

Cp.  Cic,  Oral.,  47,  157. 

149 

Festus,  400,  29  :  Ennius  iocatus  videtur  .  .  .  et  lib.  II — 

i  caerula  prata. 


"«  celsis  Fest.,  120        pulchris  Fest.,  346 
"«  Cf.  St.,  pp.  129-30 :    V.  85-6 
^**  pont>i    S        Neptuni    T         caeli    Lindsay 
Reichardt 


campi 


"  v.,  p.  25,  attributes  this  fr.  to  Bk.  II  of  the  Annals,  and 
cites  Ov.,  Fast.,  IV,  291-2;   Fest.,  228,  14. 


S2 


ANNALS 

U5 

The  foundaiion  of  Ostia  :  fortificaiions  and  other  works  : 

Macrobius  :  A  most  happy  expression  of  VirgU's  is  '  belches 
forth  a  flood,'  and  archaic  too,  for  Ennius  "  says — 

and  the  river  Tiber  belches  into  the  salt  sea, 

146-7 

Festus :    '  Quaesere '  is  put  by  archaic  writers  instead  of 
'  quaerere  '  .  .  .  — 

Ostia  was  fortified.     He  like^nse  made  the  channel 
clear  for  tall  ships  and  for  sailors  seeking  a  livelihood 


the 


148 


Servius  (supplemented) :  Some  say  that  '  texamus  '  is  the 
right  term  to  use  because  the  places  in  which  ships  are  made 
are  called  in  Greek  votnnjyto,  in  Latin  '  textrina.'     Ennius  * — 

for  them  too  the  plain  holds  a  workshop  for  their 
long  ships. 

149 

Festus  :  Ennius '  seems  to  have  made  a  jest  .  .  .  and  in 
the  second  book — 

the  blue-dark  plains. 

*  St.,  pp.  129-30  rightly,  I  think,  saya  that  the  harbour 
works  are  contrasted  with  others  further  inland. 

'  The  jest  or  joke  is  lost  and  may  have  belonged  to  the 
Satirts.  As  for  this  passage  firom  the  An-ncUs,  it  is  not  clear 
what  Ennius  was  describing,  but  it  is  tempting  to  supply 
<pont>i  (Scaliger)  and  to  refer  the  fr.  to  the  sailors  of  Une  147. 
It  is  just  possible  that  i  is  a  complete  word — '  go  tramp  the 
blue  meadows.' 

53 


ENNIUS     ■ 
LIBER  III 

150 

Nonius,  51,  7:    '  Laevum '  significari  veteres  putant  quasi 
a  levando.  .  .  .  Ennius  annali  lib.  Ill — 

Olim  de  caelo  laevum  dedit  inclutus  signum. 


151-2 

Probus,  ad  Verg.,  Ed.,  VI,  31  :  Pro  aere  veati  hie  extrin- 
secus  accipiuntur :  ad  quod  argumentum  coUegimus  Ennii 
exemplum  de  Annalium  tertio — 

et  densis  aquila  pinnis  obnixa  volabat 

vento  quem  perhibent  Graium  genus  aera  lingua. 


153 

Schol.  Bern,  ad  Georg.,  IV,  7  :    '  Laeva,'  prospera  .  .  .  ut 
Ennius  ait — 

ab  laeva  rite  probatum. 


154 

Festus,    428,    11:      '  Sos '  .  .  .  interdum    pro    suos  . 
Ennius — 

Postquam  lumina  sis  oculis  bonus  Ancus  reUquit, 

Cp.  Paul,  ex  F.,  429,  10.     Lucret.,  Ill,  1025  :   Lumina  sis 
oculiB  etiam  bonus  Ancus  reliquit. 

153  trib.  lib.  Ill  St. 
54 


ANNALS 


BOOK  III 

The  Reigns  of  Tarquinius  Priscus,  Servius  Tuluus, 
AND  Tarquinius  Superbus  ;  Establishment  of 
THE  Republic 

150 
Jupiter's  omen  to  Priscus  on  his  way  to  Borne  : 

Nonius :  '  Laevum.'  The  old  critics  believe  this  word  to 
take  its  meaning  as  it  were  from  '  levare.'  .  .  .  Ennius  in  the 
third  book  of  Annals — 

The  All-glorious  sent  down  one  day  from  the  sky  a 
favourable  sign. 

151-2 
The  omen : 

Probus,  on  '  anima  '  in  Virgil :  '  Air '  is  here  taken,  by 
inductive  reasoning,  to  mean  '  winds ' ;  in  proof  of  this  we 
have  taken  an  example  of  Ennius  from  the  third  book  of  the 
Annals — 

and  there  came  flying  on  thick-set  wings  an  eagle, 
battling  ^vith  the  breeze  which  the  Greek  nation  calls 
in  its  tongue  '  aer.'  <* 

153 
TanaquU  (?)  accepts  the  omen  as  favourable  : 
A  scholiast :   '  Laeva,'  prosperous  ...  as  Ennius  says — 
on  the  left  hand  and  duly  taken  as  good. 

154 

The  death  of  Ancus  Marcius  : 

Festus :  '  Sos '  .  .  .  now  and  then  writers  put  it  for  suos 
.  .  .  Ennius — 

After  good  Ancus  quitted  the  light  with  his  eyes, 

"  Ennius'  philology  was  here  more  accurate  than  he  knew^ 
Greek  root  of,  Sanscrit  va  '  blow,'  vatas  '  wind.' 

55 


ENNIUS 

155 
Festus,  426,  33  :  '  Solum,'  terrain.     Ennius  lib.  Ill — 
Tarquinio  dedit  imperium  simul  et  sola  regni. 

156 
Festus,  428,  11:    '  Sos  '  pro  '  eos.'  .  .  .  Ennius  lib.  Ill — 
Circum  sos  quae  sunt  magnae  gentes  opulentae. 

157 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  VI,  219  :    '  lavant  frigentis  et  ungunt ' : 
versus  Ennii,  qui  ait — - 

Tarquinii  corpus  bona  femina  lavit  et  unxit. 

Cp.  Donat.,  in  Ter.,  Hec,  I,  2,  60. 

158 
Festus,  284,  22  :  '  Prodinunt,'  prodeunt  ...  — 
Prodinunt  famuli :   turn  Candida  lumina  lucent. 
Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  285,  8. 


159 

Macrobius,  S.,  I,  4,  17 :  Animadvertendum  est  .  .  . 
quod  etiam  '  qua  noctu '  dixerit  (Ennius).  Et  hoc  posuit  in 
annalium  septimo,  in  quorum  tertio  clarius  idem  dixit — 

'  Hac  noctu  filo  pendeblt  Etruria  tota. 

**^  Tarquinii  corpus  8erv.  Exin  Tarquinium  bona 
Donat. 

"  It  is  more  likely,  however,  that  sola  (from  solum)  means 
throne. 

56 


ANNALS 

155 
Tarquinius  Priscws  is  tnade  King  : 
Festus  :  '  Solum,'  earth.     Ennins  in  the  third  book — 
gave  to  Tarquin  both  sway  and  soil "  of  the  kingdom. 

156 
War  oj  Priscu-s  with  the  Latins  *  (or  Etruscans  ?)  : 
Festus  :   '  Sos  '  for  '  eos.'  ...  E.  in  the  third  book — 
The  clans  of  might  and  wealth  which  are  around 
them, 

157 

Tanaquil  decks  dead  Prise  us  : 

Servius,  on  '  And  they  wash  and  anoint  his  body  in  the  chill 
of  death  '  in  Virgil :  a  Une  from  Ennius,  who  says — 

The  good  woman  washed  and  anointed  Tarquin 's 
body. 

158 
The  funeral  of  Prisons  : 

Festus  :   '  Prodinunt,'  the  same  as  '  prodeunt '  .  .  .  — 
The  thralls  moved  on :  then  beamed  bright  lights. 

159 

The  reign  of  Servius  TuUius  ;  tears  with  Etnaria.  Speech 
of  an  Etruscan  (?)  general  before  battle  1 :  ' 

Macrobius  :  We  must  notice  that  he  used  even  '  qua  noctu.' 
And  this  he  put  in  the  seventh  book  of  the  A  nnals,  in  the  third 
book  of  which  he  wrote  the  same  sort  of  thing  more  clearly — 

'  On  this  night  all  Etruria's  fate  will  hang  by  a 
thread. 

"  v.,  CLXIX  (Dion.  Halic,  III,  51  :  57) :  St.,  pp.  133-4, 
suggests  the  Etruscan  wars  of  Servius  TuUius  (Livy,  I,  42). 
'  St.  suggests  the  battle  noticed  by  Livy  in  I,  42. 

57 


ENNIUS 

160-61 

Macrobiua,  5.,  VI,  1, 16 :  Concurnint  undique  telis  |  indomiti 
agricolae '  (Aen.,  VII,  520-1 ).    Ennius  in  III— 

Postquam  defessi  sunt  stare  et  spargere  sese 
hastis  ansatis,  concurrunt  undique  telis. 


162 

Macro bius,  S.,  VI,   1,9:    '  Axem  humero  torquet  stellis 
ardentibus  aptum '  (Aen.  IV,  482 ;  VI,  797)  .  .  .  — 

Caelum  prospexit  stellis  fulgentibus  aptum. 


163 

Grellius,  I,  22,  14  :  An  '  superesae '  dixerint  veteres  pro 
'  restare  et  perficiendae  rei  deesse  '  quaerebamus  .  .  .  inveni- 
mus  in  tertio  Enni  Annalium  in  hoc  versu — 

Inde  sibi  memorat  unum  superesse  laborem : 

id  est  reliquum  esse  et  restare,  quod  quia  id  est,  divise  pro- 
nuntiandum  est. 


^*'  stare  et  V  stando  Pontanus  stantes  Scriver. 

stant  et  cdd. 

^•'  prospexit  Macrob.        suspexit  V 


i 


58 


ANNALS 

160-61 

A  battle  "  in  Serviiis*  Etruscan  wars  : 

Macrobias  :  '  The  unruly  husbandmen  engage  with  javelins 
on  all  sides.'    Ennius  in  the  third  book — 

After  they  were  tired  out  from  standing  and 
spattering  each  other  with  loop-handled  lances,  they 
engaged  with  javelins  on  all  sides. 

162 

Tarquinius  Superbus.    Lucretia  outraged  lies  on  a  roof : 

Macrobius  :  (Atlas)  '  whirls  on  his  shoulder  the  sky  dotted 
with  blazing  stars '  .  .  .  — 

She  looked  up  at  the  sky  dotted  with  shining 
stars. 

163 

Lucretia  *  prepares  for  death  : 

Gellius :  We  used  to  investigate  the  question  whether 
'  superesse '  in  the  archaic  writers  was  a  term  used  for 
'  remain  and  be  lacking  for  the  completion  of  a  thing '  .  .  . 
we  find  in  the  third  book  of  Ennius'  AnruUs  this  line — 

Then  she  says  that  for  herself  one  labour  still 
waits  over : 

*  superesse,'  '  is  left '  and  '  remains  '  undone ;   this  being  the 
meaning,  it  must  be  spoken  as  two  words. 

"  See  previous  note;  V.,  CLXIX  compares  Dion.  Halic, 
UI,  52,  2-3. 

'  Thus  St.,  p.  133.  Others  refer  the  fr.  to  the  foundation 
of  a  temple  of  Diana  by  Servius  Tullius,  or  to  the  building 
of  the  area  of  the  temple  of  Jupiter  by  Tarquinius  Priscus; 
cf.  v.,  CLXX. 

59 


ENNIUS 

LIBER  IV 

164 

Macrobius,  S.,   VI,   1,   17:    '  Summa  nituntur  opum   vi ' 
{Aen.,  XII,  552).     Ennius  in  quarto — 

Romani  scalis  summa  nituntur  opum  vi. 

Cp.  Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  XII,  552. 


165 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  16, 22  :  Anxur  vocabatur  quae  nunc  Tarracina 
dicitur  Vulscae  gentis,  sicut  ait  Ennius — 


Vulsculus  perdidit  Anxur. 


166 

Cicero,  de  Re  Pub.,  I,  16,  25  :  Id  .  .  .  poatea  ne  nostrum 
quidem  Ennium  fugit,  qui  ut  scribit,  anno  trecentesimo 
quinquagesimo  fere  post  Romam  conditam — 

—  nonis  lunis  soli  luna  obstitit  et  nox. 

*•*  trib.  Ann.  lib.  IV  Merula 

166  <;quom>  nonis  Bergk  trib.  Ann.  lib.  IV  ed.  Lips. 


"  This  number,  according  to  the  year  (753  B.C.)  accepted 
in  Cicero's  time  for  the  foundation  of  Rome,  leads  us  to  the 
year  400  B.C.  when  there  was  an  eclipse  of  the  sun  on  the 
21  st  of  June ;  5th  must  be  a  mistake  of  Ennius.  Note  that 
since  Ennius  put  the  foundation  of  Rome  in  the  ninth  century 

6o 


ANNALS 


BOOK   IV 

The  Early  Republic,  probably  to  the 
Gallic  Invasion  of  390  or  387  b.c. 

164 

The  siege  of  Anxur  by  the  Romans  : 

Macrobiua :  '  They  strain  with  all  their  might  and  main  * 
(Virgil).     Ennius  in  the  fourth  book — 

The  Romans  on  their  ladders  strain  with  all  their 
might  and  main. 

165 
Anxur  is  stormed,  406  B.C. 

Paulus :  The  town  which  is  now  spoken  of  as  Tarracina, 
belonging  to  the  Volscian  tribe,  used  to  be  called  Anxur,  as 
Ennius'  words  show — 

The  wretched  Volscians  lost  Anxur. 

166 

Eclipse  of  the  sun,  21st  of  June,  400  B.C.  : 

Cicero,  on  the  true  cause  of  solar  eclipses  : 

In  later  times  this  did  not  escape  the  notice  even  of  our 
Ennius,  who  writes  that,  about  three  hundred  and  fifty  "  years 
after  the  foundation  of  Rome — 

On  June's  fifth  day  the  moon  blocked  out  the  sun 

in  darkness. 

B.C.,  he  must  have  given  a  much  larger  number  than  353  or 
350  for  the  year  of  this  eclipse.  On  this  problem  cf.  St., 
135;  Beloch,  in  H.,  LVII,  119  ff.;  another  view:  Soltau, 
Woch.  f.  Kl.  Phil.,  Ill,  979  ff. 

6i 


ENNIUS 

LIBER  V 

167 

Festus,  194,  12 :  '  Occasus '  .  ,  .  E.  pro  occasione  est  usus 
...  in  Ub.  V— 

Inicit  inritatus,  tenet  occasus,  iuvat  res. 


168 
Nonius,  556,  19  :  '  Ansatae '  iaculamenta  cum  ansis  . 
ansatas  mittunt  de  turribus 


169 

Priscianus,    ap.    O.L.,    II,    428,    14    K :     '  Misereo ' 
vetustissimi  sunt  usi  ...  — 

Cogebant  hostes  lacrumantes  ut  misererent. 


170 

Aero,  ad  Hor.,  Ep.,  II,  2,  98 :  .  .  .  Romani  quondam 
pugnaverunt  cum  hostibus  Samnitibus  usque  ad  noctem  ; 
unde  et  Ennius  inquit — 

Bellum  acquis  manibus  nox  intempesta  diremit. 

^®8  hastas  add.  Colonna        altis  Quich. 
^"*  aequum  St.  fortasse  recte 

"  The  context  of  all  the  frs.  is  uncertain. 
*  Livy,  VII,  10;   or  Titus  Manlius  and  a  Tusculan?   Livy, 
VIII,  7  :  Vahlen,  CLXXIV. 

62 


I 


ANNALS 


BOOK  V 

Samnite  Wars  and  the  Rise  of  Pyrrhus, 
TO  B.C.  295  " 

167 

A  single  combat  ;  Mardim  and  a  Gaul  ?  :  * 

Festua :    '  Occasus.'  .  .  .  E.  used  it  for  '  occasio  '  ...  in 
the  fifth  book — 

Vexation  drives  him  on,  the  chance  holds  him  to 
it,  the  fact  helps  him. 

168 

Defence  of  FregeUae  against  (he  Romans  ?  : 

Noniua  :   '  Ansatae,'  missiles  with  loop-handles  ...  — 

They   send   down   loop-handled   lances   from   the 
towers. 

169 

Appeal  of  vxymen  at  FregeUae  at  its  capture,  313  B.C.* 

Priscianus :      '  Misereo '  .  .  .  was    used     by    the     oldest 
writers  ...  — 

They  caused  even  the  enemy  to  have  pity  on  them 
shedding  tears. 

170 

A  battle  between  the  Romans  and  the  Samnites  ?  :  <' 

Aero :    At   one  time  the   Romans  fought   with   Samnite 
enemies  until  nightfall;   whence  Ennius  also  says — 

The  dead  of  night  wTested  from  them  a  drawn 
battle. 

'  St.,  p.  137. 

<*  Livy,  X,  12;   or  Livy,  VII,  33;   Vahlen,  CLXXU. 


63 


ENNIUS 


171 


Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  4,  4  :  '  Agmen '  pro  actu  et  ductu 
quodam  ponere  non  inelegans  est,  ut '  leni  fluit  agmine  Thybris  ' 
(Aen.,  II,  782).  Immo  et  antiquum  est.  Ennius  enim  in 
quinto  ait — 

quod  per  amoenam  urbem  leni  fluit  agmine  flumen. 


172 

Nonius,  226,  29  :  '  Stirpem  '  .  .  .  masculino  E.  Annalium 
lib.  V— 

nomine  Burrus  uti  memorant  a  stirpe  supremo. 

Cp.  Fest.,  454,  28  :  402,16. 

Note  on  Books 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  Ennius  did  not  include  the  First 
Punic  War  in  the  detailed  narrative  of  his  Annals;  the  state- 
ment of  Cicero  (see  pp.  82-83)  is  explicit,  and  it  is  unreason- 
able to  believe  that  we  know  better  than  he  did.  He  teUs 
us  that  Ennius  did  not  desire  to  rival  Naevius,  who  had 
already  written  a  poem  about  this  war  (see  Remains  of 
Old  Latin,  Vol.  II);  it  is  further  probable  (see  St.,  pp.  163-4) 
that  Ennius  had  before  him  other  poems  covering  the  same 
ground.  It  is  quite  possible  that  in  Book  VII  Ennius  gave 
a  mere  sketch,  or  enumerated  only  the  chief  events  of  this 
war;  but  I  have  no  hesitation  in  following  Miss  Steuart  in 
her  refusal  to  attribute  to  it  a  number  of  fragments  on  which 
she  offers  attractive  suggestions  (St.,  pp.  149  fif.).  Cf.  also 
Norden,  Enn.  u.  Verg.,  63  ff.,  143  ff.,  170.  For  the  old  view, 
which  goes  back  to  Morula,  see  V.,  CLXXIX  ff.;  Miiller, 
Q.  Enn.,  166  and  C.  Q.  XIII,  113  flf.;  Skutch,  Pauly,  s.v. 
Ennius,  2607,  etc. 

Non.   226    lib.    V   cdd.    VI    Merula  "»  numine   Fest. 

Pyrrhus  cdd.        Burrus  Ennitis — cf.  Cic.,  Oral.,  48,  160 

64 


ANNALS 

171 

The  River  Liris  cU  ItUeramna  *  Lirenas,  whore  the  fields  were 
laid  waste  in  294  B.C. : 

Macrobius  :  It  is  not  inelegant  to  put  '  agmen  '  in  the  sense 
of  a  certain  '  actus  '  and  '  ductus  ' ;  for  example,  '  Thybris 
flows  with  gentle  train.'  Indeed  it  is  also  an  antique  usage; 
for  Ennius  in  the  fifth  book  says — 

because  the  river  flows  with  gentle  train  through 
the  pleasant  to^\'n. 

172 
Rise  of  Pyrrhus  :  *  * 

Nonius :  '  Stirps '  .  .  .  Ennius  has  it  in  the  masculine  in 
the  fifth  book  of  the  Annals — 

by  name  Burrus,  a  man  they  say  of  highest  stock. 

VI   AND  VII 

On  the  other  hand,  I  cannot  believe  that  Ennius  allowed 
his  history  of  Pj-rrhus  to  extend  into  the  seventh  book  so 
that  at  the  beginning  of  that  book  it  was  interrupted  by 
three  things  :  (i)  the  elaborate  prologue  to  the  book;  (ii)  an 
accoimt  of  the  origin  of  Carthage;  (iii)  an  apology  for  not 
describing  the  First  Punic  War.  I  suggeet  that  the  war  with 
Pj-rrhus  was  contained  wholly  in  Book  VI,  which  was  thus 
devoted  to  a  man  whom  Ennius,  it  is  clear,  admired;  and 
that  Book  VII,  after  a  prologue  and  an  apology,  sketched  the 
origins  of  Carthage,  brushed  aside,  as  it  were,  the  First  Punic 
War  with  a  short  outline,  and  narrated  the  winning  of 
Sardinia  '  and  Corsica  by  Rome,  her  reduction  of  the  piratic 

*  Thus  St.,  pp.  137-8,  who  explains  quod  as  introducing  an 
etymological  remark.  But  quod  could  go  ■v^ithfiumen  and  the 
town  could  be  Mintumae,  where  a  colony  was  founded  in 
295  B.C. 

*  We  may  keep  this  fr.  in  the  book  to  which  Nonius 
apparently  assigns  it  (St.,  p.  138). 

*  Where  Ennius  himself  served  as  a  soldier. 

65 
VOL.  1.  F 


ENNIUS 

lUyrians  to  submission  (here  we  may  put  some  of  the  disputed 
fragments),  and  the  conquest  of  Cisalpine  Gaul.  It  is  possible 
that  the  achievements  of  Hamilcar,  Hasdrubal,  and  Hannibal 
in  Spain  were  also  sketched.     Thus  Book  VIII  began  with 


LIBER  VI 

173 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  IX,  526  (528) :  ('  ingentis)  oras  evolvite 
belli.'  Hoc  est  .  .  .  '  narrate  non  tantum  initia  sed  etiam 
extrema  bellorum  ' ;  nam  orae  sunt  extremitates.  Servius 
aiictus  :   Est  autem  Ennianum — 

Quis  potis  ingentis  oras  evolvere  belli  ? 

Cp.  Quintil.,  VI,  3,  36  (.  . '.  annali  sexto  'quis  e.q.s.); 
Macrob.,  8.,  VI,  1,  18;  Diomed.,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  386,  1  K. 


174-6 

Cicero,  de  Div.,  II,  56,  116:  Herodotum  cur  veraciorem 
ducam  Ennio  ?  Num  minus  ille  potuit  de  Croeso  quam  de 
Pyrrho  fingere  Ennius?  Quis  enim  est  qui  credat  Apollinis 
ex  oraculo  Pyrrho  esse  responsum  ? — 

*  Aio  te  Aiacida  Romanos  vincere  posse.' 

Primum  Latine  Apollo  numquam  locutus  est;  deinde  ista 
Bors  inaudita  Graecis  est;  praeterea  Pyrrhi  temporibus  lam 
Apollo  versus  facere  desierat;  postremo,  quamquam  semper 
fuit,  ut  apud  Ennium  est, — 

'  stolidum  genus  Aeacidarum 
bellipotentes  sunt  magis  quam  sapientipotentes ; 

1'*  oras  Serv.  axict.        causas  Quintil. 
!'*-«  trib.  lib.  VI  Merula 

"  Here  again  I  disagree  with  Steuart.  Other  views — 
Norden,  75,  128,  131  S. 

66 


ANNALS 

the  outbreak  of  the  Second  Punic  War  and  carried  events 
down  to  the  departure  of  Scipio  Africanus  for  Africa  in 
204  B.C."  This  left  Enniua  free  to  devote  all  Book  IX  to  the 
crowning  achievement  of  his  friend  Scipio. 


BOOK  VI 
The  War  with  Pyrrhus,  281-271  b.c. 

173 

Prologue  : 

Serviua,  on  '  Unroll  ye  this  great  war  from  end  to  end,'  in 
Virgil :  that  is  .  .  .  Tell  ye  not  only  the  beginnings,  but  also 
the  conclusions  of  these  wars;  for  by  '  orae '  is  meant 
'  extremities.'  An  augmenter  of  Servius  adds :  It  is  further  an 
expression  of  Ennius — 

\Mio  can  unroll  this  great  war  from  end  to  end  ? 

174-6 

Pyrrhus  receives  an  oracle  of  Apollo  : 

Cicero  :  Why  should  I  take  Herodotus  to  be  more  truthful 
than  Ennius  ?  Surely  he  was  quite  as  capable  of  inventing 
stories  about  Croesus  as  Ennius  was  about  Pyrrhus.  For 
who  is  there  who  could  believe  that  Apollo's  oracle  gave  this 
answer  to  Pyrrhus  ? — 

'  I  say  that  you,  O  man  sprung  from  Aeaeus, 
The  Romans  can  defeat.'  * 

In  the  first  place,  Latin  is  a  tongue  in  which  Apollo  never 
spoke;  again,  that  particular  reply  is  not  known  among  the 
Greeks;  and,  moreover,  in  the  time  of  P\-rrhu8  ApoUo  had 
already  ceased  to  make  verses;  and  lastly,  although  it  has 
always  held  good,  as  we  find  in  Ennius,  that — 

'  That  tribe  of  blockheads,  stock  of  Aeaeus 
Are  war-strong  more  than  wisdom-strong  ' ; 

*  A  famous  example  of  advice  which  can  be  taken  in  two 
opposite  ways. 

6? 
f2 


ENNIUS 

tamen  hanc  amphiboliam  versus  intellegere  potuisset '  vincere 
te  Romanes '  nihilo  magis  in  se  quam  in  Romanes  valere. 

Cp.  {vers.  174) :  QuintiL,  VII,  9,  6  :  '  Aurel.  Vict.,'  de  vir. 
illustr.,  35,  1 ;  Ammian.  Marcell.,  XXIII,  5,  9 ;  Porphyr. 
ad  Hor.,  A.P.,  403;  Charisius,  ap.  O.L.,  I,  271,  28  K  :  et 
alibi. 

177 

Valla,  ad  luv.,  VII,  134 :  '  Stlataria.'  Probua  exponit 
illecebrosa.     Ennius — 

et  melior  navis  quam  quae  stlataria  portat. 


178 

Festus,  170,  fin.  :   '  Navus  '  celer  ac  strenuus.  .  .  .  Ennius, 
lib.  VI— 

Navus  repertus  homo,  Graio  patre  Graius  homo,  rex. 


179 

Festus,  424,  27:    <Summ>us8i  dicebantur  <mTirmura- 
tores> ....  Ennius  in  sexto  ...  — 

Intus  in  oceulto  mussabant. 

Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  425,  5  :   127,  6. 

180 

Maerobius,    8.,   VI,    1,   54:     '  Pulverulentus   eques  furit; 
omnes  arma  requirunt '  {Aen.,  VII,  625)  ...  — 

Balantum  pecudes  quatit ;   omnes  arma  requirunt. 

1"  trib.  lib.  VI  St.         VII  Menila 

^^"  balatum  vel  balantum  cdd.  palatur  t-el  palatus  B 


"  The  line  is  commonly  taken  to  refer  to  the  model  ship 
used  for  training  the  Romans  in  the  First  Punic  War  (V., 
CLXXX). 

68 


ANNALS 

still,  Pyrrhus  would  have  had  the  sense  to  see  that  the  double 
meaning  of  the  line  '  you  the  Romans  .  .  .  defeat '  apphed 
equally  to  himself  and  to  the  Romans. 


177 

Pyrrhus'  stormy  crossing  to  Italy  ;  his  ship  :  " 
Valla:     'Stlataria.'        Probus       expounds:        'alluring.' 
Ennius — 

and  a  better  ship  than  such  as  carries   foreign 

fripperies. 

178 
Pyrrhus  teas  at  first  welcome  in  Tarentum,  281  B.C. : 
Festus :    '  Xavus,'  swift  and  active.  ...  E.  in  the  sixth 

book — 

A  man  of  deeds  they  found  him,  a  Greek  son  of  a 
Greek  father,  and  a  very  king.* 

179 

but  he  shewed  himself  a  stem  master  : 

Festus :     '  Summussi '   is  a  t€rm   which   was  applied   to 
murmurers.  .  .  .  Ennius  in  the  sixth  book  .  .  . — 

Within  they  grumbled  in  secret. 

180 

A  sudden  raid  near  Tarentum  by  Lucius  Aemilius  Barbida  ?  : 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil  "^ :  '  Through  the  dust  the  horsemen 
raged ;  all  cried  for  weapons.'  ...  — 

He    harried   the    bleating   sheep;     all   cried   for 
weapons. 

*  This    fr.    might    refer    to    Pyrrhus'    promised    help    to 
Tarentum. 
'  v.,  CLXX\T[.     But  cf.  Havet,  Rev.  de  Phil.,  IX,  166. 

69 


ENNIUS 

181-5 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  2,  27  : 

Itur  in  antiquam  silvam  stabula  alta  ferarum. 
Procumbunt  piceae,  sonant  icta  securibus  ilex 
fraxineaeque  trabes  cuneis,  et  fissile  robur 
scinditur;  advolvunt  ingentes  montibus  omos. 

(Aen.,  VI,  179  ff.;   cp.  Aen.,  XI,  134  ff.) 

,    Ennius  in  VI — 
/ 

Incedunt  arbusta  per  alta,  securibus  caedunt. 

Percellunt  magnas  quercus,  exciditur  ilex, 

fraxinus  frangitur  atque  abies  consternitur  alta, 

pinus  proceras  pervortunt ;  omne  sonabat 

arbustum  fremitu  silvai  frondosai. 

Homerus, /;.,  XXIII,  114: 

01  8*  laav  vXoTOfiovs  neXfKeas  iv  xtpaiv  exovres 
oeipas  t'  €VttX(ktovs'  npo  8'  ap'  ovpijes  kLov  oi)twv 
TToAAa  S'  dva;^a  Karavra  Trapavra,  re  Soxi^id  t'  ■^XBov. 
aAA'  0T€  8rj  KVTjfiovs  irpoae^av  noXvniBaKOS  'IBrjSt 
amiK   dpa  Spvs  vipiKOfiovs  ravaiJKel  ;^aAKa> 
rafivov  eTreiyo/xeroi-  rat  Se  fieyaXa  KTweovaai 
TTiTTTOV.    rds  fJ.kv  eneira  SianXijaaovTes  'Axaiol 
e/fScov  T]fu6vojv  Toi  Se  x^ova  noaal  Sarevyro 
iXSofifvcu  neSioM  Std  poyirqla  rrvKvd. 


186-93 

Cicero,  de  Off.,  1, 12,  38  :  Pyrrhi  quidem  de  captivia  reddendis 
ilia  praeclara — 

*  Nec  mi  aurum  posco  nee  mi  pretium  dederitis 
'   nec  cauponantes  bellum  sed  belligerantes 

^*'  non  Pal.  Harl.  nec  rell. 
70 


ANNALS 

181-5 

Preparations  for  burning  the  dead  after  the  battle  of  Heraclea, 
280  B.C. : 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil : 

They  went  into  an  old  forest,  deep  dens  of  the  wild ;  forward 
fell  pitch-pines,  clattered  holms  under  hatchet- blows,  clattered 
beams  of  ash-trees  against  wedges;  splitting  oakwood  too 
they  cleft,  and  rolled  along  lofty  rowans  of  the  mountains. 

Ennius  in  the  sixth  book — 
Then  strode  they  through  deep  thicket-woods  and 

he-wed 
With  hatchets  ;  mighty  oaks  they  overset ; 
Down  crashed  the  holm  and  shivered  ash  outhacked ; 
Felled  was  the  stately  fir  ;  they  \\Tenched  right  down 
The  lofty  pines  ;   and  all  the  thicketwood 
Of  frondent  forest  rang  and  roared  and  rustled. 

Homer  has : 

And  they  went  holding  in  their  hands  hatchets  for  cutting 
wood,  and  ropes  well  twisted,  while  mules  walked  on  in  front 
of  them.  And  oft  strode  they  uphill  and  downhUl,  and  side- 
ways and  crossing.  But  when  they  came  nigh  unto  the 
shoulders  of  Ida  which  is  full  of  fountains,  then  straightway 
they  hewed  leafy-topped  oaks,  pressing  on  with  the  long  edge 
of  bronze;  and  the  trees  crashing  mightily  fell ;  whereon  these 
the  Achaeans  split  up  and  hung  from  the  mules,  and  these 
tore  up  the  ground  with  their  feet  through  thick  underwood, 
eager  for  the  plain. 

185-93 

Pyrrhus  replies  to  Fabricius,  who  came  to  ransom  prisoners 
taken  at  Heraclea : 

Cicero  :  And  of  Pyrrhus  too  there  is  that  illustrioos  speech 
on  the  restoration  of  prisoners — 

*  Gold  for  myself  I  ask  not ;  no,  to  me  ye  shall  not 
pay  a  price.     Not  chaffering  war  but  waging  war, 

7? 


ENNIUS 

ferro  non  auro  vitam  cernamus  utrique  ; 

vosne  velit  an  me  regnare  era,  quidve  ferat  Fors, 

virtute  experiamur.   Et  hoc  simul  accipe  dictum :    190 

quorum  virtuti  belli  fortuna  pepercit, 

eorundem  libertati  me  parcere  certum  est. 

Dono,  ducite,  doque  volentibus  cum  magnis  dis.' 

Cp.  Serv.  ad  Aen.,  X,  532;  XII,  709;  Verg.,  Aen.,  V,  385  : 
Ducere  dona  lube.  Ill,  12  cum  sociis  natoque  Penatibus  et 
magnis  dis.     VIII,  679  cum  .  .  .  magnis  dis. 

194-5 

Cicero,  de  Senect.,  6,  16:  Ad  Appii  Claudii  senectutem 
accedebat  etiam  ut  caecus  esset;  tamen  is  cum  sententia 
senatus  inclinaret  ad  pacem  cum  Pyrrho  foedusque  faciendum, 
non  dubitavit  dicere  ilia  quae  versibus  persecutus  est  Ennius — 

*  Quo  vobis  mentes  rectae  quae  stare  solebant 
ante  hac,  dementes  sese  flexere  viai  ? 

Horn.,  II.,  XXIV,  201  :  d>  fioi,  tt^  8ij  rot  (fpeves  o')(Ov9'  py 
TO  ndpos  TTep  \  IkAc'  ew'  av9p<I)iTovs  ; 

196 

Donatus,  ad  Ter.,  Phorm.,  V,  4,  2  :  '  Parare  animo';  et 
venuste  additum  animo.     Ennius  sexto — 

'  Sed,  quid  ego  hie  animo  lamentor  ? 

Od.,  XI,  418  :  6\o<f>vpao  6v[iu>. 

197 
Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  41  :  Apud  Ennium — 
Orator  sine  pace  redit  regique  refert  rem, 
orator  dictus  ab  oratione. 

^'^  libertati  me  L        m.l.  cdd. 
195  yij^j  Lambinus         via  cdd. 
72 


I 


ANNALS 

not  ^^^th  gold  but  with  iron — thus  let  us  of  both 
sides  make  trial  for  our  Uves.  To  see  what  Mistress 
Chance  may  bring,  whether  it  be  you  or  I  she  wishes 
to  be  king — let  it  be  by  bravery  that  we  make  the 
test.  And  withal  hear  this  word  of  mine  :  of  those 
warriors  to  whose  bravery  war's  fortune  has  been 
kind,  to  the  freedom  of  those  same  have  I  too 
planned  to  be  kind.  I  give  them  to  you,  take  them 
home — and  with  them  I  give  you  the  blessing  of  the 
great  gods.' 

194-5 

Fruitless  embassy  of  Cineas  to  Rome.  Appiws  Claudius 
Caucus  protests  against  any  acceptance  of  Cineas^  offers  : 

Cicero  :  When  Appius  Claudius  was  in  old  age  it  happened 
that  he  was  also  blind;  nevertheless,  when  the  opinion  of  the 
Senate  was  inclined  towards  peace  and  alliance  with  Pyrrhus 
he  did  not  hesitate  to  utter  those  famous  thoughts  which 
Ennius  set  forth  in  poetry — 

'  \\'hither  on  your  road  have  senseless  turned  your 
senses  which  hitherto  were  wont  to  stand  upright  ? 

196 

Donatus  on  '  in  animo  parare  '  in  Terence  :  the  addition  of 
'  animo  '  is  graceful.     Ennius  in  the  sixth  book — 

'  But  wherefore  do  I  grieve  now  in  my  heart  ? 


197 

Cineas  reports  to  Pyrrhus  his  failure  at  Borne  : 

Varro  :   In  a  passage  of  Ennius — 

The  spokesman  came  back  without  a  peace,  and 
brought  the  news  to  the  king, 

*  spokesman  '  is  a  term  derived  from  speech. 

73 


ENNIUS 

198-9 

Schol.   Veron.,   ad  Aen.,   V,   473  :     '  Hie   victor  superans 
(animistauroquesuperbus ').  .  ,  .  EnniusinVI — 

*  aut  animos  superant  atque  aspera  prima  ^ 

.  .  .  fera  belli  spernunt  .  .  . 


200-2 
Nonius,  150,  5  :  '  Prognariter,'  strenue  fortiter  et  constanter. 

Divi  hoc  audite  parumper 
ut  pro  Romano  populo  prognariter  armis 
certando  prudens  animam  de  corpore  mitto. 


203 

Festus,  488,  28:  <Scitae  attas  quae  8uiit>  bona  facie, 
a<li>as  bonis  <artibu8  mulieres  a  p>oetis  usurpantur. 
.  .  .  Ennius  in  lib.  VI — 

lumen  <ta >  scitus  agaso 

^•'  aut  cd.  ast  olim  V  animos  cd.  animo  Keil  fort. 
animis  aspera  prima  Keil  (Bh.  Mus.  VI,  375)  asperrima 
Mai  asp  .  .  .  rima  cd. 

^'^  iumenta  Ilberg  lumen  Fest.  iumentiaque  parum 
iam  prodest  scitus  agaso  coni.  Havet,  Rev.  de  Phil.,  IX,  167 

74 


ANNALS 

198-9 

The  courage  of  the  Romans  ? : " 

A  scholiast,  on  '  Here  the  conqueror  towering  in  pride  of 
soul '  in  Virgil :  Ennius  in  the  sixth  book — 

'  Or  they  mount  high  in  pride,  and  the  rough 
beginnings  ...  of  war  they  spurn. 


200-2 

The  battle  of  Atiaculum,  279  B.C.  Decius  Mus  devotes 
himsdf  to  the  '  di  manes  '  ; 

Nonius :  '  Prognariter,'  actively,  valiantly  and  stead* 
fastly.  ...  — 

'  Ye  gods,  hear  this  my  prayer  a  little  while  as 
from  my  body  I  breathe  my  last  for  the  Roman 
people's  sake,  knowingly  and  steadfastly,  in  arms  and 
in  battle. 


203 

Pyrrhiis'  mahouts  cut  the  traces  of  the  Roman  chariot-horaes 
in  the  battle  of  Ausculum  :  * 

Festus  :  '  Scitae  '  is  a  term  applied  by  poets  sometimes  to 
women  of  good  looks,  sometimes  to  women  who  are  of  good 
accomplishments.  .  .  .  Ennius  in  the  sixth  book — 

The  skilled  driver the  beasts. 

'  Spoken  by  Cineas  to  Pyrrhus?  or  it  may  be  part  of 
Appius'  speech  at  Rome. 

*  Thus  Steuart,  pp.  148-9.  iumenta  is  surely  right.  Havet 
{Rev.  de  Phil.,  IX,  167)  refers  the  fr.  to  plague-ridden  flocks 
and  connects  it  with  fr.  180. 

75 


ENNIUS 

204 

Macrobius,   S.,   VI,   22  :     '  Quadrupedante  putrem  sonitu 
quatit  ungula  campum  '  (Aen.,  VIII,  596).     Ennius  in  VI — 

Explorant  Numidae,  totam  quatit  ungula  terrain 


205 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  1,  8  :    '  Vertitur  interea  caelum  et  ruit 
Oceano  nox  '  (Aen.,  II,  250).     Ennius  in  libro  VI — 

Vertitur  interea  caelum  cum  ingentibus  signis. 


206 

Achilles  Tatius,  ad  CatulL,  LXIII,  40  :   '  Lustravit  aethera 
album  ' :  .  .  .  Ennius  de  sole  ...  in  VI — 

Ut  primum  tenebris  abiectis  indalbabat, 

Cp.  Apulei.,  Met.,  VII,  1. 


207-8 

Macrobius,   S.,   VI,   1,   10:    '  Conciliumque  vocat  divum 
pater  atque  hominum  rex '  {Aen.,  X,  2).     Ennius  in  VI — 

Turn  cum  corde  suo  divum  pater  atque  hominum  rex 
effatur. 

Horn.,  //,  I,  544  :  Trarrjp  avSpwv  re  deojv  re. 


^''*  totum  cdd.  (tota  Par.)  tostam  Stowasser  trib.  lib. 
VII  Kuypers 

""*  inalbabat  dies  Ach.  dies  inalbebat  Apidei.  indal- 
babat I  orta  dies  Wakefield  cuncta  dies  coni.  V.  reicit 
hoc  fr.  Bergk  prob.  Norden 

"  So  I  take  it.  The  fr.  is  generally  put  in  Book  VII 
(Norden,  128). 

76 


ANNALS 

204 

Operations  of  Pyrrhus  against  the  Carthaginians  in  Sicily, 
277-276  B.C. :  « 

Macrobixis,  quoting  Vixgil :  *  The  four-footed  beat  of  ihe 
hoofs  shook  the  crumbling  plain.'     Ennius  in  the  sixth  book — 

The  Numidians  went  scouting ;  their  hoofs  shook 
the  whole  ground. 

205 

The  battle  of  Beneventum,  275  B.C. ;  Pyrrhus  moves  to  attack 
the  Roman  catnp  by  night  ?  ;  * 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  Meanwhile  round  toUb  the 
sky  and  night  sets  in  from  the  Ocean.'  Ennius  in  the  sixth 
book — 

Meanwhile  the  sky  rolls  round  with  its  vast 
constellations. 

206 
and  daxcn  reveals  his  approach  : 

Achilles  Tatius :  '  He  scanned  the  white  ether '  .  .  . 
Ennius  on  the  sun  ...  in  the  sixth  book  ...  — 

When  darkness  was  cast  away  and  the  day  was 
first  whitening/ 

207-8 
A  soliloquy  of  Jupiter  (during  the  battle  of  Beneventum  /  )  ' : 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  and  the  father  of  the  gods  and 
king  of  men  called  a  council.'     Ennius  in  the  sixth  book — 

Then  -vriih  all  his  heart  the  father  of  the  gods  and 
king  of  men  spoke  forth. 

*  v.,  CLXX\'III-CLXXIX  (Plut.,  Pyrrh.,  25).  Miss  St. 
(p.  148)  points  to  the  battle  of  Auscidum. 

'  indaibabat  is  archaic  for  inalbabat ;  cp.  indaudio  for 
inaudio;  indu  for  in. 

•*  Compare  Homer,  //.,  X\T;I,  441-2 :  Kpovicjv  .  .  .  Trporl  ov 
(ivd-qaaTo  Ovfiov,  but  '  cum  corde  suo  effatur '  can  hardly  mean 
'  converses  with  his  own  heart.'    Cf.  also  IJ.,  X\T!I,  200. 

77 


ENNIUS 

209 

Cicero,  cZe  Re  PuU.,  Ill,  3,  6  :    ex  qua  vita  {«c.  civili)  sic 
summi  viri  omantur,  ut  vel  M'  Curius — 

quern  nemo  ferro  potuit  superare  nee  auro. 


Note  on 

The  clash  between  Rome  and  Carthage. 

On  this  book  see  pp.  64-5.  Steuart  includes  in  it  the  end 
of  the  war  with  Pyrrhus.  Norden,  pp.  143-52  has  devoted 
special  attention  to  a  reconstruction  of  the  book ;   he  would 

LIBER  VII 

210-27 

Gellius,  XII,  4,  4 :  Descriptum  definitumque  est  a  Quinto 
Ennio  in  Annali  septimo  graphice  admodum  sciteque  sub 
historia  Gemini  Servilii,  viri  nobilis,  quo  ingenio,  qua  comitate 
qua  modestia  .  .  .  amicum  esse  conveniat  hominis  genere 
et  fortuna  superioris — 

Haece  locutus  vocat  quocum  bene  saepe  libenter 
mensam  sermonesque  suos  rerumque  suarum 
comiter  inpertit,  magnam  cum  lassus  diei 
partem  trivisset  de  summis  rebus  regendis, 

2»»  trib.  lib.  XII  V  (Irib.  olim  lib.  VI) 

*i*  trivisset  B  fuvisset  Lips  fuisset  cdd.  (fuisse 
cd.  B)  magna  cum  lapsa  dies  iam  |  parte  fuisset  T 

"  Or  3rd  consulship  (274)  or  censorship  (272).  Or  the  fr. 
may  be  a  later  reminiscence.  At  any  rate  Ennius  was 
probably  the  author. 

*  Servllius  is  rightly  supposed  to  be  Cn.  Servilius  Geminus 
who  was  consul  in  217  and  was  killed  at  the  battle  of  Carmae 

78 


ANNALS 

209 
Triumph  (275  ?)  or  death  (270)  "  of  Manius  Curius  Dentatus  : 
Cicero  :  From  such  a  life  (i.e.  of  a  statesman)  men  of  the 
highest  rank  are  honoured,  aa  for  example  Manius  Curius — 

whom  none  could  overcome  with  iron  or  crold. 


Book  VII 
Events  leading  to  the  Second  Punic  War 

carry  the  narrative  at  least  as  far  as  the  battle  at  the  Trebia. 
Vahien,  CLXXIX  ff.,  believes  that  Ennius  did  include  a 
fairly  detailed  narrative  of  the  First  Punic  War. 

BOOK  VII 
210-27 

Prologue : 

Gellius  :  There  is  a  very  clever  and  graphic  description  and 
definition  by  Ennius  in  the  seventh  book  of  the  Annals  (in 
a  sketch  of  Geminus  ServiliuB,  a  man  of  noble  birth),  of  what 
temper  and  cheerfulness  and  modesty  ...  it  is  seemly  a 
man  shotdd  show  who  is  a  friend  of  another  his  superior  in 
birth  and  forttines  * — 

So  saying  he  called  to  one  with  whom  he  shared 
>villingly  and  cheerfully  and  right  often  his  table, 
his  talks,  and  his  affairs,  when,  tired  out,  he  had 
spent   long  hours  of  the   day  in  managing  the 

(in  216) ;  but  the  fr.  is  supposed  to  be  connected  in  some  way 
with  that  battle.  This,  however,  forces  us  either  to  upset  the 
probable  construction  of  Books  VII  and  \'Tn  or  to  alter 
the  book-niunber  given  by  GeUius.  Perhaps  E.  honoured 
Servilius  by  representing  him  as  a  special  source  of  inspiration 
to  a  poet  deaUng  with  the  Pixnic  Wars.  See  Xorden,  131  ff. ; 
Vahien,  CLXXXIII-CLXXXI V ;  Steuart,  152  f.;  Havet, 
Rev.  de  Phil.,  II,  93-96. 

79 


ENNIUS 

consilio  indu  foro  lato  sanctoque  senatu ; 

quoi  res  audacter  niagnas  parvasque  iocumque      215 

eloqueretur  sed  cura,  malaque  et  bona  dictu 

evomeret  si  qui  vellet  tutoque  locaret ; 

quorum  multa  volup  ac  gaudia  clamque  palamque, 

ingenium  quoi  nulla  malum  sententia  suadet 

ut  faceret  facinus  levis  aut  malus ;  doctus  fidelis  220 

suavis  homo  facundus,  suo  contentus,  beatus, 

scitus,    secunda    loquens    in    tempore,    commodus, 

verbum 
paucum,  multa  tenens  antiqua,  sepulta  vetustas 
quae  facit,  et  mores  veteresque  novosque,  tenens  res 
multorum  veterum, leges  divumque  hominumque,  225 
prudenter  qui  dicta  loquive  taeereve  posset. 
Hunc  inter  pugnas  Servilius  sic  conpellat. 

L.  Aelium  Stilonem  dicere  solitum  ferunt,  Q.  Ennium  de 
semet  ipso  haec  scripsisse  picturamque  istam  moruin  et 
ingenii  ipsius  Q.  Ennii  factam  esse. 

228 
Festus,  340,  24 :   '  Quianam  '  pro  quare  ...  — 
—  quianam  dictis  nostris  sententia  flexa  est  ? 
Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  341,  9. 

*^*  sed  cura  malaque  Hosius  et  haud  cunctans  Bergk  nee 
cunctans  M  et  incunctans  Huschke  tincta  mails  et 
quae  bona  Lips  et  cuncta  simul  malaque  Hug  eloqu.  et 
unose  olim  V  et  cuncta  malaque  et  bona  vel  et  cuncta 
malusq.  (cunctam  aliisq  N)  et  bona  cdd. 

*i*  volup  ac  gaudia  Colonna  volup  sibi  fecit  coni.  olim 
V  (qui  gaudia  seclitd.)  voluptate  gaudia  T,  ¥  volujj 

gaudia  cett. 

***  tenens  res  olim  V.         tenentem  cdd.  prob.  Havet 

*2*  prudenter  olim  V.        prudentem  cdd.  prob.  Havet 

"7  S.  s.  c.  Dousa  (F.)        c.  S.  s.  cdd. 

228  <-;  lieu  ^  quianam  Augustinus,  S 

8o 


ANNALS 

greatest  affairs,  by  counsel  given  in  the  wide  mart 
and  sacred  senate-house  ;  one  to  whom  care-free  " 
he  would  often  speak  out  boldly  matters  great 
and  small,  and  joke  the  while,  and  blurt  out  words 
good  and  bad  to  say,  if  so  he  wished  at  all,  and  store 
them  in  loyal  keeping ;  one  ynth  whom  he  could 
share  many  a  pleasure  and  many  a  joy  both  openly 
and  secretly  ;  whose  nature  no  thought  of  mind  led 
to  do  a  bad  deed  lightly  or  viiih  wrong  intent ; 
a  learned,  trusty,  winsome  man  and  a  fine  talker, 
content  -with  his  own,  happy  and  shrewd ;  one  who 
spoke  the  right  thing  at  the  right  time,  and 
obUging ;  of  few  words ;  keeping  many  old-time 
ways  of  which  a  bygone  age  long  buried  is  the 
maker,  and  manners  old  and  new ;  keeping  also 
to  the  modes  of  many  a  one  of  our  elders,  and  the 
laws  too  of  gods  and  men ;  one  who  could  prudently 
speak  out  hearsay  or  keep  it  to  himself.  Him  did 
Senilius,  in  the  midst  of  battles,*  thus  address. 

They  say  that  Lucius  Aelius  Stilo  used  to  state  that 
Quintus  Ennios  wrote  this  about  none  other  than  himself,' 
and  that  the  passage  given  here  is  a  picture  of  the  manners 
and  temper  of  Quintus  Ennius  himself. 

228 
Prologue  continued  ?  ^ 

Festus  :   '  Quianam  '  for  '  quare  '  and  '  cur  '  .  .  .  — 

For  why  has  your  intent  been  turned  by  my  words  ?  * 

*  sed  is  an  archaic  word  for  sine. 

*  Apparently  metaphorical '  battles,' 

'  i.e.  that  Servilius'  friend  was  Ennius  himself.  But 
cf.  v.,  p.  43;  Norden,  131  ff. 

'  Steuart  (159)  refers  the  fir.  to  the  war  with  Pyrrhus — his 
Italian  allies  resent  his  plan  to  withdraw  to  Sicily. 

'  Or,  '  why  has  the  meaning  of  our  words  been  distorted  ? ' 
(Norden  46). 

8i 

K^  VOL.  I.  G 


ENNIUS 

229-30 
Festus,  476,  17  :    '  Sas.'  .  .  .  Eiusdem  lib.  VII  fatendum 
est  earn  significari  cum  ait — 

nee  quisquam  sophiam  sapientia  quae  perhibetur) 
in  somnis  vidit  prius  quam  sam  discere  coepit. 
Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  477,  4. 

231-2 

Cicero,  Brut.,  19,  76  :  Tamen  illius  quern  in  vatibua  et 
Faunis  adnumerat  Ennius,  Bellum  Punicum  quasi  Myronis 
opus  delectat.  Sit  Ennius  sane  ut  est  certe  perfectior :  qui 
si  ilium  ut  simulat  contemneret,  non  omnia  bella  persequens 
primum  illud  Punicum  acerrimum  bellum  reliquisset.  Sed 
ipse  dicit  cur  id  faciat — 

Scripsere  alii  rem 
versibus 

et  luculente  quidem  scripserunt  etiam  si  minus  quam  tu 
polite :  nee  vero  tibi  aliter  videri  debet,  qui  a  Naevio  vei 
sumpsisti  multa,  si  fateris,  vel  si  negas,  surripuisti. 

232-4 
Cicero,  Brut.,  18,  71 :  Quid?  Nostri  veteres  versus ubi sunt  ? 
quos  olim  Fauni  vatesque  canebant, 
quom  neque  Musarum  scopulos.  .  .  . 

.   .  .  nee  dicti  studiosus  quisquam  erat  ante  hune 
ait  ipse  de  se  nee  mentitur  in  gloriando. 

22»-3o  philosophiam  quae  doctrina  Latina  lingua  non  (vel 
nomen)  habet  Fest.  sophiam  S  qui  vocabula  q.  d.  L.  I.  n.  h. 

aedud. 

231-6  gi(.  constit.  V.  ('  Vber  die  Annal.  des  E.')  Abh.  B.  Akad. 
d.  W.,  1886,  12  5.  -'^  scripsere  inquit  Cic. 

"''  scopulos  <  quisquam  superarat  >  ed.  Victor,  auxilio  s. , 
superarat  Pascoli  fortasse  superaverat  ullus  |  umquam  j 
nee  d.  s.  erat  ed.  Victor.  ' 

«  St.,  156:  v.,  CLXXXI,  a,nAin  Abh.  Berl.  Akad.,  1886,  13.  | 
*  Naevius;      cf.    Norden,    145    ff. ;     Steuart,    157-9;    V.,  i 

CLXXXI,  and  in  Abh.  Berl.  Akad.,  1886,  12-14.  ' 

82 


ANNALS 

229-30 
Prologue  continued  :  Enniu-s  alludes  "  to  his  tale  of  his  dream 
in  Pie  first  book  : 

Festus :  '  Sas.'  ...  In  the  seventh  book  of  the  same  poet  it 
must  be  confessed  that  '  eam  '  is  meant  \rhen  he  says — 

nor  has  any  man  seen  in  his  dreams  Wisdom  (a 
name  we  give  to  knowledge)  before  he  has  begun  to 
learn  her  secrets. 

231-2 
The  first  Punic   War ;    Ennius  chooses  to  omit  a  detailed 
narrative  of  the  tear  because  Naevius  and  others  have  already 
sung  about  it : 

Cicero  :  Xevertheless,  the  Punic  War  of  this  poet,*  whom 
Ennius  counts  among  the  seers  and  Fauns,  gives  delight  as 
though  it  were  a  work  of  Myron.'  I  grant  you,  to  be  sxire, 
that  Ennius  is  the  more  perfect  poet  as  he  certainly  is;  but 
if  he  really  scorned  Naevius,  as  he  pretends,  he  would  not, 
in  working  through  all  our  wars,  have  left  undone  the  famous 
First  Punic  War,  a  most  bitter  one.  But  in  his  own  words  he 
tells  us  why  he  does  it.  He  says- 
Others  have  wTitten  of  the  matter  **  in  verses 

And  nobly  indeed  they  wrote,  even  though  they  did  it  in 
less  finished  fashion  than  you  did ;  nor  indeed  ought  it  to 
appear  otherwise  to  you  who  took  many  points  fiom 
Naevius,  if  you  confess  it ;  or  if  you  deny  it,  filched  them. 

232-4 

Cicero  :  Well  ?  Our  old  verses,  where  are  they  ?  In  his 
own  words  he  speaks  of  himself  (nor  lies  in  his  boasting) — 

which  once  upon  a  time  the  Fauns  and  Seers  used 
to  sing,  when  no  one  had  surmounted  *  the  rough 
rocks  of  the  Muses  .  .  .  nor  was  anyone  mindful  of 
style  before  this  man  ,  .  . 

'  The  sculptor,  of  Eleutherae  in  Attica. 
'  The   First   Punic   War,    in   Satumians.     (See   Naevius, 
in  Rimains  of  Old  Latin,  Vol.  II.) 

'  We  might  supply  '  superaverat  ullus  umquam.' 

83 
g2 


ENNIUS 


235 


Cicero,  Oral.,  51,  171  :  Ergo  Ennio  licuit  vetera  contem- 
nenti  dicere  '  versibus  quos  olim  Fauni  vatesque  canebant,' 
mihi  de  antiquis  eodem  modo  non  licebit  ?  Praesertim  cum 
dicturus  non  sim  '  ante  hunc,'  ut  ille,  nee  quae  sequuntur — 

Nos  ausi  reserare 

Cp.  Cic,  OraL,  47, 157 ;  de  Div.,  I,  50, 114;  Varro,  L.L.,  VII, 
36;  Quintil.,  IX,  4,  115;  Serv.  auct.,  ad  Gemg.,  I,  11;  Fest., 
476,  10. 


236 

Probus,  ad  Georg.,  II,  506 :  '  Sarrano  dormiat  ostrc' 
Tyriam  purpuram  vult  intelligi  Sarranum  ostrum.  Tyron 
enim  Sarram  appellatam  Homerus  docet,  quern  etiam  Ennius 
sequitur  auctorem  cum  dicit — 

Poenos  Sarra  oriundos 


237 

Festus,  324,  15  :    '  Puelli '  per  deminutionem  a  pueris  dicti 
sunt.    Itaque  et  Ennius  ait— 


Poeni  suos  soliti  dis  sacrificare  puellos 
Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  325,  5;   Nonius,  158,  20. 


***~^  .  .  .  quisquam,  nee  dicti  studiosus  erat.  .  .  .  |  ante 
hunc.  ...  I  nos  ausi  reserare  St.  {pp.  157-8) 

**'  Poeni  suos  soliti  dis  V  dis  soliti  sos  Hug  di§ 
Poeni  8.  s.  Mr.  p^nisoUtis  vos  Fest.  Poeni  soliti  suot 
Paul.        Ennius  suos  divis  Non. 

84 


ANNALS 

235 

Cicero  :  Therefore  since  it  was  allowed  to  Ennius,  when  he 
scorned  the  old  poetr\%  to  say  '  in  verses  which  once  upon  a 
time  the  Fauns  and  seers  used  to  sing,'  must  I  be  forbidden 
to  speak  of  archaic  writers  in  the  same  fashion?  Especially 
since  I  am  not  going  to  say  '  before  me  '  as  he  does,  nor  what 
follows — 

Twas  I  durst  unbar  .  .  . 


236 

The  origins  of  Carthage.  The  Carthaginian  stock ;  *  the 
worship  oj  Moloch  : 

Probus,  on  '  that  he  may  sleep  on  shell-dye  of  Sarra  '  in 
Virgil :  By  shell-dye  of  '  Sarra '  he  wishes  us  to  imderstand 
Tyrian  purple.  For  that  Tyre  was  called  Sarra  we  are 
informed  by  Homer ;  *  Ennius  also  follows  him  as  an 
authority  when  he  says — 


Phoenicians  '^  sprung  from  Sarra 


237 

Festus :  '  Puelli '  is  a  word  derived  in  a  diminutive  form 
from  '  pueri.'    Thus  Ennius  **  says — 

Phoenicians  accustomed  to  offer  up  to  the  gods 
their  own  little  sons 

«  Norden,  77  ff.,  89,  92,  150. 

*  Not  in  the  extant  poems. 

'  Generally  meaning  Carthaginians,  but  here  probably  the 
original  race. 

*  Norden,  77  ff.,  89  ff.  He  refers  the  fir.  to  a  definite 
occasion  in  310  B.C.  The  fr.  might  belong  to  Book  \Tn — 
embassv  to  Hannibal  demanding  his  sons  for  sacrifice — 
St.,  157*. 


85 


ENNIUS 

238 

Cicero,  de  Inv.,  1,  19,  27  :    Hisfcoria  est  gesta  res  ab  aetatia 
nostrae  memoria  remota,  quod  genus — 

Appius  indixit  Karthaginiensibus  bellum. 


239-40 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Georg.,  II,  449  :  '  Buxum  '  lignum  non 
arborem  dixit,  quamvis  Ennii  exemplo  et  arborem  potuerit 
dicere  neutro  genere.    Ille  enim  sic  in  septimo — 

longique  cupressi 
slant  sectis  foliis  et  amaro  corpora  buxum. 


241 

Charisius,  ap.   G.L.,  I,  130,  29  K  :    '  Frus.'     '  Haec  fhis' 
quia  sic  ab  Ennio  est  declinatum  Annalium  libro  VII — 

russescunt  frundes 


*"  trib.  Enn.  ed.  Lips. 

2*"  sectis  cdd.  rectis  Ursinus 


"  Provided  that  Ennius  wrote  this  line  and  that  it  was  in 
the  Annals  and  not  in  Scipio,  the  fr.  is  perhaps  best  placed  j 
here.  It  does  not  follow  that  Ennius  went  on  to  tell  the  story 
of  the  war  in  detail.  Cf.  Norden,  71  ff.  for  another  view  (also 
St.,  150-1);  it  may  well  be  a  '  reference  back '  (preceded  by; 
'  postquam ')  made  near  the  end  of  Book  IX  in  which  the 
end  of  the  Second  Punic  War  was  described. 

*  Sc.  by  his  actions,  not  as  an  envoy. 

86 


ANNALS 

238 

How  the  Romans  and  the  Carthaginians  first  came  into 
conflict  ?  ;  *  Appius  Claudius  Caudex  enters  Sicily,  264  B.C. : 

Cicero  :  '  History  '  means  public  events  remote  from  the 
recollection  of  our  own  age;   such  as — 

Appius  proclaimed  *  war  against  the  Cartha- 
ginians. 

239-40 

Events  between  the  First  and  Second  Punic  Wars.  Rome 
obtains  Corsica  (239  B.C.)  and  Sardinia  '  (238) : 

Senrius  (supplemented) :  By  '  box  '  Virgil  meant  the  wood 
and  not  the  tree,  although  in  using  the  neuter  gender  he 
could  have  meant  even  the  tree  after  the  example  of  Ennius; 
for  that  poet  has  it  thus  in  the  seventh  book — 

and    tapering    cj-presses    with    crenelled    leaves,'' 
and  the  box  too,  with  bitter  body,*  stand  straight. 


241 

Charisius  :  '  Frus.'  Fem.  gender  because  it  is  thus  inflected 
by  E.  in  the  seventh  book  of  the  Annals — 

the  leaves  turn  ruddy 

*  Ennius  himself  served  in  Sardinia  (see  inirod.)  and  so  may 
have  introduced  personal  impressions  into  his  narrative. 

'  seciis  means  divided  up  into  small  parts.  Cypress- 
leaves  appear  so,  being  scale-like  and  imbricated.  In  line  565 
rectosque  cupressos,  '  upright  cypresses,'  is  quite  right.  We 
may  note  these  expressions  as  good  examples  of  Enniua' 
verbal  jiccuracy. 

•  Because  honey  from  the  flowers  is  bitter;  it  was  especially 
true  of  Corsican  honey  (Pliny,  X^^,  70). 


87 


ENNIUS 

242-3 

Nonius,  385,  5  :  '  Rumor,'  favor,  auxiliatio  ...  — 

Legio  aggreditur  Romana  ruinas, 
mox  auferre  domos,  populi  rumore  secundo. 

244 
Festus,  428,  1  :    '  Sos '  pro  eos  .  .  .  ^ 
Dum  censent  terrere  minis,  hortantur  ibi  sos. 

245-6 

Festus,  538,  34  :  '  Tonsam  '  Ennius  significat  remum,  quod 
quasi  tondeatur  ferro,  cum  ait  lib.  VII — 

*  Poste  recumbite  vestraque  pectora  pellite  tonsis.' 

Item — 
Pone  petunt,  exim  referunt  ad  pectora  tonsas. 

Cp.  Paul.,  ex.  F.,  539,  13. 

2*2  aggreditur  Romana  W  reducta  minis  Hug  red- 
ditu  rumore  ruinas  mox  a.  d.  p.  r.  s.  Non.  reddit  murumque 
ruinas  V  reddit  urbemque  Ribb.  redit  ut  B  rediit 
olim  V 

2*'  rumore  secundo  (deinde  ut  init.  alterius  citationis) 
ruina  |  mox  e.q.s.  Mr.  prob.  St.  Cf.  V.,  Sitz.-Ber.  K.  Ak., 
1888,  48.  'legio  rediit  rumore'  et  'ruina  mox  a.  d.  e.q.s. 
Linds.  (de  legionis  reditu  '  ruina  e.q.s.  coni.) 

2"  ibei  0.  Mr.        ibe  cd. 

2**  premunt  Mr.         ferunt  B  jrrob.  Valmaggi 

"  In  the  following  fr.  I  keep  one  quotation ;  and  suggest  that 
it  describes  a  scene  in  the  narrative  where  the  Romans  helped 
the  Carthaginian  mutineers  (populus)  in  Sardinia. 


ANNALS 

242-3 

Rome  obtains  Sardinia  (238  B.C.) :  * 
Nonius  :   '  Rumor,'  favour,  aid.  ...  — 
The  Roman  army ,  cheered  on  by  the  crowd,  attacked 
the  ruins,  and  soon  made  away  with  the  dwelUngs. 

244 

War  tcith  the  lUyrian  pirates,  230-228  B.C.  Complaints  of 
the  Greeks  about  half-hearted  measures  ? : 

Festus  :   '  Sos  '  for  '  eos  '  .  .  .  — 

While  they  were  minded  to  startle  them  with 
threats,  therewith  they  encouraged  them, 

245-6 

Advance  of  the  Roman  fleet  under  Cn.  Fulvius  and  L. 
Po-stumius  :  * 

Festus  :  '  Tonsa.'  By  this  word  Ennius,  when  he  says  in 
the  seventh  book — 

'  Lean  ye  right  backward  and  beat  ye  your  breasts 
with  the  trimmers  ' ; 

means  an  oar,  because  as  it  were  '  tonditur,'  it  is  trunmed,  with 
a  knife;   again — 

Backward  they  reach,  then  again  pull  the  trimmers 
to  their  breasts. 

*  This  seems  to  me  to  be  the  only  possible  context.  These 
frs,  are  usually  assigned  to  a  narrative  of  the  First  Punic 
War  (of.  Vahlen,  CLXXX  ;  Xorden,  66-71,  76,  94  ff.,  151 
is  suggestive).  But  this  can  hardly  be  right  (see  pp.  64-5  and 
St.,  150-2),  though  at  first  sight  it  does  look  as  if  Ennius  is 
describing  the  building  of  the  first  Roman  fleet,  and  the 
training  of  the  crews,  in  260  B.C. 

89 


ENNIUS 

247 
Festus,  170, 28 :  '  Nare '  a  nave  ductum  Comificius  ait  .  .  . — 
Alter  nare  cupit,  alter  pugnare  paratust. 

248 

Priscianus,   ap.  G.L.,  II,   486,   13   K :    '  Mulgeo '  quoque 
mulsi  facit  ...  — ■ 

Mulserat  hue  navem  compulsam  fluctibus  pontus. 

249  ^ 


Paulus,  ex  F.,  500,  10  :    '  Sibynam  '  appellant  lUyrii  teluin 
venabuli  simile.    Ennius — 

lUyrii  restant  sicis  sibynisque  fodentes. 


I 


250 

-       « 


Nonius,  116,  2  :  '  Gracilentum  '  pro  gracili  . 
Deducunt  habiles  gladios  filo  gracilento. 

2"  trib.  lib.  VII  Merula 


"  Pun  on  nare,  pugnare.  St.,  p.  152,  would  attribute  this  fr. 
also  to  the  history  of  Pyrrhus ;  I  take  alter  as  referring  to  an 
lUyrian  Umbos.  But  of.  Norden,  67-70,  151 ;  KviCala,  Eos, 
VIII,  8  ff.  refers  the  fr.  to  Hannibal  at  the  Tagus  in  220  B.C. 

*  So  I  interpret  this  fr.,  which  is  usually  attributed  to  the 
First  Punic  War  (Norden,  65  &.,  69,  151 — a  stranded  Cartha- 
ginian ship  which  served  the  Romans  as  a  model  in  260  B.C. 
Cp.  Vahlen,  CLXXX ;  on  p.  41  he  says  '  Mulserat  Ennii 
ad    mulcendum    h.  e.  leniter    movendum    referri    oportet '). 

90 


ANNALS 

247 

.4  sea-fight  ;  lUyrians  Jiard-pressed  : 

Festus  :  '  Nare.'  Comificius  states  that  this  word  is  derived 
from  '  navis  '  .  .  .  — 

The  one  <»  \vishes  to  float  in  flight ;  the  other  is 
ready  to  fight, 

248 

An  Illyrian  ship  is  driven  ashore  :  * 

Priscianus  :  '  Mulgeo  '  likewise  takes  '  mulsi '  for  its  perfect 
tense  ...  — 

Hither  the  sea  had  gently  washed  a  ship  buffeted 
by  the  billows. 

249 

The  lUyrians  resist  stoutly  : 

Paulus :  '  Sibyna,'  a  name  given  by  the  Illyrians  to  a 
javelin  resembling  a  hunting-spear.     Ennius  * — 

The  lUyrians  stood  fast  and  stabbed  with  curving 
knives  and  hunting-spears. 

250 

War  of  the  Boii  and  other  Cisalpine  and  Transalpine  Celts 
against  Rome,  226-222  B.C.     Preparations  of  the  Gauls  ?  :  ^ 

Nonius  :   '  Gracilentum  '  for  '  gracilis.'  ...  — 

They  beat  out  handy  swords  like  slender  thread. 

St.,  151  suggests  that  the  reference  is  to  the  storm  which 
Pyrrhus  experienced  on  his  voyage  to  Italy,  and  puts  the 
fr.  in  Book  VI. 

'  This  fragment  should  perhaps  be  assigned  to  a  later 
book— cf.  v.,  CLXXXV  (Livy,  XXXI,  34;   200  B.C.). 

**  Or  possibly  Spanish  swords  are  meant;  thev  were  used 
by  the  Romans.    Cf.  Norden,  119  fE.,  152. 

91 


ENNIUS 

251-2 

Macro bius,  /S.,  I,  4,  17  :  .  .  . — 

qua  Galli  furtim  noctu  summa  arcis  adorti 
moenia  concubia  vigilesque  repente  cruentant. 

Quo  in  loco  animadvertendum  est  non  solum  quod  '  noctu,' 
'concubia'  sed  quod  etiam  'qua  noctu'  dixerit  {Ennius)\ 
et  hoc  ponit  in  Annalium  septimo.  ... 


253 

Macrobios,  S,,  VI,  1,  19  :    '  Ne  qua  meis  dictis  esto  mora  : 
luppiter  hac  stat '  [Aen.,  XII,  565).     Ennius  in  VII — 

'  Non  semper  vestra  evertit ;  nunc  luppiter  hac  stat.' 


254 

Msicrobius,  8.,  VI,  1,  52 :  '  Audentes  fortuna  iuvat.'     {Aen., 
X,  284).     E.  in  VII— 

'  Fortibus  est  fortuna  viris  data. 


255 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  223,  4  K  :    Sed  Nar  servavit  a 
productam  etiam  in  obliquis  ...  — 

Sulphureas  posuit  spiramina  Naris  ad  undas. 

°  The  Gauls  were  ultimately  not  successful. 
*  qua  is  generally  taken  as  qua  via. 

'  '  To  men  of  pluck  is  given  luck.'     See  last  fragm.  for  the 
context,  and  cf.  Norden,  43  ff. 

92 


1 


ANNALS 

251-2 

The  Gauls  near  Clusium,  225  b.c.  ;  terror  at  Rome ; 
reminiscence  of  the  intxision  of  390  ( ?  387)  B.C. : 

Macrobius : — 

on  that  night  the  Gauls  with  stealth  attacked  the 
wall-tops  of  the  citadel  in  the  sleep-time,  and  on  a 
sudden  brought  bloodshed  "  on  the  sentinels. 

In  this  passage  we  must  notice  that  Enniua  not  only  used 
'  noetu  '  and  '  concubia  '  but  also  '  qua  noctu  ' ;  *  he  puts 
this  expression  in  the  seventh  book  of  the  Annals.  .  .  . 

253 

Defeat  of  the  Gauls  at  Telamon  ?  225  B.C.     Speech  of  Gaius 

Atilius  or  of  Lucius  Aemilius  : 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  Let  there  be  no  delay  to  my 
commands.  Jupiter  stands  on  our  side.'  Ennius  in  the 
seventh  book — 

Not  always  does  Jupiter  upset  your  plans;  now 
he  stands  on  our  side. 

254 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  Fortune  favours  the  daring.' 
E.  in  the  seventh  book — 

To  men  of  fortitude  is  fortune  granted.' 

255 

Tfie  Via  Flaminia  is  completed  by  Flamintus  as  far  as 
Ariminum  (220  B.C.);  icorks  built  at  the  crossing  of  the  river 
Nar  between  Xamia  and  Carsulae  P  : 

Priscianus  :  But '  Nar  '  has  kept  the  a  long  ev^i  in  oblique 
cases.  ...  — ■ 

He  built  blow-holes  by  Nar's  sulphury  waters. 

93 


ENNIUS 

Propertius,  III,  3,  9  : 
Et  cecinit  .  .  . 
Regiaque  Aemilia  vecta  tropaea  rate 

256-7 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Georg,,  III,  116  :  Hie  equitem  .  .  . 
equum  dicit.  .  .  .  Ennius  AimaUum  septimo — 

Denique  vi  magna  quadrupes  eques  atque  elephanti 
proiciunt  sese. 

Cp.  GeU.,  XVIII,  5,  2;  Non.,  106,  30;  Macrob.,  8.,  VI, 
9,10. 

Praeconia  ex  libris  VIII-XV 

Cicero,  pro  Archia,  9,  22  :  Carus  fuit  Africano  superior! 
noster  Ennius,  itaque  etiam  in  sepulchro  Seipionum  putatur 
is  esse  constitutus  ex  marmore;  cuius  laudibus  certe  non 
solum  ipse  qui  laudatur  sed  etiam  populi  Romani  nomen 
omatur.  In  caelum  huius  proavus  Cato  tolUtur;  magnus 
honos  populi  Romani  rebus  adiungitur.  Omnes  denique 
illi  Maximi,  Marcelli,  Fulvii  non  sine  communi  omnium  nostrum 
laude  decorantur.  Ergo  ilium  qui  haec  fecerat,  Rudinum 
hominem,  maiores  nostri  in  civitatem  recepenint. 

"  See  p.  44.  It  is,  of  course,  tempting  to  see  an  allusion 
by  Propertius  to  the  victory  of  Aemilius  PauUus  over  Perseus 
in  168  B.C.  (which  Ennius  did  not  live  to  see);  but  such  an 
intrusion  between  the  event  of  TulMus'  reign  and  a  reference 
to  Fabius  of  the  Second  Punic  War  would  be  inartistic. 

*  It  is  possible  that  the  reference  is  to  the  battle  at  the 
Trebia  in  218;  cf.  Norden,  126  ff.,  152.  The  attribution  to 
a  narrative  of  the  First  Punic  War  (V.,  CLXXIXff. ; 
CLXXXIV)  is  not  acceptable.  St.,  pp.  151-2,  suggests  that 
we  have  here  the  stampede  of  Pyrrhus'  elephants  at  the 
battle  of  Beneventum.  But  apart  from  what  I  have  said 
above,  the  words  of  Gellius  show  that  this  was  nearly  at  the 
end  of  the  book. 

94 


ANNALS 

Second  Illyrian  War,  219  B.C.;  suppression  of  Demetrius 
of  Pharos  by  L.  Aemiliu^  PauUus  : 

Propertius  "  says  : 

And  he  sang  ...  of  the  royal  trophies  carried  by  Aemilius' 
ship. 

256-7 

Second  Punic  War  begins  ;  *  Hannibal  advances  from  '  New 
Carthage,^  spring  218  B.C. : 

Servius  (supplemented) :  Here  by  '  equitem  '  Virgil  means 
'  equum.'  .  .  .  Ennius  in  the  seventh  book  of  the  Annals — 

At  last  mth  mighty  rush  the  horseman  at  a  four- 
footed  gallop  "^  and  the  elephants  too  hurl  them- 
selves onwards. 

Some  great  men  of  whom  Ennius  wrote  in  Books  VIII-X  V 

Cicero  :  Our  poet  Ennius  was  a  dear  friend  of  the  elder 
Africanus,  and  that  is  why  a  marble  statue  of  him,  it  is  thought, 
was  set  up  in  the  tomb  of  the  Scipios.  But  his  verses  of  praise 
are  surely  an  adornment  not  only  for  him  who  is  praised  but 
also  for  the  name  of  the  Roman  people.  Cato,  ancestor  of 
Cato  here,  is  extoUed  to  the  skies ;  this  carries  with  it  great 
honour  for  the  historj'  of  the  Roman  people.  In  short,  all 
those  great  names — the  Masdmi,  Marcelli,  Fulvii — are 
honoured  by  praise  which  is  shared  by  all  of  us.  Hence  it 
was  that  he  who  had  done  "*  all  this,  a  native  of  Rudiae,  was 
received  by  our  ancestors  into  their  citizenship. 


'  On  this  use  of  '  eques '  cf.  St.,  p.  1 60.  Later  Roman 
writers  were  themselves  at  variance  whether  eques  could  be 
used  of  the  horse  only.  Gellius,  XVIII,  5,  insists  that  Ennius 
really  did  write  quadrupes  eques. 

^  Ennius  told  of  the  achievements  and  sang  the  praises  of 
Scipio  Africanus  chiefly  in  Book  IX  and  Scipio  (pp.  394  ff,); 
of  Cato  in  Book  XI ;  of  Q.  Fabius  Max.  Rulllanus  in  Book  V 
and  of  Fabius  Cxmctator  in  Book  VIII  (and,  by  reminiscence, 
in  Book  XII);  of  M.  Claudius  Marcellus  in  Book  VIII;  and 
of  M.  Fulvius  Nobilior  in  Book  XV  and  Ambracia  (pp.  358  ff.), 

95 


ENNIUS 

LIBER  VIII 

258-9 

Horatius,  S.,  I,  4,  60  :  Non,  ut  ai  solvas — 

Postquam  Discordia  taetra 
belli  ferratos  postes  portasque  refregit, 

invenias  etiara  disiecti  membra  poetae. 

PorphjTio  ad  loc.  Est  sensus  :  Si  dissolvas  versus  vel  meos 
vel  Lucilii,  non  invenies  eadem  membra  quae  sunt  in  Ennianis 
versibus,  qui  magno  scilicet  spiritu  et  verbis  altioribus  com- 
positi  sunt,  velut  hi  sunt  '  Postquam  e.q.s. 

Cp.  Verg.,  Aen.,  VII,  622  :  Belli  ferratos  rupit  Saturnia 
postes.     Serv.,  ad  622 ;  Aero,  ad  Hor.,  Lc. 


260-1 

Probus,  ad  Verg.,  EcL,  VI,  31  .  .  .  Hie  (aer)  est  .  .  .  qui 
nobis  Vivendi  spirituum  commeatum  largitur.  Hoc  illud  et 
Ennius  appellavit  in  Annalibus — 

corpore  tartarino  prognata  paluda  virago, 
cui  par  imber  et  ignis  spiritus  et  gravis  terra. 

Cp.  Varr.,  L.L.,  VII,  37;  Test.,  546,  2. 


"8-9  irib.  Ann.  lib.  VII  Norden 
"0-1  trib.  lib.  VIII  St.,  VII  Norden 


"  St.  takes  the  narrative  to  the  departure  of  Hannibal 
from  Italy — see  notes  on  pp.  65-7.  But  fr.  300-5  of  Book  IX 
rules  this  out  (see  p.  112). 

96 


1 


ANNALS 


BOOK  VIII 

The  Second  Pumic  War  to  the  Departure  '» 
OF  SciPio  FOR  Africa 

258-9 
Outbreak  of  Discord : 

Horace:  You  would  not  still  find  the  limbs  of  a  dismembered 
poet  as  you  would  if  you  were  to  break  up  the  following — 

After  foul  Discord  broke  open  the  ironclad  doors 
and  doorposts  of  war, 

Porphyrio  on  this  passage  :  The  sense  is :  If  you  analyse 
my  verses  or  Lucilius',  you  will  not  find  the  same  sort  of 
'  limbs  '  as  you  would  in  Ennius  *  verses,  which  are  to  be  sure 
composed  with  mighty  inspiration,  with  the  use  of  a  loftier 
diction  as  these  are  :   '  After  .  .  . 


260-1 

/  Probus :  Air  surely  is  the  thing  which  gives  us  supplies  of 
t»*ie  breath  of  life.  '  Spiritus '  is  the  name  given  to  it  by 
Ennius  '  also  in  the  Annals — 

<(Discord,)  of  hellish  body  daughter  bred,  woman 
of  war  in  warrior's  cloak,  for  whom  water  and  fire  and 
breath  and  heavy  earth  are  equal. 

*  This  fr.  is  doubtless  rightly  put  in  the  eighth  book — 
St.,  171;  v.,  CLXXXV,  CLXXXVI  (but  Norden,  146,  puts 
it  in  the  seventh). 

'  On  this  fr.  cf.  St.,  170-171.  Discordia  is  here  '  an  incarna- 
tion of  chaos  ' ;  only  when  Empedocles'  four  elements  (here 
mentioned  by  Ennius)  were  unequaUy  mixed  did  separate 
things  come  into  being — cf.  Norden  10  ff.  (esp.  12-14).  Festus, 
4.56,  2,  explains  tartarino  as  horrible  and  fearful. 

97 

VOL.  I.  H 


ENNIUS 
262-8 

Gellius,  XX,  10,  J  :  '  Ex  iure  manum  conscrtum  '  verba 
sunt  ex  antiquis  actionibus.  .  .  .  Ennius  .  ,  .  verbis  hisce 
usus  est  .  .  ,  turn  ego  hos  versus  ex  octavo  Annali  absentes 
dixi  .  .  . — 

<(proeliis  promulgatis) 

pellitur  e  medio  sapientia,  vi  geritur  res, 
spernitur  orator  bonus,  horridus  miles  amatm* ; 
baud  doctis  dictis  certantes,  sed  maledictis  265 

miscent  inter  sese  inimicitiam  agitantes  ; 
non  ex  iure  manum  consertum,  sed  magis  ferro 
rem  repetunt  regnumque  petunt,  vadunt  solida  vi. 

Cp.  Cic.,  Pro  Mur.,  14, 30  (proeliis  promulgatis  '  pellitur  .  .  .) ; 
Cic.,  ad  Fam.,  VII,  13,  2;  Lactant.,  Div.  InM.,  V,  1,  5. 


269 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,   II,  209,  6  K :    Dido,  Didonis. 
(210,  10  K)  Ennius  in  VIII— 

Poenos  Didone  oriundos 


270 

Gellius,  VI,  12,  7  :  Q  .  .  .  Ennius  Carthaginiensium — 
tunicatani  iuventutem 
non  videtur  sine  probro  dixisse. 

Cp.  Non.,  536,  31. 

**"  promulgatis  add.   ex  Cic,  'pro  Mur.,  14,        <8i   sunt 
proelia  promulgata>  B  2*'  tollitur  Cic.,  pro  Mur. 
'^"^  sed  Colonna  nee  cdd.  (n  Z) 

"  This  clause  is  supplied  from  Cic,  pro  Mur.,  14,  30,  and 
may  belong  to  Ennius. 

98 


ANNALS 

262-8 

The  people  in  time  of  war  : 

( Jellius  says :  '  Ex  iure  manum  consertum '  are  words  drawn 
from  ancient  cases  at  law.  .  .  .  Ennius  used  these  words  .  .  . 
Then  I  myself  recited  from  memorj-  these  lines  from  the  eighth 
book  of  the  Annals  ...  — 

WTien  news  of  battles  is  proclaimed,"  away  from 
view  is  Wisdom  thrust,  with  \-iolence  is  action  done, 
scorned  is  the  speaker  of  good  counsel,  dear  is  the 
rude  warrior.  Not  vrith  learned  speeches  do  men 
strive,  but  *  with  e\il  speaking  fall  foul  one  of  another, 
brewing  unfriendliness.  They  rush  to  make  joint 
seizure  '^ — not  by  law ;  rather  by  the  sword  do  they 
seek  a  due  return  and  aim  at  the  first  place,  and 
move  on  with  pack  and  press. 

269 

Rome  thinks  lighily  of  the  Carthaginians  f  : 

Priscianus  :  Dido,  Didonis.  .  .  .  £.  in  the  eighth  book — 

Phoenicians  sprung  from  Dido 

270 

GeUius :  Quintus  Ennius  doee  not  appear  to  have  spoken 
of  the  Carthaginians  s 

petticoated  lads 

without  scorn. 


*  nee  may  be  right — men  strive,  not  with  speech  of  any 
kind,  but  with  force. 

'  consertum,  supine  (after  vadunl)  as  the  '  end  of  motion  '; 
or  supply  '  vocant ' — the  legal  phrase  was  '  vocare  consurium.' 
There  may  likewise  be  a  legal  sense  in  agitantes  'pressing 
accusations  of  .  .  . 

99 

h2 


ENNIUS 


271 


Ekkehart,  ad  Oros.,  VI,  6,  21   (de  Hamilcare  Rhodano) : 
Enniua — 

qualis  consiliis  quantumque  potesset  in  armis. 


272-3 

Ekkehart  (?),  ad  Oros.,  IV,  14,  3  (de  Hannihale) :  De  quo 
Ennius — 

at  non  sic  duplex  fuit  hostis 
Aeacida  Burrus. 


Propertius,  III,  3,  9-10  : 

Et  cecinit  .  .  . 

victricesque  moras  Fabii  pugnamque  sinistram 
Cannensem  et  versos  ad  pia  vota  deos. 

274 
Nonius,  150,  18  :    '  Praecox  '  et  '  praecoca  '  .  .  .  — 
*  praecox  pugna  est. 

"1  trih.  Ann.  lib.  VIII  St.,  VII  V 

2"  duplex  B  dims  Mr  dubius  Ekk.  ?  prob.  V., 
Norden         foriasse  durus 

""  phyrrus  Ekk.  (?)  at  n.s.  dubius  Pyrrhus  (Burrus) 

fuit  A.h.  coni.  V        trib.  Ann.  VIII  Mr. 

"*  Non.,  loO  seclud.  et  Linds.  (coni.  praecox  est  p.  vel 
praecox  et  praecoquis)        praecox  Non.        praecoca  Mr. 


"  It  is  possible  that  this  fr.  should  be  put  in  Book  VII  as 
part  of  the  primordia  Carthaginis;  it  is  generally  referred  to 
the  mission  of  Hamilcar  Rhodanus  (given  by  Orosius  in  the 
passage  against  which  Ekkehart  wrote  the  fr.  of  Ennius)  in 


ANNALS 

271 

The  Romans  vxre  unaware  of  HanniboTa  character  : 

Over  a  passage  of  Orosius,  in  a  codex  Sangallensis,  referring 
to  Hamilcar  Rhodanus,  Ekkehart  wrote  the  following : 
Ennius  "  has — 

what  kind  of  man  he  was  in  counsek,  and  how  great 

his  prowess  in  arms, 

272-3 

Over  another  passage  of  Orosius,  in  the  same  codex,  referring 
to  Hannibal,  Ekkehart:  (?)  wrote  the  following  :  On  Hannibal 
Ennius  *  has — 

But  not  such  a  double-faced  foe  was  Burrus  sprung 
from  Aeacus. 

Election  in  217  B.C.  of  Quintus  Fabius  Maximus  (Cunctator) 
as  dictator  :  Battle  of  Cannae,  216  b.c.  ;  crisis  of  the  war  : 

Propertins  :  And  he  sang  ...  of  Fabius'  delays  that  were 
fraught  with  victory  :  and  of  the  ill-starred  fight  of  Cannae; 
and  how  the  gods  were  turned  to  hear  our  heartfelt  prayers. 

274 

The  Battle  of  Cannae."  Aemilius  PauUus,  on  the  em  of 
Cannae,  tries  to  persuade  Terentius  Varro  not  to  accept  battle  :  * 

Nonius  :  '  Praecox  '  and  '  praecoca  '  .  .  .  — 

'  Time  is  unripe  for  fighting. 

331  to  inquire  into  Alexander's  achievements.  Cf.  Norden, 
80  ff.,  86-7,  150.     But  cf.  St.,  p.  173. 

^  Norden,  80  fF.,  87-8,  151,  retains  the  reading  dubius 
and  puts  the  fr.  in  Book  VII,  referring  it  to  Hannibal's  oath. 

'  A  probable  order  for  some  of  the  fragments  can  be  deduced 
from  Ijvy's  account,  references  to  which  are  given  below  where 
thev  seem  to  applv. 

""  Livy,  XXII,  44;  Polyb.,  Ill,  110,  4,  8  ;  Silius,  IX,  44  ff. 
*  Praecox  '  generally  means  ripening  early. 

lOI 


ENNIUS 

275 

Diomedes,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  382,  11  K  :   Apud  veteres  et  abnueo 
dictum  annotamus  ...  — 

*  Certare  abnueo ;  metuo  legionibus  labem. 


276-7 

Cicero,  pro  Balbo,  22,  51  :  Neque  enim  ille  summus  poeta 
noster  Hannibalis  illam  magis  cohortationem  quam  communem 
imperatoriam  voluit  esse — 

'  Hostem  qui  feriet  mihi  erit  Karthaginiensis, 
quisquis  erit ;  quoiatis  siet  .  .  . 


278 
Festus,  220,  25  :  *  Obstipum,'  obliquum  ...  — 
amplius  exaugere  obstipo  lumine  solis 

279 
Nonius,  217,  7:    '  Pulvis '  generis  .  .  .  feminini  .  .  . — 
iamque  fere  pulvis  ad  caelum  vasta  videtur 

"^  feriet  erit  inquit  mihi  Par.  feriet  inquit  mihi  erit 
reU. 

*''  quoiatis  siet  <  non  anxius  quaero  >  co«i.  V  siet, 
quoiatis  siet  Merula 

"•  vegetur  Bergk 

"  Silius,  IX,  209-211.  Or  possibly  the  battle  at  the  Ticinus 
— Livy,  XXII,  45.  On  lx»th  occasions  Hannibal  made 
promises  of  Carthaginian  citizenship. 


ANNALS 

275 
Fears  of  Pauttus  : 

Diomedes :  In  the  old  writers  we  notice  that  '  abnueo  ' 
is  used  .  .  . — 

'  I  refuse  to  join  issue  ;   I  fear  ruin  for  my  legions. 

276-7 

Hannibal  to  his  troops  on  the  occasion  of  the  hatQe  of  Cannae, 
B.C.  216  :  • 

Cicero  :  And  further  our  renowned  and  greatest  poet  did 
not  wish  that  famous  encouragement  to  be  Hannibal's  any 
more  than  one  common  to  all  commanders — 

*  He  who  \^-ill  strike  a  blow  at  the  enemy — hear 
me !  he  will  be  a  Carthaginian,  whatever  his  name 
will  be  ;   whatever  his  country, 

278 
The  battle.     The  position  of  the  »uh  favours  *  both  side*  : 
Festus  :   '  Obstipum,'  slanting.  ...  — 

to  grow  much  greater  because  of  the  slanting  sun- 
light 

279 
But  the  wind  raised  dust-douds  which  hindered  the  Ttomans  : ' 
Nonius  :   '  Pulvis '  in  the  feminine  gender  ...  — 

and  just  then  a  huge  dust-cloud  was  seen  to  reach 
the  sky. 

*  Livy,  XXII,  46  sol  .  .  .  peropportune  utrique  parti 
obliquus  erat.  In  Ennius'  fr.  we  might  supply  vires  or  umbrae. 
(Cp.  Val.  Max.,  VII,  4,  ext.  2.  Hannibal  takes  account  of  the 
sunlight  and  the  dust.) 

'  Liry,  I.e..  ventus  .  .  .  adversus  Romanis  coortua  multo 
pulvere  ,  .  .  prospectum  ademit. 

1 03 


ENNIUS 

280 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  III,  479,  4  K:  'Denseo*  .  .  .  (480,  5) 
'  denso  '  .  .  . — 

Densantur  campis  horrentia  tela  virorum. 

281 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  1,  52 :  'Ac  ferreus  ingruit  imber ' 
(Aen.,  XII,  284).     Ennius  in  VIII— 

Hastati  spargunt  hastas ;  fit  ferreus  imber. 

282 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  439,  7 :  '  Suppemati '  dicuntur  quibus 
femina  sunt  euccisa  in  modum  suillarum  pemarum.     Ennius^ 

His  pernas  succidit  iniqua  superbia  Poeni. 

Cp.  Fest.,  438,  14. 

283 

Macrobius,  S.,  XI,  1,  22  :  '  Quadrupedante  putrem  sonitu 
quatit  ungula  campum '  (Aen.,  VIII,  596).  Ennius  .  .  . 
in  VIII— 

Consequitur ;  summo  sonitu  quatit  ungula  terrain. 

Livius,  XXII,  50  :  Haec  ubi  dicta  dedit  stringit  gladium, 
cuneoque  facto  per  medios  vadit  hostes. 

282  his  Pavl.    is  Fest. 

"  Probably  as  described  by  Livy,  XXII,  47 ;  cp.  especially  : 
Romani  .  .  .  aequa  fronte  acieque  densa  impulere  hostium 
cuneum. 

*  I  compare  Livy,  XXII,  48,  adversum  adoriuntur 
Romanam  aciem,  tergaque  ferientes  ac  poplites  caedentes 
stragem  ingentem  .  .  .  fecerunt.  Cp.  Val.  Max.,  CII,  4, 
ext.  2.  But  it  may  be  that  he  describes  how  the  Roman 
wounded  were  found  mutilated  after  the  battle — Livy,  id., 
51  quosdam  et  iacentes  vivos  succisis  feminibus  popUtibusque 
invenerunt.  Pema  (=  poples)  is  not  used  elsewhere  of  a  man. 
J04 


ANNALS 

280 

The  infantry  engagement :  " 

Priscian  :   '  Denseo  '  inflected  as  firom  '  denso  '  .  .  .  — 
The  bristling  spears  of  the  warriors  crowded  thick 
upon  the  plain. 

281 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  And  a  shower  of  iron  comes 
thick.'     Ennius  in  the  eighth  book — 

The  hne  of  lancers  scattered  its  lances ;  came  a 
shower  of  iron. 

282 
Attack  of  the  Numidians  ;  Romans  are  mutilated  : 

Paulas  :  Men  are  called  '  suppemati '  (ham-strung)  whose 
upper  thighs  are  cut  through  in  the  manner  of  pigs'  haunches. 
Ennius — 

These  the  Poeni  houghed,,  wicked  haughty  foes.* 

283 

Hasdrubal  sends  the  Numidians  in  pursuit  of  the  Romans  : ' 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  The  four-footed  beat  of  the 
hoofs  shook  the  crumbling  plain.'  Ennius  in  the  eighth 
book — 

They  gave  chase :  with  mightiest  clatter  their 
hoofs  shook  the  ground. 

The  military  tribune,  P.  Sempronius  Tuditanus,  leads  a 
remnant  through  to  Canusium  : 

Livy :  When  he  had  made  this  speech,  he  drew  his  sword, 
formed  the  men  into  a  wedge,  and  charged  through  the 
midst  of  the  enemy.'' 

'  I  would  compare  Livy,  XXII,  48,  Hasdrubal  .  .  .  sub- 
actos  ex  media  acie  Xumidas  ...  ad  persequendos  passim 
fugientes  mittit. 

■'  It  seems  probable  that  Livy  has  really  preserved  frag- 
ments of  two  lines. — V.,  CXC;    Xorden,  141, 

105 


ENNIUS 
284-6 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  2,  16 :  '  Multa  die?  variusque  labor 
mutabilis  aevi  |  rettulit  in  melius,  multos  altema  reviaens  | 
lusit  et  in  solido  rursus  fortuna  locavit  (Aen.,  XI,  425-7). 
Ennius  in  VIII — 

'  Multa  dies  in  bello  conficit  unus  .  .  . 
et  rursus  multae  fortunae  forte  recumbunt ; 
haudquaquam  quemquam  semper  fortuna  secuta  est, 

287 

Nonius,  435,  13:  'Quartum'  et  'quarto'  .  .  .Ennius 
recte — 

Quintus  pater  quartum  fit  consul. 

Cp.  Cell.,  X,  1,  6. 

288 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  193,  7  :   '  Ob  '  .  .  .  pro  '  ad,'  ut  E.— 

Ob  Romam  noctu  legiones  ducere  coepit 

Cp.  Fest.,  192,  15;  id.,  218,  9;  Exc.  ex  cd.  Casain.  90, 
ap.  C.G.L.,  V,  573,  45. 

Propertiofl,  III,  3, 11  : 

Et  cecinit  .  .  . 

Hannibalemque  Lares  Romana  sede  fugantes. 

289 

Festus,  234,  29  :  '  Oscos '  quos  dicimus  ait  Verrius  Opscos 
ante  dictos  teste  Ennio  cum  dicat — ■ 

De  muris  rem  gerit  Opscus. 

28*  <  infit  >  multa  coni.  V         post  284  spativm  stat.  V 
287-90  frib.  Ann.  lib.  VIII  Merula 

lo6 


ANNALS 

284-6 

The  Senators  prevent  panic  at  Rome  ?  : 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  Many  a  day  fUKi  change  of 
work  in  ever-varying  life  have  brought  back  countless  men 
to  better  state;  and  fortune,  her  eye  now  here  now  there, 
has  had  the  laugh  and  set  men  anew  on  foundation  fi^rm.' 
Ennius  in  the  eighth  book — 

Many  things  does  one  day  bring  about  in  war  .  .  . 
and  many  fortunes  through  chance  sink  low  again. 
In  no  wise  has  fortune  followed  any  man  all  his  days. 

287 

The  fourth  consulship  of  Fainus,  214  B.C.  : 

Nonius :  '  Quartum '  and  '  quarto.'  E.  rightly  has 
'  quartum  '  in — 

Quintus  the  father "  was  made  consul  for  the 
fourth  time. 

288 

During  the  siege  of  Capua.     Hannibal   marches   on   Rome, 

211   B.C. 

Paulus  :   '  Ob,'  .  .  .  for  '  ad  ';  for  example  Ennius — 

He  began  by  night  to  lead  his  hosts  against  Rome. 

His  retreat : 

Propertius :  And  he  sang  .  .  .  how  our  Guardian  fiods  * 
put  Hannibal  to  flight  from  their  Roman  home. 

289 
Capua  is  stormed,  211  B.C. : 

Festus  says  :  '  Oscans.'  Verrius  states  that  the  people  we 
call  by  this  name  were  formerly  called  the  '  Opscians,'  his 
witness  being  Ennius,  since  he  says — 

The  Opscan  gives  battle  from  the  wall. 

"  As  distinguished  &om  his  son,  who  was  made  praet<H' 
at  the  same  time. 

*  Elspeeially  the  god  Tntamis  (Non.,  47,  26). 

107 


ENNIUS 

290 

Paulufl,    ex    F.,    88,    34 :     '  Medclix '    apud    Oscos   nomen 
magistratua  est.     E. — 

Summus  ibi  capitur  meddix,  occiditur  alter. 


291 
Schol.  Bern,  ad  Qeorg.,  IV,  67  :  Ennius  in  VIII  ait — 
Tibia  Musarum  pangit  melos, 


292 

Priscianus,  ap.  O.L.,  III,  192,  9  K  :   Solent  auctores  variare 
figuras  .  .  .  ut  Ennius — ■ 

Optima  caelicolum,  Saturnia,  magna  dearum 


293 

Servius,   ad   Aen.,   I,   281  :     '  Consilia   in   melius   referet ' 
quia  bello  Punico  secundo,  ut  ait  Ennius — 

Romanis  luno  coepit  placata  favere. 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  I,  20;    In  Ennio  .  .  .  inducitur  luppiter 
promittens  Romanis  excidium  Carthaginis. 


^**  hexametr.  constit.  Hug  non  prob.  Norden        placata  luno 
coepit  favere  Romanis  Serv. 


"  ad  lunonem  Eeginam  (Livy,  XXVII,  37)  attributed  to 
Livius  Andronicus  (see  Remains,  etc.,  Vol.  Il,  Loeb) — St., 
pp.  177-8.     Vahlen,  CXC  and  p.  52  sees  a  reference  to  Mar- 

Io8 


ANNALS 

290 

Fale  of  Seppius  Loesius  and  others  of  Cajnia  : 

Paulus :    '  Meddix '  is  among  the  Oscans  the  name  of  a 
magistrate.     Ennixis — 

There  the  chief  magistrate  was  made  prisoner,  the 
other  was  put  to  death. 

291 
Hymn  of  Livxua  Andronicus  {?)  to  Juno,  207  b.c.  ? :  " 
A  scholiast :   Ennios  says  in  the  eighth  book — 
The  flute  composed  a  song  of  music, 

292 

Juno  begins  to  favour  the  Romans  : 

Priscianus :    Authors  are  wont  to  varj'  their  figures  .  .  . 
for  example,  Ennius — 

Saturn's     daughter,     mighty     among     goddesses, 
dearest  of  those  that  dwell  in  heaven, 

293 

Servius :    '  She  will  change  her  counsels  for  the  better,' 
because  in  the  Second  Punic  War,  accortling  to  Ennius — 

Juno  was  appeased  and  began  to  shew  the  Romans* 
her  good-will. 

And  Jupiter  promises  that  destruction  awaits  Carthage  : 

Servius  :   In  Ennius  Jupiter  is  introduced  as  promising  the 
Romans  that  Carthage  shall  be  overthrown. 

cellus,  who,  after  the  recovery  of  Syracuse  in  212,  was  granted 
an  ovation  only. 

*  Servius,    however,    perhaps    gave    a    paraphrase,    not    a 
jumbled  line  of  Ennius — Norden,  169. 

109 


ENNIUS 

294 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  1,  20 :  *  Invadunt  urbern  somno  vinoque 
sepultam  '  {Aen.,  II,  265).     Ennius  in  VIII — 

Nunc  hostes  vino  domiti  somnoque  sepulti, 

Cp.  Lucret.,  V,  974,  somnoque  sepultr. 

295 
Festus,  194,  12  :   '  Occasus  '  .  .  .  pro  occasione  .  .  . — 
Ast  occasus  ubi  tempusve  audere  repressit, 

296 

Servius  (auctus),  ad  Aen.,  IX,  641  :  '  Mactus.'  Etiam 
mactatus  dicebatur,  ut  Ennius — 

Livius  inde  redit  magno  mactatus  triumpho. 

297-9 

Nonius,  151,  18:  '  Portisculus '  proprie  est  hortator 
remigum,  id  est  qui  earn  perticam  tenet  quae  portisculus 
dicitur  qua  et  cursum  et  exhortamenta  moderatur  .  .  . — 

tonsam  ante  tenentes 
parerent,  observarent,  portisculus  signum 
quom  dare  coepisset. 

^**  sepulti  1  <con3iluere>  add.  V  ex  Paul.,  41,  5  ('  con- 
silucre  '  Ennius  pro  conticuere  posuit)  coll.  Aen.,  IX,  234 
somno  vinoque  soluti  |  conticuere 

2^^  ast  Colonna  aut  cd. 

2*'  tonsam  ante  S  tonsas  Colonna  tonsam  arte 
Merula  tonsamque  Carrio  tusam  Linds.  tusante 

cdd.       fortasse  tunsam  ante       trib.  lib.  VIII  Non.  VII  Merula 


"  I  would  compare  Livy,  XXVII,  48.  But  Steuart,  p.  179, 
suggests  the  attack  by  Scipio  in  203  on  the  camps  of  the 
Carthaginians  and  the  Xumidians. 


ANNALS 

294 

The  drunken  Gauls  at  the  Battle  of  the  Metaurus,  207  b.c.  :  ■ 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  They  rushed  on  the  city, 
which  was  buried  in  sleep  and  wine.'  Ennius  in  the  eighth 
book — 

And  now  the  enemy,  mastered  by  wine  and  buried 
in  sleep, 

295 
Festus  :  '  Occasus  '  .  .  ,  for  '  occasio  '  .  .  .  — 

But  when  the  occasion  or  the  time  smothered 
their  daring, 

296 

Triumphant  return  of  the  two  consuls  : 

Servius  (supplemented):  '  Mactus.'  Even  the  form 
'  mactatus  '  was  used  for  this;   for  example,  Ennius — 

Thence  returned  Livius  ^  magnified  vdih  a  great 

triumph. 

297-9 
New  fleet  of  Scipio  Africanus  {consul,  205)  in  training  ?  : ' 
Nonius  :    '  Portisculus  '  is,  in  its  proper  sense,  the  term  for 

the  time-beater  of  a  ship's  oarsmen ;   that  is  to  say,  the  man 

who  holds  the  staff  for  which  the  term  '  portisculus  '  is  used; 

by  means  of  this  he  times  the  rhythm  and  '  lay  to  '  .  .  .  — 

that,  holding  the  oar  forAvard,  they  should  obey  and 
watch  when  the  boatswain  began  to  give  them  the 
signal. 

'  Almost  certainly  Livius  Salinator  is  meant ;  after  the 
battle  of  Metaurus  he  enjoyed  a  triumph  superior  to  Claudius 
Xero's  (Liyy,  XXVIII,  9).  It  is,  however,  possible  that  the 
reference  is  to  Livius'  earlier  triumph  over  the  Illyrians 
(Polyb.,  Ill,  19,  12),  in  which  case  the  fr.  belongs  to  Book 

VII— v.,  CXCI. 

'  So  I  suggest;  St.,  151,  points  to  the  sham  fights  whereby 
the  Romans  kept  up  their  training.  This  is  one  of  the  firs, 
usually  pat  in  Book  VII— V.,  CLXXIX;  Norden,  66-7,  151. 

Ill 


ENNIUS 

LIBER  IX 

300-5 

Cicero,  Brut.,  15,  58  :  Est  ...  sic  apud  ilium  (Ennium) 
in  nono  ut  opinor  Annali — 

Additur  orator  Cornelius  suaviloquenti 
ore,  Cethegus  Marcus,  Tuditano  collega, 
Marci  filius. 

Et  oratorem  appellat  et  suaviloquentiam  tribuit  .  .  . 
sed  est  ea  laus  eloquentiae  certc  maxima — 

...  Is  dictust  ollis  popularibus  olim 

qui  turn  vivebant  homines  atque  aevum  agitabant, 

'  Flos  delibatus  populi 

Probe  vcro.  Ut  enim  hominis  decus  ingenium  sic  ingeni 
ipsius  lumen  est  eloquentia,  qua  virum  cxcellentcm  praeclare 
turn  illi  homines  florem  populi  esse  dixerunt — • 

Suadaeque  medulla.' 

.  .  .  hie  Cethegus  consul  cum  P.  Tuditano  fuit  bello  Punico 
secundo  quaestorque  is  consulibus  M.  Cato  modo  plane 
annis  CXL  ante  me  consulem,  et  ipsum  nisi  unius  esset 
Ennii  testimonio  cognitum,  hunc  vetustas,  ut  alios  fortasse 
multos,  oblivione  obruisset. 

Cp.  Cic.,  de  SenecL,  14;  GclL,  XII,  2,  3  ff. ;  Quintil.,  II, 
15,  4;  XI,  3,  31 ;  Serv.  auct.,  ad  Aen.,  VIII,  500;  et  fortasse 
Hor.,  Ep.,  II,  2,  115  ff. 

'"  dictus  popularibus  Cic.  cdd.  dictus  toUis  p.  cdd.  Gell. 
dictust  ollis  p.  Gronov. 

*•*  agitabant  Gell.        agebant  Cic. 

"  It  seems  natural  to  take  the  fr.  as  describing  either  the 
election  of  the  two  consuls  for  204  in  the  summer  of  205,  or 
to  their  entry  into  ofi&ce  on  15th  of  March,  204.  Thus  we  could 
not,  as  Steuart  does,  extend  Book  VIII  down  to  Hannibal's 
recall  from  Italy,  which  took  place  in  203.     She  suggests  that 


ANNALS 
BOOK   IX 

SciPIo's    CAMPAIGNS    IN   AfRICA  *,     PeACE,    201    B.C. 

300-5 

31.  Cornelius  and  P.  Sempronius  consuls,  204  B.C. ;  " 

Cicero  :  The  following  is  a  passage  in  Ennius'  work,  in  the 
ninth  book,  I  think,  of  the  Annals — 

Then  Marcus  Cornelius  Cethegus,  son  of  Marcus, 
an  orator  whose  mouth  spoke  winsome  speech,  is 
put  in  as  a  colleague  to  Tuditanus. 

He  calls  him  an  orator  and  also  grants  him  winsomencss 
of  speech  .  .  .  but  the  greatest  stroke  in  praise  of  his 
eloquence  is  surely  this — 

.  .  .  By  those  fellow-countrj^men  who  were  then 
alive  and  had  their  being  he  was  once  upon  a  time 
called  the  '  choice  flower  '  of  the  people, 

Well  said  indeed.  For,  as  the  glon,'  of  a  man  is  his  natural 
talents,  so  the  lustre  of  those  very  talents  is  eloquence;  and 
a  man  surpassing  in  eloquence  was  admirably  called  by  the 
men  of  that  time  '  flower  of  the  people — 

and  the  marrow  of  Persuasion.'  * 

.  .  .  This  Cethegus  was  consul  with  Publius  Tuditanus  in 
the  Second  Punic  War,  and  Marcus  Cato  was  a  quaestor  in 
their  consulship,  in  round  numbers  only  one  hundred  and 
fifty  years  before  my  own  consulship ;  and  were  this  fact  not 
known  through  the  testimony  of  Ennius  alone,  antiquity 
would  have  buried  this  very  Cethegus,  as  maybe  it  has  buried 
many  others,  in  oblivion. 

Cethegus  and  Tuditanus  were  connected  with  some  mission, 
possibly  the  negotiations  for  peace  begun  in  203.  Cicero's 
uncertainty  about  Book  IX  is  feigned;  on  this  cf.  St.,  pp. 
180-81.  They  were  both  censors  in  209,  so  that  the  fr.  may 
belong  to  Book  VIII. 

*  Suada,  riet^ol,  goddess  of  Persuasion. 

113 

VOL.  I.  I 


ENNIUS 

306 

J'estus,   140,   21  :   '  Metonymia '  .  .  .  quae  continet  quod 
continetur,  ut  Ennius  ait — 

Africa  terribili  tremit  horrida  terra  tumultu. 


307 
Nonius,  472,  5  :  '  Luctant '  pro  luctantur  ...  — 
Viri  validis  cum  viribus  luctant. 

308 

Nonius,  217,  8  :    '  Pulvis '  .  .  .  Feminini  .  .  . — 

Pulvis  fulva  volat 

309 

Nonius,  95,  30  :   '  DebU,'  debilis  ...  — 

debil  homo 

310-11 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,'  II,  485,  17  K  :  In  geo  desinentia  . 
(486)— 

Cyclopis  venter  velut  olim  turserat  alte 
carnibus  humanis  distentus 


312 
437: 

praeda  exercitus  undat. 


Servius  ('!)  ad  Oeorg.,  II,  437:    '  Undantem,'  abundantem 
.  .  E.  Ub.  IX— 


»««  trib.  lib.  IX  Hug 

'"'  viri    ed.     princ.         <;fortuna>>     varia     V  Illyria 

Havet  (Bev.  de  Phil.,  XV,  72)  varia  vel  viri  a  cdd.  cum 
add.  D  (I.) 

*"*  iamque  fere  pulvis  f.v.  cdd.  iamque  fere  7iaia  ex 

priore  citat.  seclud.  Hug 

3i»  alte  D  (I.)         alti  Prise, 

114 


ANNALS 

306 

Scipio'a  campaigns  in  Africa?  ' 

Festus  :  '  Metonymia '  .  .  .  when  the  meaning  of  a  word 
contains  exactly  the  contents  of  its  equivalent ;  for  example, 
Ennius  when  he  says — 

Trembled  Africa,  land  rough  and  rude,  with  a 
terrible  tumult. 

307 
Ballle  of  Zama  ?  202  B.C. : 
Xonius  :   '  Luctant '  for  '  luctantur  '  .  .  .  — 
The  soldiers  struggled  vfith  sturdy  strength. 

308 
Nonius  :   '  Pulvis  '  ...  of  the  feminine  gender  .  .  . 
Brown  dust  flies  aloft 

309 
Nonius  :    '  Debil,'  the  same  as  '  debilis  '  .  .  .  — 
a  feeble  fellow 

310-11 
Priscianus  :   Verbs  ending  in  gco  ...  — 
Just    as   the    Cyclops*   belly    once    swelled   high, 
stretched  tight  with  human  flesh 

312 

The  spoils  tfon  after  the  battle  of  Zama  : 

Servius  ( ? ) :  '  Undantem,'  the  same  as  '  abundantem.'  .  .  . 
Ennius  in  the  ninth  book  of  the  Annals — • 

the  army  billowed  in  booty. 

•  Cf.  Hug,  Q.  Enn.  Annal,  VII-IX,  p.  10.  The  fr.  may 
belong  to  Book  VIII  (Carthage's  war  with  her  mercenaries) 

or  to  '  Scipio  '  (pp.  394  S.). 

"5 
i2 


ENNIUS 

313-14 

Nonius,  110,  8  :   '  Famul,'  famulus  .  .  . — 

.  .  .  Mortalem  summum  Fortuna  repente 
reddidit  e  summo  regno  ut  famul  oltimus  esset. 

Lucret.,  Ill,  1034-5  : 

Scipiadas  belli  fulmen  Carthaginis  horror, 

Ossa  dedit  terrae  proinde  ac  famul  infimus  esset. 

315 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  278,  12  K  :  Ennius  ...  in  IX 
pro  frugi  homo  frux  ponit  quod  est  adiectivum — 

'  Sed  quid  ego  haec  memoro  ?     Dictum  factumque 
facit  frux. 

316 

Varro,  L.L.,  V,  182  :  '  Militis  stipendia  '  ideo  quod  earn 
stipem  pendebant;   ab  eo  etiam  Ennius  scribit — 

Poeni  stipendia  pendunt. 

317 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  4,  17  :  (Vergilius)  inseruit  operi  suo  et 
Graeca  verba,  .  .  .  auctorum  .  .  .  veterum  audaciam  secutus 
.  .  .  Ennius  in  IX^ 

lyehnorum  lumina  bis  sex 

^1*  reddidit  e  s.  r.  ut  famul  V  oltimus  Linds.  ultimus 
Faber  infimus  Lips.  frob.  V         reddiderit  s.  ut  r.  f.         vel 

reddidit  ut  s.  (e)  r.  f.  edd.  reddidit  summo  regno  famul 
ut  optimus  cdd.  (of.  V.  Sitz.-Ber.  B.  Ak.,  1888,  45) 

"6  trih.  lib.  VII  Merula 

'^'  <  fiorebant  flammis  >  suppl.  V,  Sitz.-Ber.  B.  Ak.,  1896, 
720,  coll.  Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  VII,  804  Ennius  et  Lucretius  fiorere 
dicunt  omne  quod  nitidum  est ;  et  Lucret.,  I V,  450  bina  lucer- 
narum  florentia  lumina  flammis 

Il6 


ANNALS 

313-U 
HannibaVs  defeat  ? :  " 

Xonius  :   '  Famul,'  the  same  as  '  famulus  "...  — 
Fortune    on    a    sudden    casts    down    the    highest 
mortal  from  the  height  of  his  sway,  to  become  the 
^  liest  thrall. 

315 
Scipio  to  Hannibal  ?  : 

Priscianus  :  Ennius  ...  in  the  ninth  book  puts  '  frux,' 
which  is  an  adjective,  for  '  frugi  homo  ' — 

'  But  to  what  end  do  I  speak  so  ?  "  No  sooner 
said  than  done  " — so  acts  your  man  of  worth.* 

316 

Terms  oj  'peace  imposed  an  Carthage,  201  b.c.  : 

Varro  says  :  '  Militis  stipendia  '  (soldier's  pay)  is  a  term 
used  because'  they  paid  it  as  a  '  stips  '  (small  coins  in  piles). 
This  is  the  derivation  of  '  stipendia  '  as  used  by  Ennius  among 
others — 

The  Poeni  paid  payments  of  money. 

317 

Funeral  of  the  slain  ?  : 

Macrobius  :  Virgil  inserted  into  his  work  even  Greek  words 
.  .  .  following  the  daring  of  ancient  authors.  .  .  .  Ennius 
in  the  ninth  book — 

twice  six  lighted  lamps 

*  Lucretius  (see  opposite)  had  this  passage  in  mind.  It  is 
possible  that  Ennius  was  thinking  of  the  downfall  of  Hannibal 
in  195  B.C.,  an  event  which  would  come  in  Book  XI. 

*  ■  Proverbium  celeritatis  '  says  Donatus,  ad  Ter.  Andr., 
381.     Cp.  '  suits  the  action  to  the  word.' 

'  Varro  means  that  since  '  stipendia  '  is  used  here  of  a 
payment  in  coin,  it  shows  its  derivation  from  stips. 

117 


ENNIUS 

318-19 
Nonius,  66,  18  :  Politiones  agrorum  cultus  diligentes 
'  Rastros  dentiferos  capsit  causa  poliendi 

atrri. 


agn 

320-21 

Nonius,  150,  37  :  '  Perpetuassit '  sit  perpetua,  aetema 

'  libertatemque,  ut  perpetuassit 
quaeque  axim 


LIBER  X 

322-3 

Gellius,  XVIII,  9  :  '  Inseque '  quasi  '  perge  dicere '  .  .  . 
itaque  ab  Ennio  scriptum  in  his  versibus — 

Insece,  Musa,  manu  Romanorum  induperator 
quod  quisque  i  n  bello  gessit  cum  rege  Philippe. 

Alter  autem  .  .  .  perseverabat  Velio  Longo  .  .  .  fidem 
esse  habendam,  qui  .  .  .  scripserit  non  '  inseque '  apud 
Ennium  legendum  sed  '  insege  '  .  ,  .  Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  79,  29. 
Horn.,  Od.,  I,  1   .  .  .  ewcTre  Vlovaa 

324 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  541,  13  K  :  '  Campso,  campsas ' 
solebant  vetustissimi  dicere.     Ennius  in  X — 

Leucatan  campsant. 

*i*  dentiferos    Hug        dentifabres   Roeper        dentifabros 
Onions        dentefabres  cdd,  fortasse  recte 
**'  vide  Linds.  ad  loc. 
^22  insece  prob.  Gell.     inseque  Gell.  XVIII,  9,  5  Paul. 

"  capsit,  fut.  perf . ;  perpetuassit,  axim,  pcrf.  subj. 
ii8 


ANNALS 

3ia-19 
Italy  after  the  tear  ?  the  soldiers  must  return  to  the  soil  : 
Nonius  :   '  Politiones,'  diligent  cultivations  of  fields  .  .  . 
'  He   \*ill  take  toothed   rakes    for   to   dress    the 

fields. 

320-21 
Let  Ronu's  liberty  be  maintained  : 

Nonius  : '  Perpetuassit,'  may  it  be  perpetual,  eternal  ...  — 
.  .  .  '  and  liberty,  that  it  may  last  for  ever  and 

all  that  I  may  have  done  '^ 

BOOK   X 

Wars  with  Macedox  to  the  settlement  with 
Philip,  196  b.c,  after  the  Battle  of  Cvxoscephalae 

322-3 
Prologue  : 

Gellins :  '  Inaeque '  has  the  sense  of  '  go  on  to  tell,'  and 
this  therefore  is  the  form  used  by  Ennius  in  these  verses — 

Go  on  to  tell  what  each  commander  of  the  Romans 
wrought  with  his  troops  in  war  with  King  Philip. 

But  the  other  .  .  .  insisted  that  we  must  trust  Velius 
Longus,  .  .  .  who  wrote  that  in  Ennius  we  should  read  not 
'  inseque  '  but  '  insece.'  .  .  . 

324 

First  Macedonian  War  (214-205  B.C.);  expedition  of 
Valerius  Laevinus  (214) : 

Priscianus :  The  oldest  writers  used  to  say  also  campso,* 
campsas,'  bend.     Ennius  in  the  tenth  book — 

They  doubled  Leucate. 

*  Clearly  derived  from  Kaftirro). 

119 


ENNIUS 

325 

Isidorus,  Orig.,  I,  35,  3  :   '  Zeugma  '  est  clausula  dum  plures 
sensus  uno  verbo  clauduntur  .  .  .  ut — 

Graecia  Sulpicio  sorti  data,  Gallia  Cottae. 


326 

Cicero,  de  Be  Publ,  I,  18,  30:— 

Egregie  cordatus  homo  catus  Aelius  Sextus 

qui  egregie  cordatus  et  catus  fuit  et  ab  Ennio  dictus  est  non 
quod  ea  quaerebat  quae  numquam  inveniret,  sed  quod  ea 
respondebat  quae  eos  qui  quaesissent  et  cura  et  negotio 
solverent. 

Cp.  ac.,  Tusc.  Disp.,  I,  9,  18;   de  Oral.,  I,  45,  198;   Varro, 
L.L.,  VII,  46;  Pomponius,  in  Dig.,  I,  2,  2,  38. 


327-9 

Cicero,  de  Senect.,  1,  1 : — 

O  Tite  si  quid  ego  adiuvero,  curamve  levasso 
quae  nunc  te  coquit  et  versat  in  pectore  fixa, 
ecquid  erit  praemi  ? 

'-*  trib.  Enn.  Ann.  X  Mr. 
^-*  trib.  Ann.  lib.  X  Merula 
^-'  ego  te  adiuto  Donat. 


"  That  the  author  is  Ennius  we  can  hardly  doubt.  P. 
Sulpicius  Galba,  C.  Aurelius  Cotta.  Cf.  Livy,  XXXI,  5,  1 ; 
6,  1.     There  is  no  real  zeugma  here. 


ANNALS 

325 

SecoTtd  Macedonian  War,  200-196  B.C.     Consuls  of  200  ; 

Isidore :  '  Zeugma '  is  a  period  when  more  than  one  idea 
is  completed  by  one  verb  .  .  .  for  example  "...  — 

Greece  was  given  by  lot  to  Sulpicius,  Gaul  to 
Cotta. 

326 

Sextus  Aelius  Padus,  consul  with  Flamininus,  198 ;  * 
Cicero : — 

A  man  uncommonly  well-witted,  shrewd  Sextus 
Aelius 

who  was  a  man  of  more  than  common  wit  and  shrewd,  and 
called  such  by  Ennius  not  because  he  used  to  search  for 
things  which  he  could  never  discover,  but  because  he  used  to 
give  such  answers  as  freed  from  anxiety  and  trouble  those  who 
had  asked  him  questions. 

327-9 

Activities'  of  T.  Quinciius  Flamininus  in  198.  A  shepherd 
sent  by  the  Epirote  King  Charopus  to  guide  the  Bonuins,  asks  : 

Cicero  : — 

O  Titus,  if  it  is  I  can  help  vou  in  anything  and 
lighten  you  of  the  worry-  which,  stubborn  in  your 
breast,  now  sears  and  haunts  you,  vriW  there  be  any 
reward  ? 

*  Livy,  XXXII,  8 ;  Flamininus  only  was  sent  to  Macedonia. 

•  I  have  given  the  quotations  in  the  order  in  which  they 
appear  in  Cicero,  in  case  this  should  be  right.  For  the 
occasion  cf.  Livj',  XXXII,  11-2.  We  need  not  doubt  that  it 
was  from  Ennius  that  Cicero  quoted. 

121 


ENNIUS 

330-1 

Cicero,  loc.  cit. :  Licet  enim  mihi  versibus  eisdem  affari  te, 
Attice,  quibus  affatur  Flamininum — 

'  Ille  vir  haud  magna  cum  re  sed  plenus  fidei, 

quamquam  certo  scio  non  ut  Flamininum — 

'  soUicitari  te  Tite  sic  noctesque  diesque. 

Cp.  Donat.,  ad  Ter.,  Phorm.,  prol,  34  '  Adiutans '  .  .  . 
Ennins. 

332 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  1,  9  :  '  Axem  humero  torquet  stellis 
ardentibus  aptum  '  {Aen.,  IV,  482).     Ennius  ...  in  X — 

Hinc  nox  processit  stellis  ardentibus  apta 

333-5 

Servius  (auctus),  ad  Georg.,  IV,  188:  '  Mussant '  autem 
murmurant  .  .  . — 

Aspectabat  virtutem  legionis  suai 
exspectans  si  mussaret,  '  quae  denique  pausa 
pugnandi  fieret  aut  duri  finis  laboris  ?  ' 

336 

Diomedes,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  382,  24  K  :  Veteres  nonnulli '  horita- 
tur  '  dixerunt  ...  — 

.   .  .  horitatur  .  .  .  induperator 
quasi  specie  iterativa. 

333-4  gyai  exspectans  Bergk  legionis  suspectans  D  (I.) 
sive  spectans  cdd. 

^*  mussaret   quae   D   (I.)  mussaret  dubitaretque  cd. 

pausa  Bergk  fyroh.  St.         causa  D  (I.)  vrdi,  V  causam  cd. 

*3*  finis  add.  Bergk         pausa  D  (I.) 

'^*  horitatur  Hug         horitur  rdd. 


ANNALS 

330-1 

Flamininus  sent  to  Ckaropus  to  ask  if  the  shepherd  were 

Hvxnihy  ;  the  reply  : 

Cicero  continues :  for  I  may  be  allowed  to  address  to  you, 
Atticus,  the  same  verses  as  those  in  which  Flamininus  is 
addressed  bj' — 

'  That  man  not  blessed  w-ith  wealth  but  full  of 
loyalty, 

although  I  know  for  certain  it  is  not,  like  Flamininus — 
'  that  you  are  care-worn,  Titus,  thus  day  and  night. 

332 

The  night-march  of  Flamininus,  guided  by  the  shepherd  :  • 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  Atlas  on  his  shoulder  turns  the 
heaven  dotted  with  blazing  stars '  .  .  .  Ennius  in  the  tenth 
book — 

And  then  the  night  came  on,  dotted  with  blazing 
stars 

333-5 

The  Battle  of  Cynoscephalae,  197  B.C.  ,•  ^  anxiety  of 
Flamininus  : 

Servius  (supplemented)  :  '  Mussant '  also  means  '  they 
murmur  '  .  .  .  — 

He  was  watching  the  mettle  of  his  army,  waiting 
to  see  if  they  would  grumble,  sapng  '  what  rest 
will  there  be  at  last  from  our  fighting,  or  end  to  our 
hard  toil  ?  ' 

336 

Speech  of  Flamininus  before  the  battle  :  "^ 

Diomedes  says :  Some  old  writers  used  the  form 
'  horitatur "...  — 

The  commander  .  .  .  cheers  and  cheers  them  on 

'  horitatur  '  being  as  it  were  in  iterative  form. 

•  Livy,  XXXII,  11,  9.  »  St.,  p.  187. 

'  St.,  p.  187 :   Livy.  XXXIII,  8. 

123 


ENNIUS 

337-8 

Priscianus,  ap.  O.L.,  II,  30,  4  K  :   Vetustissimi  non  semper 
earn  («c.  m)  subtrahebant  ...  — 

Insignita  fere  turn  milia  militum  octo 
duxit  delectos,  bellum  tolerare  potentes. 


339-41 

Festu8,    188,    16 :     '  Nictit '    canis   in   odorandis   ferarura 
vestigiis  leviter  ganniens  ...  — 

Veluti  si  quando  vinclis  venatica  velox 
apta  solet  si  forte  feras  ex  nare  sagaci 
sensit,  voce  sua  nictit  ululatque  ibi  acute. 

Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  189,  2. 


342 

Diomedes,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  373, 5  K :  '  Pinsit '  secundum  tertium 
ordinem  ...  — 

pinsunt  terrain  genibus. 

'8*  veluti  si  cd.  (cp.  '  Hedyph.'  melanurum,  p.  408)  vinculis 
cd.  veluti  quando  vinclis  T  sicuti  si  S  (cp.  fr.  553)  fortasse 
is  veluti  W  venatica  velox  apta  T  venatica  veneno 
xapta  cd.  vinclo  venatica  aeno  S        solet  Fest.        dolet 

B  feras  add.   O.   Mueller  (si  forte  feras  ea)  a.  s.  cani ' 

forte  feram  si  ex  S,  T 

124 


ANNALS 

337-8 

The  battle :  special  troop  of  Philip  f  : 

Priscianus :  The  oldest  writers  did  not  always  elide 
m;  ...  — 

Then  he  led  some  eight  thousand  warriors,  wearing 
badges,  chosen  men,  strong  to  bear  war  well. 

339-41 

Impatience  of  Flamininus*  army  ?  : 

Festus  :  '  Nictit '  is  a  term  used  of  a  dog  gently  whimpering 
as  he  scents  the  tracks  of  wild  animals  ...  — 

And  just "  as  sometimes  a  fleet  hunting-dog,  tied 
up  by  a  chain,  is  wont  to  do  if  by  chance  her  keen- 
scented  nostril  has  caught  scent  of  wild  quarr}* — 
she  lifts  her  voice  in  a  whimper  and  straightway 
loudly  gives  tongue. 

342 

Fighting  on  rough  ground  : 

Diomedes :  '  Pinsit,'  according  to  the  third  conjuga- 
tion .  .  . — 

They  bruise  their  knees  on  the  ground.* 

■  This  is  one  of  several  lines  where  E.  apparently  allowed 
the  first  syllable  of  a  hexameter  to  begin  with  ^  ^  instead 
of- 

*  Cp.  cubitis  pinsihant  humum,  p.  376.  The  expression  is 
too  strong  to  be  applied  to  supplication  by  envoys  or  the  like. 

135 


ENNIUS 

343-4 

Nonius,  370,  19:    '  Passum,'  exteneum,  patens;    unde  et 
'  passus '  dicimus  :    quod  gressibus  mutuis  pedes  patescunt 

Aegro  corde  f  coniis  f 

passis  late  palmis  pater 

passis  ait  palmis  patentibus  et  extensis. 


345 

Donatus,    ad   Ter.,   Phorm,,    II,    1,    57  :     '  Columen   vero 
familiae.'     Columen  culmen  an  columen  columna  ?  .  .  .  — 

'  Regni  versatam  iam  summovere  columnam. 


LIBER  XI 

346 

Festus,  340,  22  :  '  Quippe  '  significare  '  quidni '  testimonio 
est  Ennius  lib.  XI — 

Quippe  Solent  reges  omnes  in  rebus  secundis 

313-*  gic  cdd.  aegro  corde  comis  passis  et  alter.  Jr.  passis 
late  p.  p.  V.  alii  alia  cf.  St.,  p.  188,  quae  aegro  |  Corde 
pater  passis  late  palmis  <;lacrumatus>   coni.  aegro  c. 

comis  .  .  .  passis  late  palmis  '  pater  .  .  .  Linds.  fortasse 
a.  I  c.  c.  p.  1.  <;  et  >  p.  p. 

^*^  versatam  iam  summovere  S  versatum  summam 
vero  cdd.        venere  Ilberg  prcb.  V 

•  Doubtful.     Cf.  St.,  188-9,  V.,  62. 

"  Or,  joy  of  Greeks  at  Philip's  defeat  ?— V.,  CXCV. 

126 


ANNALS 

343-4 

Demetrius,  younger  son  of  Philip,  taken  by  Some  as  a  hostage  ; 
the  parting  with  Philip  1 : 

Nonius  :  '  Passum,'  stretched  out,  spread  open  :  whence 
we  also  say  '  passus,'  step;  because  the  feet  spread  open,  as 
they  step  apart,  each  from  the  other  ...  — 

Sick  at  heart  and  ^nth  hands  flung  wide,  the 
father  ..." 

By  '  passis  '  as  applied  to  '  palmis  '  he  means  open  wide 
and  outstretched. 

345 

Lament  of  Philip  on  the  exile  of  Demetrius  ?  :  * 

Donatus,  on  '  Indeed  the  "  columen  "  of  his  household  '  in 

Terence  :    '  Columen '  in  the  sense  of  summit  or  '  columen  ' 

in  the  sense  of  pillar  ?  .  .  .  — 

'  They  have  now  overturned  and  moved  away  the 
pillar  of  the  realm. 


BOOK   XI 

From  the  Peace  made  ix  196  to  the  Opening  of  the 
War  with  Axtiochus  III  (192-1);  Cato  in 
Rome  and  in  Spain 

346 
Greece  after  Philip's  defeat : 

Festos :    That    '  quippe '    means    '  quidni '    Ennius    is    a 
witness  in  the  eleventh  book — 

Surely    are    all    kings    wont    in    times    of    good 
fortune  .   .  .  '^ 

*  Possibly  a  part  of  Flamininus'  speech  at  the  Isthmus,  like 
the  next  fr. 

127 


ENNIUS 

347-8 

Festus,  428,  11:'  Sos  '  pro  eos  ...  — 

'  Contendunt  Graecos,  Graios  memorere  solent  sos 

<[li)ngua  longos  pert  .  .  . 

Cp.  Fest.,  400,  19  .  .  .  t  s  appellat  Enn  f  .  .  .  t  os 
Grai  memo  f  •  •  • — 

349-50 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  1,  60  :  '  Num  capti  potuere  capi?  Num 
incensa  cremavit  |  Troia  viros  ?  (Aen.,  VII,  295)  Ennius  in 
undecimo  cum  de  Pergamis  loqueretur — 

'  quae  neque  Dardaniis  campis  potuere  perire 
nee  cum  capta  capi  nee  cum  combusta  crcmari.' 


351 

Festus,   250,   12  :     '  Petrarum  '  genera  sunt  duo,   quorum 
alterum  naturale  saxum  prominens  in  mare  ...  — 

alte  delata  petrisque  ingentibus  tecta. 


352 
Nonius,  483,  1  :   '  Laete  '  nominativo  casu  ...  — 
'  et  simul  erubuit  ceu  lacte  et  purpura  mixta. 

'*'  Graecos  Graios  V  graios  grecos  Fest.,  428  f  os 
grai  Fe-st.,  400 

'**  per<  temporistractus>  Ursinus  fortassescribendum 
annos  in  fin.  vers. 

^*'  fortasse  <Pergama  Troiae>  quae  n.  D. 

Non.  483  lib.  X  Par.  7666  BaTub.  Lu.  XI  rell.  essi  (et 
si  Par.)  mulier  erubuit  ccM.        et  simul  erubuit  Gulielmus 

"  Or,  '  compare  the  Greeks.'  The  fragment  seems  to  deal 
with  a  name  given  by  Ennius  to  the  Romans;   cf.  St.,  p.  191. 

128 


ANNALS 
347-S 

Flamininu*  procldims  '  The  Freedom  of  UdUa '  ;  h«  pointa 
to  the  relation  of  the  Romans  to  the  Greeks  : 

Feetns  :   '  Sos  '  for  '  eos  '  .  .  .  — 

'  They  maintain  "  that  the  Greeks — men  are  wont 
to  speak  of  them  as  Grai —  .  .  .  language  through 
long  .  .  . 

349-50 

Brachyllas^  (?)  warns  the  Greeks  against  the  power  of  Rome  : 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  ^^^len  captured,  could  they 
be  in  truth  captured?  Xo.  And  did  Trov  burning  bum 
her  warriors  ?  No.'  Ennius,  when  he  was  speaking  about 
Pergama  In  the  elerenth  book,  wrote — 

'  Troy's  citadel,  which  on  the  plains  of  Dardanus 
could  not  perish  or  be  captive  when  captured  of 
when  burnt  become  ashes.' 

351 
a  place  in  Greece  : 

Festus  :  '  Rocke  ' ;  of  these  there  arc  two  kinds,  of  which 
one  is  natural  stone  jutting  out  into  the  sea  ,  .  .  — 

a  chff  deep-falUng,  covered  by  mighty  crags. 

352 
Cato  '  on  the  one-time  modesty  of  women  : 
Nonius  :  '  Lactfl  '  in  the  nominative  case  ...  — ■ 

'  and   she   blushed  ^  A\-ithal   like   milk   and  crhnson 

mingled. 

*  A  Greek  sttongly  in  farour  of  Macedonian  anpremacy  in 
Greece. 

'  Opposing  in  rain,  daring  his  consulship  of  195  B.c.# 
the  repeal  of  the  Lex  Oppia  of  21.5. 

'  The  tense  suggests  a  definite  occasion,  possibly  the 
refusal  of  the  woman  to  take  gifts  from  Pyrrhtie  m  280  B.C. 

129 
VOL.  I.  K 


ENNIUS 

353 

Nonius,  149,  27  :  '  Peniculamentum '  a  veteribus  pars 
vestis  dicitur  ...  — 

'  pendent  peniculamenta  unum  ad  quemque  pediclum. 

354-5 

Nonius,  195,  10  :    '  Crux '  generis  .  .  .  masculini  ...  — 

'  malo  cruce  *  fatur  *  uti  des, 
luppiter ! 

356 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  445,  7  K  :    '  Sono,'  sonas  et  sonis 

Turn  clipei  resonunt  et  ferri  stridit  acumen ; 

357 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  419,  16  K  :  A  '  strido '  alii  '  stridi  ' 
protulerunt  ...  — 

missaque  per  pectus  dum  transit  striderat  hasta. 

358 

Charisius,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  200,  22  K  :  '  Hispane  '  Ennius  Anna- 
lium  libro  *  — 

Hispane  non  Romane  memoretis  loqui  me.' 

Cp.  Fest.,  400,  22. 

'*'  lib.  XI  (XII  Lit.  1)  annalis  pendent  cdd.  Annalium 
splendent  Mr.  pediclum  B  peditum  coni.  Linds.  ad 
quodque  pedule  S  pedum  nunc  coni.  V  pedum  cdd, 
peniculamenta  u.  a.  q.  pedum  dependent  Ilberg,  Hug 

'**  crucei  Linds. 

***  fortasse  scripsit  Charts,  annalium  libro  XI  Hispane 
trib.  lib.  XI  Hug,  VII  Norden 

130 


ANNALS 

353 

l  contrasts  the  luxury  of  his  own  day  : 
nius  :     '  Peniculamentum  ' ;    a  term  which  old  writers 
ise  for  part  of  a  dress.  ...  — 

skirts  hang  low  down  to  every  little  foot." 

354-5 
He  curses  the  '  viodems  ' ; 

Nonius  :   '  Crux  '  of  the  masculine  gender  .  .  .  - — 
Says  he,  '  Give  them  destruction,  Jupiter,  with 
itter  hell ! 

356 
Cato  in  Spftin,  195  B.C. ;   baiile  tcith  the  rebels  : 
Priscianus :  '  Sono  '  goes  on  both '  sonas  '  and  '  sonis  '  .  .  .  — 
Then  the  round  shields  resounded,  and  the  iron 
jpear-points  whizzed ; 

357 

Priscianus  :  From  '  strido '  some  have  conjugated  .  .  . 
stridi.' — 

md  the  spear,  shot  into  his  breast,  whizzed  as  it 
sped  through. 

358 
A  Spanish  chief  parleys  with  a  Roman  embassy  ?  : 

Charisius  :  '  Hispane  '  is  a  form  used  by  Ennius  in  a  book  * 
^f  the  Annals — 

*  Report  you :  it  is  the  Spanish  that  I  speak,  and 
not  the  Roman  tongue.' 

"  So  pediculum;  'to  every  sole,'  if  we  read  pedule.  Cf. 
v.,  64  and  CXCV. 

'  Probably  the  eleventh  because  :  (a)  in  Fest.,  400,  22,  a 
mutilated  form  of  this  quotation  comes  just  after  the  quotation 
about  Graecos,  Graios  (p.  128);  (b)  I  suggest  that  XI  stood  in 
Charisius'  text,  was  copied  into  something  like  "W,  and  then 
omitted  as  though  it  were  a  dittography  of  the  H  in  Hispane. 

k2 


ENNIUS 

359 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  383,  16  :  '  Rimari '  est  valde  quaerere  ut 
in  rim  is  quoque. 

Fcst.,  382,  16  .  .  .  t  .  .  .  Eunius  lib.  X  f  •  •  •  — 

<(rimantur)  utriquc. 

LIBER  XII 

360-62 

Cicero,  de  Off.,  I,  24,  84 :  Quanto  Q.  Maximus  melius 
de  quo  Q.  Ennius — 

Unus  homo  nobis  cunctando  restituit  rem. 
Noenum  rumores  ponebat  ante  salutem ; 
ergo  postque  magisque  viri  nunc  gloria  claret. 

Cp.  Macrob.,  S.,  VI,  1,  23:    'Unus  qui  nobis  cunctando 
restituit  rem  (Aen.,  VI,  846).     Ennius  in  XII  :    '  Unus  ...  I 
rem.     Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  VI,  845;    Cic,  de  Sencct.,  4,   10;    ad  ^ 
Alt.,  II,  19,  2;   Senec,  de  Bene/.,  IV,  27,  2;   Seren.  Sammon.,  I 
de  Med.,  1092;    Sueton.,  Tib.,  21;    Liv.,  XXX,  26,  7;    Ov., 
Fast.,  II,  240-42  :   Polyb.,  Ill,  105,  8;   SO.,  VI,  613  s. 

363-5 

Priscianus,  ap.  6.L.,  II,  152,  17  K  :  '  Acer  '  et  '  alacer  '  et 
'  saluber '  et  '  coleber '  ...  in  utraque  .  .  .  terminatione 
communis     etiam     generis     invcniuntur     prolata  .  .  .  (153, 

UK)..  .— 

Omnes  mortales  \ictores,  cordibus  imis 
laetantes,  vino  curatos,  somnus  repente 
in  campo  passim  mollissimus  perculit  acris. 
Cp.  Prise.,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  230,  5  K, 

'5*  <rimantur>  B 

'^^  noenum  L  non  enim  cdd.  prob.  V  trib.  lib.  IX 
Hug  VIII  Merula 

8®*  imis  Fruter  prob.  Havet  huius  cdd.  Par.,  R.,  Sang., 
HaU).  vivis  rell.  153  vivis  cdd.  230 

132 


ANNALS 

359 

Unplaced  fragment  : 

Paulua  says  :  '  Rimari '  means  to  search  thoroughly,  as  it 
were  in  the  very  '  rimae '  crannies.  Festus  says :  .  .  . 
Knnios  in  the  eleventh  book — 

both  parties  pried." 

BOOK   XII 

See  under  title  of  Book  XI 

360-^2 
.4  reminiscence  of  Fabius  Marimu^  Cunciator  .** 
Gcero  :    How  much  better  was  the  behaviour  of  Quintus 
Maximus  of  whom  Ennius  says — 

One  man  by  his  delays  restored  the  state ; 
Hearsay  he  would  not  put  before  our  safety ; 
Hence  to  this  day  the  warrior's  glorj-  shines — 
In  after  time,  and  all  the  more  for  that. 

363-5 
Rejoicing  after  victory  ?  : ' 

Priscianus :  '  Acer '  and '  alacer '  and  '  saluber '  and '  celeber' 
are  found  inflected  in  both  -er  and  -  is  in  both  genders  ...  — 

Yes,  all  those  \"ictors,  everj-  single  soul, 
Contented  from  the  bottom  of  their  hearts — 
Sleep  on  a  sudden,  over  all  the  plain, 
Most  soft  thrilled  tingling  through  them,  tended  well 
By  wine. 

"  Hopelessly  mutilated,  but  the  fr.  seems  to  have  con- 
tained rimari  in  some  form  or  other.  Cp.  our  "  peer  into  every 
hole  and  corner.' 

'  We  must  keep  the  fr.  in  the  book  to  which  Macrobiua 
assigns  it.  Cf.  V.,  Ahh.  B.  Akad.,  1886,  6  fF.  and  Enn., 
CXC\^-CXCVII;  St.,  pp.  193-4;  contrast  Skutsch,  Pauly, 
8.V.  Ennius,  2608. 

'  It  is  not  possible  to  assign  the  fr.  to  any  occasion;  cf. 
St.,  194;  v..  CXCV-CXCVI. 


ENNIUS 


Gellius,  XVII,  21,  43 :  Ennium  .  .  .  M.  Varro  .  .  . 
scripsit,  .  .  .  cum  septimum  et  sexagesimum  annum  haberet, 
duodecimum  Annalem  scripsisse  idque  ipsum  Ennium  in 
eodem  libro  dicere. 


Note  on 

Only  two  extant  fragments  are  definitely  assigned  to  this 
book,  and  two  others  can  be  with  probability  added  to  these. 
The  context  of  all  of  them  must  remain  uncertain ;  but  the 
book  probably  described  the  war  with  Antiochus  to  the 
departure  of  the  two  Scipios  for  Asia  in  190.  The  following 
seems  to  me  to  be  the  most  probable  arrangement  of  the 
fragments.  Lines  366-8  give  us  the  only  tradition  which 
represents  Hannibal  as  a  would-be  peacemaker  between 
Rome  and  Antiochus.  We  cannot  connect  it  very  well  with 
Gellius,  V,  5,  where  Hannibal  shows  a  veiled  contempt  of 
the  army  which  Antiochus  had  gathered  together  before  the 
battle  of  Magnesia ;  the  tale  looks  like  a  fiction  Now  in  1 93 
Hannibal  had  a  chance  interview  with  the  Roman  commis- 
sioner P.  Villius  at  Ephesus.  Nothing  vital  was  discussed, 
but  the  incident  caused  Antiochus  to  cast  suspicion  on  all 


LIBER  XIII 

366-8 

Gellius,  VI,  2,  3  :  '  "  Cor  "  masculino  genere,  ut  multa  alia, 
enuntiavit  Ennius;  nam  in  XIII  Annali  "  quem  cor"  dixit.' 
Ascripsit  deinde  versus  Ennii  duo.  .  .  .  Antiochus  est  qui  hoc 
dixit    Asiae    rex  .  .  .  sed    aliud    longe    Ennius.     Nam    tres 

Gell.,  XVII,  21,  post  vocabula  annum  haberet  *xii  Voss. 
{eraso  X)         XII  Pet.        XVIII  Merula         XVII  Mr. 

"172  B.C.  On  this  passage  of  Grellius,  cf.  V.,  Abh.  B.  Ak.. 
1886,  3  ff. 

''  See  above.         '  Nonius,  195,  20  made  the  same  mistake. 


ANNALS 

Ennius  mentions  his  age  : 

Gellius  :  Marcus  Varro  has  recorded  that  Ennius,  in  his 
sixty-seventh  year,"  WTote  the  twelfth  book  of  the  Annals; 
and  that  Ennius  himself  mentions  this  veiy  fact  in  the  same 
book. 

Book  XIII 

that  Hannibal  did  (Livy,  XXXV,  14).  In  the  same  year 
Antiochus  held  a  council  of  war  to  which  Hannibal  was  not 
invited  (Livy,  XXXV,  17  ff.).  Hence  lines  366-8  may  well 
belong  to  a  soliloquy  of  Antiochus,  or  a  speech  of  his  deUv'ered 
at  the  council.  In  Livy,  XXXV,  19  we  have  a  warlike 
counterblast  of  Hannibal  which  he  gave  when  he  first  dis- 
covered why  he  was  out  of  favour  with  the  king.  It  implies 
that  the  king  suspected  Hannibal  of  being  at  least  pacific  if 
not  pro-Roman.  Line  369  seems  to  belong  to  a  narrative  of 
fears  felt  at  Rome  and  elsewhere  in  192  lest  Antiochus  should 
cross  into  Europe  like  another  Xerxes  (V.,  CXCV'III).  Line 
370  suggests  Antiochus  in  defeat,  and  since  it  is  attributed 
by  Gellius  to  Book  XIII,  would  allude  to  the  defeat  of  the 
king  at  Thermopylae  in  191.  Line  371  might  well  refer  to 
the  seige  of  Pergamum  by  Seleucus  IV  in  190  B.C. 


BOOK  XIII 

The  War  with  Antiochus  perhaps  to  the  departure 
OF  Lucius  Scipio  and  Publius  Scipio  Africanus 
FOR  THE  East  in  190  b.c. 

366-8 

Antiochus  suspects  Hannibal  (193  B.C.)  :  * 

Gellius  :  '  Ennius  used  "  cor,"  said  Caesellius,'  as  he  did 
many  other  similar  nouns,  in  the  masculine  gender;  for  in 
the  thirteenth  book  of  Annals  he  wrote  "  quern  cor."  '  He 
then  added  two  lines  of  Ennius.'  .  .  .  Antiochus,  King  of  Asia, 
is  the  speaker  of  these  words.  .  .  .  But  what  Ennius  meant 
was  something  different  by  far.     For  there  are  three  lines,  not 

135 


ENNIUS 

versus  sunt,  non  duo,  ad  banc  Ennii  sententiam  pertiiientes, 
ex  quibus  tertium  versum  Caeselbus  non  respexit — 

*  Hannibal  audaci  dum  pectore  de  me  hortatur 
ne  bellum  faciam,  quern  credidit  esse  meuni  cor 
suasorem  summum  et  studiosum  robore  belli. 


Cp.  Non.,  195,  19. 


369 


Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  21  :  '  Quasi  Hellespontum  et  claustra  ' 
quod  Xerxes  quondam  eum  locum  clausit;  nam  ut  Ennius 
ait — 

Isque  Hellesponto  pontem  contendit  in  alto. 


370 

Gellius,  XVIII,  2,  16  :  Nemo  .  .  .  turn  commeminerat 
dictum  esse  a  Q.  Ennio  id  verbum  ('  verant ')  in  tertio 
decimo  Annalium  .  .  . — 

*  satin  vates  verant  aetate  in  agunda  ? 


371 

Servius  auctus,  ad  Georg.,  I,  18  :    '  Favere  '  vcteres  etiam 
'  velle  '  dixerunt.     Ennius — 

Matronae  moeros  complent  spectare  faventes. 

Cp.  Serv,  auct.  ad  Georg.,  IV,  230  ..  .  Ennius  in  XIII— 

Gell.,  VI,  2,  5  :   cum  pectore  VI,  2,  9  dum  pectore 

Annibal  laudacium  pectore  Non.,  195 

Serv.  auct.  ad  G.,  IV,  230  :  XIII  Ursinus  XVI  cdd. 

136 


ANNALS 

two,  which  go  to  complete  this  sentence  of  Ennius;  of  these 
CaeseUius  overlooked  the  third — 

*  while  Hannibal  ^^-ith  bold  breast  exhorts "  me 
not  to  make  war — he  whom  my  heart  believed  to 
be  a  most  mighty  counsellor,  yea  one  devoted  in 
war's  ruggedness. 

369 

Reminiscence  (192  B.C.)  of  Xerxes  crossing  from  Asia  to 
Europe  (480  B.C.) :  » 

Varro  :  The  phrase  '  As  it  were  the  Hellespont  and  its 
barriere  '  comes  from  the  fact  that  Xerxes  at  one  time  made  a 
'  barrier  '  in  that  region.     For,  as  Ennius  sa^'S — 

and  he  stretched  a  bridge  over  deep  Hellespont. 

370 

Aniioehus  laments  hia  defeat  at  Thermopylae  in  191  B.C. 
by  Glabrio  : 

GeUius :  Xo  one  on  that  occasion  remembered  that  the 
verb  '  verant '  was  used  by  Ennius  in  the  thirteenth  book  of 
the  Annals  ...  — 

'  Do  seers,  in  all  their  life's  course,  tell  much  of 
truth  ? 

371 

Siege  of  Pergamum  by  Seleucus  IV  in  190  B.C.  ?  :  ' 

Servius  (supplemented) :  '  Farere.'  The  old  writers  used 
it  even  in  the  sense  of  '  velle.'     Ennius — 

The  matrons  crowded  the  walls,  eager  to  look  on. 

'  de  me  hortatur,  tmesis  for  me  dehortatur.  The  construc- 
tion studiosum  robore  belli  is  strange;  but  it  means  that 
Antiochus  beUeved  Hannibal  to  be  a  zealous  supporter  of  a 
warlike  policy. 

*  Ennius  seems  to  make  a  pun  on  Hellesponto  and  pontem  : 
'  And  he  pontoons  stretched  o'er  deep  Hellespont.' 

'  Livy,  XXXVII,  20  fin.  (spectaverunt  enim  e  moenibus 

.  .  feminae  .  .  .). 


ENNIUS 

LIBER  XIV 

372-3 

Gellius,  II,  26,  21  :    Fecistique  ut  intellegerem  verba  ilia 
ex  Annali  quarto  decimo  Ennii  amoenissima  ...  — 

Verrunt  extemplo  placide  mare  marmore  flavo ; 
caeruleum  spumat  sale  conferta  rate  pulsum. 

Cp.  Priscian.,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  171,  11  K  (caeruleum  e.  q.  s.). 


374 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,   1,  51  :    '  Labitur  uncta  vadis  abies  ' 
{Aen.,  VIII,  91).     Ennius  in  XIV— 

Labitur  uncta  carina,  volat  super  impetus  undas. 

Cp.  Verg.,  Aen.,  IV,  398,  natat  u.  c. 


375-6 

Macrobius,  8.,   VI,   5,   10:    '  Despiciens  mare  velivolum  ' 
{Aen.,  I,  224).  .  .  .     Ennius  in  XIV— 

Quom  procul  aspiciunt  hostes  accedere  ventis 
navibus  velivolis, 

Cp.  Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  I,  224. 


*'^  placidum  Parrhasiiis 

Prise,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  171,  II  K  :    post  pulsum  vocabula  per 
mare  trib.  Enn.  Krehl 


ANNALS 


BOOK  XIV 

From  the  Departure  of  the  Scipios  to  the  settle- 
ment OF  Asia  after  the  Battle  of  Magnesia 

372-3 

Defeat  of  Pdyxenidas  by  Aeviilius  RegiUus  at  Jlyonnesus, 
190  B.C. ;  departure  of  the  Roman  fleet  : 

Gellius  :  You  made  me  understand  those  very  charming 
words  from  Ennius'  fourteenth  book  of  Annals  .  .  . — 

Forthwith  they  gently  swept  a  sea  of  yellow 
marble ;  green  foamed  the  brine  °  beaten  by  the 
thronging  ships. 

374 

The  rapid  advance  :  * 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  Smooth  gUdes  the  well- 
greased  fir-wood  through  the  waters.'  Ennius  in  the  four- 
teenth book — 

Smooth  glided  the  well-greased  keel  and  skimmed 
over  the  waves  with  a  rush.  '    "  ~^ 

375-6 

They  sight  the  enemy  near  Myonnesus  : 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  Looking  down  on  the  sail- 
fluttering  sea.'  .  .  .  Ennius  in  the  fourteenth  book — 

\Mien  they  saw  far  off  the  enemy  coming  towards 
them  vdxh.  the  breeze  in  sail-fluttering  ships, 

"  sale  is  nominative.  Caeruleum  might  be  taken  with  mare 
— '  swept  the  sea  grey.'  But  cp.  Priscianus'  quotation, 
which  gives  the  second  line  only.  Flatus  is  yellowish-green, 
caeruleus  bluish  or  greyish  green. 

*  v.,  CCXVIII.  Possiblv  the  fr.  refers  to  the  swift  ships 
of  the  Rhodians— St.,  p.  196.     Cp.  fr.  442,  p.  164. 


ENNIUS 

377 

Priscianus,  ap.  O.L.,  II,  473,  22  K  :  Haec  .  .  .  ipsa  et 
secundum  tertiam  vetustissimi  protulisse  iriveniuntur  coniuga- 
tionem  ...  — 

Litora  lata  sonunt 

378-9 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  501,  10  K:  '  Orior '  et  '  morior ' 
tam  secundum  tertiam  quam  secundum  quartam  coniuga- 
tionem  declinaverunt  auctores  .  .  . — 

'  Nunc  est  ille  dies  quom  gloria  maxima  sese 
nobis  ostendat,  si  vivimus  sive  morimur.' 

380 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  4,  6 :  '  Tum  ferreus  hastis  |  horret  ager ' 
{Am.,  XI,  601).  'Horret'  mire  se  habet,  sed  et  Enniua  in 
quarto  decimo — 

Horrescit  telis  exercitus  asper  utrimque. 

.  .  .  sed  et  ante  omnes  Homerus  (//.,  XIII,  3.39) :   (<f>pi^ev 

Cp.  Verg.,  Ae7i.,  VII,  526,  XII,  663. 

381-2 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  518,  13  K  :  Vetustissimi  tamen  tam 
producebant  quam  corripiebant  supradicti  verbi,  id  est 
tutudi,  paenultimam  .  .  . — 

Infit,  '  O  cives,  quae  me  fortuna  fero  sic 
contudit  indignum  bello,  confecit  acerbo, 

'*^  fero  sic  cdd.  ferox  sic  Colonna  ferocis  V 

ferocem  D  (I.) 

**^  indignum  Maehly         indigno  cdd.  indigne  et  bello 

Colonna  (fortasse  bello  et  confecit) 

"  Or  the  fr.  may  describe'  the  shores  echoing  to  the  noise 
of  battle. 

140 


ANNALS 

377 

The  Scipios  cross  the  Hellespont,  190  B.C.  ;  " 

Priscianus  :  These  same  verbs  are  found,  in  the  oldest 
writers,  inflected  according  to  the  third  conjugation  also  ...  — • 

The  broad  beaches  sound 

378-9 
Speech  before  the  battle  of  Magnesia,  190  B.C.  .• 

Priscianus  :  '  Orior '  and  '  morior  '  are  found  to  have  been 
inflected  by  authors  according  to  both  the  third  and  the 
fourth  conjugation.  ...  — 

'  Now  is  the  day  when  glorj-  passing  great 
Shows  itself  to  ds,  whether  we  Uve  or  die.' 

380 
Beginning  of  the  battle  : 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  Then  the  battle-field,  all  iron, 
bristles  with  lances.'  '  Bristles '  is  strange  here.  But  Ennius 
too  in  the  fourteenth  book  has — 

On  both  sides  the  host  bristles  rough  "with 
javelins.* 

.  .  .  But  again  earlier  than  all  writers  Homer  said  :    '  The 
battle,  man-destroying,  bristled  with  long  spears.' 

-     381-2 

Antiochus  in  his  defeat : 

Priscianus  :  Still,  the  oldest  writers  pronounced  both  long 
and  short  the  penultimate  syllable  of  the  above-mentioned 

word  (that  is  '  tutudi ')  .  .  .  — 

He  began  to  speak — '  O  my  countrymen,  fortune 
who  has  thus  bruised  me — and  I  deserved  it  not — 
and  has  destroyed  me  in  fierce,  in  bitter  war, 

*  Near  this  fragment  Ennius  probably  mentioned  rumpiae 
(long  lances)  which  were  carried  by  the  Thracians  in  the 
Roman  array;  for  Gellius  (X,  25,  4)  notes  this  word  from 
Ennius'  XlV'th  book. 

141 


ENNIUS 

383 
Festus,  236,  5  :    '  Ob  '  .  .  .  pro  '  ad  '  .  .  .  — 
Omnes  occisi,  obcensique  in  nocte  serena. 

LIBER  XV 

384 
Nonius,  114,  5  :    '  Falae '  turres  sunt  ligneae  ...  — 
Malos  diffindunt,  fiunt  tabulata  falaeque 

385-6 
Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  280,  7  K  :   Ennius  in  XV  Annali- 

Occumbunt  multi  letum  ferroque  lapique 
aut  intra  muros  aut  extra  praecipe  casu. 

Cp.  Prise,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  250,  9  K. 


387 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  259,  5  K  :  '  Arcus  '  .  .  .  invenitur 
.  .  .  apud  veteres  etiam  f eminini  generis  ...  — 

Arcus  subspiciunt  mortalibus  quae  perhibentur  .  .  . 

'8*  diffindunt  Merula  defindunt  odd.  defigunt  coni. 
V 

^*'  subspiciunt  V  ubi  aspiciunt  cdd.  aspicitur  Col- 
onna  arquum  ubi  adspiciunt  Merula  fortasse  arcus 

quom  aspiciunt  perhibetur  Halb.         perhibentur  relL 

142 


ANNALS 

383 

Burning  of  the  dead  after  the  battle  : 

Festus  :   '  Ob  '  instead  of  '  ad  '  .  .  .  — 

All  butchered,  and  burnt  in  the  clear  calm  night. 

BOOK   XV 

I'liE  Aetoliav  War,  189  b.c,  and  the  Achievement 

OF    M.    FULVIUS    NOBILIOR,    WHOM    EnNIUS    CELE- 
BRATED    ELSEWHERE    IN    A     SEPARATE     WORK     (pP. 

358  fF.).    The  original  conclusion  of  the  Annals 

384 

The  siege  of  Awbracia  by  Fulvius  Nobilior,  189  B.C.  : 

Nonius  :   '  Falae  '  are  wooden  towers  ...  — 

They  cleft  the  comer-beams ;    floors  and  siege- 
towers  were  built 

385-6 
Priscianus  :  Ennios  in  the  fifteenth  book  of  the  Annals — 

Many  were  laid  low  by  death  with  sword  and  stone 
in  headlong  fall  within  or  without  the  walls. 

387 

Priscianus  :    '  Arcus  '  ...  is  found  even  in  the  feminine 
gender  in  old  writers  ...  — 

They  look  up  at  the  bows  (.'),  which  are  said  by 
mortals  ..." 

"  Or  '  The}-  look  up  at  what  men  call  "  The  Arches  "  ' 

143 


ENNITJS 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  2,  30  :  Sunt  alii  loci  plurimorum  versuum 
quos  Maro  in  opus  suum  cum  paucorum  immutatione  verborum 
a  veteribus  transtulit  .  .  .  de  Pandaro  et  Bitia  aperientibus 
portas  locus  {Aen.,  IX,  672  if.)  acceptus  est  ex  libro  quiuto 
decimo  Ennii  qui  induxit  Histros  duos  in  obsidione  crupisse 
porta  ot  stragem  de  obsidente  hoste  fecisse. 

Cf.  Virg.,  Aen.,  IX,  672-687 ;  //.,  XII,  127  ff. 


388-9 

Cicero,  de  Senect.,  5,  14  :  Sua  enim  vitia  inaipientes  et 
suam  culpam  in  senectutem  conferunt,  quod  non  facicbat  is 
cuius  modo  mentionem  feci  Ennius — 

Sicut  fortis  equus  spatio  qui  saepe  supremo 
vicit  Olympia,  nunc  senio  confectus  quiescit, 

Equi  fortis  et  victoris  senectuti  comparat  suam. 

Cp.  'oAu/aTTia  viKdv  (Thuc.,  I,  126;   al.). 


Note  on 

That  Ennius  described  the  Istrian  War  is  certain,  provided 
that  the  episode  about  Aelius  (see  p.  154)  is  rightly  inter- 
preted. But  Ennius  must  also  have  sketched  the  somewhat 
scattered  events  between  188  and  178,  such  as  the  march  of 
Manlius  through  Thrace,  the  wars  in  Spain  and  Liguria,  the 

"«-•  trib.  lib.  X  V  St.        XII  V        X  VIII  Manila. 


"  Doubtless  the  Romans  besieging  Ambracia — V.,  CXCIX. 
The  original  of  Ennius'  and  Virgil's  passages  is  II.,  XII, 
127  ff. 

144 


ANNALS 


A  sortie 


Macrobius  :  There  are  other  passages  (in  Virgil),  consisting 
of  several  lines,  which  Maro,  with  the  alteration  of  a  few  words, 
transferred  from  the  old  poets  to  his  own  work.  .  .  .  The 
passage  about  Pandams  and  Bitias  opening  the  gates  is  taken 
from  the  fifteenth  book  of  Ennius,  who  introduced  the  tale 
of  how  two  Histrians  during  a  siege  burst  out  of  the  gate 
and  caused  a  slaughter  among  the  besieging  enemy." 

388-9 

Ennius'  original  ending  to  his  Annals  ;  his  old  age  ." 

Cicero  :  For  it  is  their  own  blemishes  and  their  own  sins 
that  fools  lay  to  the  charge  of  old  age,  a  thing  which  he,  of 
whom  I  made  mention  just  now,  was  not  wont  to  do, 
Ennius —  * 

Just  as  a  valiant  steed,  who  has  often  won  victories 
at  the  Olympic  games  in  the  last  lap,  now  at  length, 
worn  out  by  old  age,  takes  rest, 

He  is  comparing  his  old  age  to  that  of  a  valiant  and 
victorious  horse. 


Book  XVI 

affairs  of  Italy,  the  trial  of  the  Scipios,  the  deaths  of  Scipio 
Africanus  and  of  Hanniljal,  and  the  censorship  of  Cato. 
Nearly  all  the  extant  fragments  seem  to  belong  either  to  the 
Prologue  of  the  book  or  to  the  Istrian  War. 

Cp.  St.,  pp.  199  ff.;    Livy,  XLI;   Valmaggi,  pp.  112  flf. 


'  envoi.  St.,  p.  198,  is  probably  right  in  taking  this 
fr.  as  part  of  Ennius'  original  scheme,  which  ended  with 
this  book  (see  p.  147).  But  if  Book  XV'III  was  finished  when 
Ennius  died,  it  should  be  put  there.  Yet  cf.  V.,  Abh.  B.  Akad., 
1886,  9. 

145 

VOL.  I.  L 


ENNIUS 

LIBER  XVI 

390 

Festus,  340,  21  :  '  Quippe  '  significare  quidni  testimoiiio  est 
Ennius  ...  lib.  XVI— 

Quippe  vetusta  virum  non  est  satis  bella  moveri  ? 

391 
Nonius,  219,  14:   '  Pigrct '  .  .  . — 

post  aetata  pigret  subferre  laborem. 

392 
Gellius,  IX,  14,  5  :   •  Dies  '  pro  '  diei  '— 

postremo  longinque  dies  quod  fregerit  aetas  .  .  . 

Plinius,  VII,  101  :  Q.  Ennius  T.  Aelium  Teucrum  fratrcm- 
que  cius  praecipue  miratus  propter  eos  sextum  decimum 
adiccit  Annalem. 

393-4 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  1,  17  :  '  Summa  nituntur  opum  vi ' 
(Aen.,  XII,  652).     Ennius  ...  in  XVI— 

Reges  per  regnum  statuasque   sepulchraque   quae- 

runt ; 
aedificant  nomen,  summa  nituntur  opum  vi. 

^'1  post  <exaeta>  cowt.  V  subferre  aW.  scribendi 

ferre  B 

^'^  quod  fregerit  Valmaggi  quod  fecerit  vel  confecerit 

odd. 

Plin.,  VII,  101  :   Aelium  Bergk  Caecilium  Plin. 

"  Pliny  has  Caecilius,  and  this  may  be  right.  But  the  man 
referred  to  seems  to  be  the  brother  of  the  gallant  tribune  of 
fr.  409-16;   see  note  on  p.  154. 

146 


,  ANNALS 

BOOK  XVI 

From  188  b.c.  to  the  end  of  the  Istrian  War 

390 
Prologue  ;  past  work  ;  growing  age  : 

Festus  :  That  '  quippe  '  means  '  quidui '  Ennius  is  a 
witness  ...  in  the  sixteenth  book — 

Surely  it  is  enough  that  the  old-time  wars  of 
warriors  were  undertaken  I 

391 
Nonius  :    '  Pigret '  .  .  .  — 
I  am  loth  to  take  up  the  task  late  in  ageing  life. 

392 
Gellius  :    '  Dies  '  instead  of  '  diei '  .  .  .  — 
Lastly,  that  which  the  long  age  of  my  days  has 
crushed.  .  .  . 

But  the  heroism  of  two  brothers  re-inspires  him  : 

Pliny  :  Qnintus  Ennius  had  a  particular  admiration  for 
Titus  Aelius  "  Teucrus  and  his  brother,  and  on  their  account 
added  to  his  Annals  the  sixteenth  book. 

393-4 

A  general  remark  *  on  this  period  of  Roman  History  ?  : 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  They  strain  with  all  their 
might  and  main  ' :   Ennius  ...  in  the  sixteenth  book — 

Kings  throughout  their  kingship  are  in  quest  of 
statues  and  sepulchres ;  they  build  up  a  name  and 
strain  with  all  their  might  and  main. 

*  Possibly  a  part  of  the  prologue ;  whatever  kings  may  do, 
my  fame  shall  rest  on  my  poetry — St.,  p.  200. 

147 
l2 


ENNIUS 

395 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  152,  17  K:  'Acer'  .  .  .  (133, 
9K)  .  .  .— 

Aestatem  autumnus  sequitur,  post  acer  hiems  it. 

Cp.  Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  VI,  685 ;  explanat.  in  Donat.,  ap.  G.L., 
IV,  491,  26  K. 

Cicero,  de  Prov.  Consul.,  9,  20 :  An  vero  M.  ille  Lepidus, 
qui  bis  consul  et  pontifex  maximus  fuit,  non  solum  memoriae 
testimonio  sed  etiam  Annalium  litteris  et  sumrai  poetae  voce 
laudatus  est  quod  cum  M.  Fulvio  collega,  quo  die  censor  est 
factus,  homine  inimicissimo,  in  campo  statim  rediit  in  gratiam  ? 


396 
Festus,  386,  4  :   '  Regimen  '  pro  regimento  ...  — 
('/tf'fo*')       Primus  senex  bradys  in  regimen  belloque  peritus 

397 

Festus,  490,  29  :    '  Spicit '  quoque  sine  praepositione  dixe- 
runt  antiqui  .  .  .  '  spexit.'     Ennius  lib.  XVI — 

Quos  ubi  rex  Epulo  spexit  de  cautibus  celsis, 

Cp.  Varro,  L.L.,  VI,  82. 


^"'  it  Car.  Sang.  Mon.  sit  rdl.  fit  Fabricius  coll. 

Serv.,  ad  Am.,  VI,  685 

***  bradys  Mr.         bradyn  cd. 

**'  Epulo  Bergk  /  /  /  /  duIo  Fest.  epulo  Varro  (Apulo 
Flor.,  /,  26:  Aepulo  Liv.,  XLI,  11,  1;  at  cf.  Verg.,  Aen., 
XIII,  459  Epulo)  populos  olim  V  cautibus  olim  V 

cotibus     Bergk    nunc    prob.     V  montibus     Laetus 

contibus  cd. 

148 


ANNALS 

395 
The  turning  years  : 
Priscianos  :   '  Acer.'  ...  — 

Autumn  follows  on  summer;  after  it  comes  keen 
winter. 

Censorship  oj  Marcus  Aemilius  Lepidus  and  Marais  Fulvius 
Nobilior,  179  B.C. : 

Cicero  :  But  is  it  not  true  that  our  famous  Marcus  Lepidus, 
who  was  twice  consul  and  also  pontifex  maximus,  is  praised, 
not  only  by  the  record  of  tradition  but  also  in  the  written 
evidence  of  Annals  and  by  the  greatest  of  our  poets,"  because 
with  his  colleague  Marcus  Fulvius,  a  great  enemy  of  his,  on 
the  day  when  he  was  made  censor,  he  at  once  made  a  recon- 
ciliation in  the  Campus  ? 

396 
An  ageing  Roman  ?  * 

Festus  :   '  Regimen  '  for  '  regimentum  '  .  .  .  — 
First  the  aged  man,  tardy  in  his  ruling,  skilled  in 

war 

397 
The  Istrian  War,  178-7  B.C.  ' 

King  Epulo  sees  the  Romans  move  on  Lake  Timavus  : 
Festus  :   '  Spicit '  is  likewise  used  by  archaic  writers  without 

a   preposition   prefixed.  .  .  .  Ennius   in  the   sixteenth   book 

has  '  spexit ' — 

WTien  King  Epulo  ^  spied  them  from  the  top  of 
high  crags, 

"  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  Ennius  is  meant,  and  that  the 
attribution  to  this  book  is  right.     Cf.  Livy,  XL,  45,  6  ff. 

*  This  may  be  a  case  of  an  appeal  to  the  example  of  Fabiua 
Cunctator  (cf.  St.,  205-6,  especially  on  bradys). 

'  Valmaggi,  pp.  114-15;  Havet,  in  Bibl.  de  Vecole  des 
hautes  ft.,  fasc.  XXXV,  32  ff.  Vahlen  is  doubtful— J6A.  B. 
Ak.,  1886,  28  ff. 

^  Bergk.,  0pp.,  I,  252  ff. 

149 


ENNIUS 

398 
Festus,  220,  25  :    '  Obstipum,'  obliquum  ...  — 
montibus  obstipis  obstantibus  unde  oritur  nox. 


399 

Priscianus,   ap.    G.L.   II,    278,    12    K :     '  Frux '    airo    tov 
<j>pvy(x)  ...  — 

*  Si  luci  si  nox  si  mox  si  iam  data  sit  frux. 


400 
Festus,  344,  32:   <Quando  .  .  .>  — 
'  Nox  quando  mediis  signis  praecincta  volabit, 

401-2 

Macrobius,  8.,  VI,  4,  19  :  ...  '  Nee  lucidus  aethra  J  siderea 
polus  '  {Aen.,  Ill,  585).     Ennius  prior  dixerat  in  XVI — 

interea  fax 
occidit  oceanumque  rubra  tractim  obruit  aethra. 

403-4 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Qexyrg.,  IV,  230 :  '  Ore  fave,'  cum  religione 
ac  silentio  accede;   in  XVI  Ennius — 

Hie  insidiantes  vigilant,  partim  requiescunt 
contecti  gladiis,  sub  seutis  ore  faventes. 

Cp.  Serv.  (auct.)  ad  Georg.,  I,  18. 

^"^  fortasse  <lunae>  interea 

*"*  contecti  Merula  protecti  Colonna  tecti  cum  B 

requiescunt  tecti  gladiis  aid. 


ANNALS 

398 

The  Istrians  from  behind  a  hill  keep  watch  over  the  Roman 
camp  by  the  Lacus  Timavus,  178  B.C.  ;  " 

Festus  :    '  Obstipum,'  slanting  ...  — 

Slanting  mountains  standing  in  the  way,  whence 
rises  up  the  night. 

399 

The  Istrians  are  well  prepared  : 

Priscianus  :   '  Frux  '  .  .  .  derived  from  <f>puyiii  .  .  . 

'  If  by  dayhght,  if  at  night,  if  soon,  if  narv  we  be 
given  success. 

400 

TJie  Istrian  plan  of  attack  on  the  Romans  : 

Festus  :   '  Quando  '  .  .  .  — 

'  When  night  shall  fly  gix't  up  by  constellations  in 
her  midst, 

401-2 
Dawn  comes  : 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  Nor  was  there  a  clear  and  star- 
lit heaven.'     Ennius  had  said  before  in  his  sixteenth  book — 

Meanwhile  the  torch  *  dies  out  and  pink  trailing 
dawnlight  covers  the  Ocean. 

403-4 

The  Romans  on  the  uxttch  : 

Servius  (supplemented),  reading  '  ore  fave '  in  Virgil : 
'  Come  close  with  the  silence  of  worship '  :  in  the  sixteenth 
book  Ennius — 

Here  in  ambush  they  keep  watch,  while  some  of 
them  take  rest,  guarded  by  their  swords,  keeping 
a  shut  mouth  under  their  shields. 

"  Livy  XLI,  11.  *  Perhaps  the  light  of  the  moon. 


ENNIUS 

405 
Festus,  171,  fin. :  '  Navus,'  celer  ac  strenuua  ...  — 
'  Navorum  imperium  servare  est  induperantum. 

406 

Festus,  476,  28  :    Idem  (se.  Ennius)  cum  ait  -sapsam  pro 
ipsa  nee  alia,  ponit  in  lib.  XVI — 

'  quo  res  sapsa  loco  sese  ostentatque  iubetque, 

Cp.  Paul.,  477,  6. 

407 
Festus,  492,  5  :  '  Speres '  antiqui  phiraliter  dicebant  ...  — 
*  Spero,  si  speres  quiequam  prodesse  potis  sunt, 

408 
Festus,  284,  30  :    '  Prodit '  .  .  .  perdit  .  .  .  — 
Non  in  sperando  cupide  rem  prodere  summam 
Cp.  Paul,  ex  F.,  285,  14. 

409-16 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  3,  1  :  Sunt  quaedam  apud  Vergilium 
quae  ab  Homero  creditur  transtulisse ;  sed  ea  docebo  a  nostris 
auctoribua  sumpta,  qui  priores  haec  ab  Homero  in  carmina  sua 
transtulerant  .  .  .  Homerus  de  Aiacis  forti  pugna  ait  (//., 
XVI,  102)— 


Macrob.,    VI,  3,  3  Ennius  in  XVI  Bergk  XVIII 

Ritter  XII  Par.  in  quinto  decimo  vulgo  j/rob.  V  XII 

Merula  C.  Aelii  Merula  eelij  Par.  celii  rell. 

152 


ANNALS 

405 

The  tributie  Adiug  reminds  the  consul  (A.  Manlius  Vulso) 
of  his  duty  : " 

Festus  :   '  Navus  '  swift  and  strenuous  ...  — 

*  It  is  the  part  of  commanders  who  are  men  of 
deeds,  to  keep  discipline. 

406 
Aeliiis  says  he  vnU  stand  his  ground  : 

Festus:  The  same  {i.e.  Ennius),  when  he  says  '  sapsa  ' 
instead  of  '  ipsa  nee  alia,'  writes  in  the  sixteenth  book — 

'  in  the  place  where  my  very  duty  displays  itself 
and  commands  me. 

407 
The  hopes  of  Aelius  : 

Festus  :  The  archaic  writers  used  a  plural  '  speres  '  .  .  .  — 
'  I  hope — if  hopes  can  help  at  all, 

408 
Posnibly  from,  the  consuVs  reply  to  Aelius  : 
Festus  :    '  Prodit,'  .  .  .  ruins  ...  — 

*  Not  to  ruin  the  State  by  hoping  eagerly 

409-16 

Aelius  stands  fast  against  violent  attacks  : 

Macrobius  :  Virgil  has  certain  passages  which  he  is  believed 
to  have  transferred  from  Homer ;  but  I  shall  show  that  they 
are  passages  which  were  taken  from  authors  of  ours  who,  earlier 
than  Virgil,  had  transferred  these  passages  from  Homer  to 
their  own  poetic  works.  .  .  .  Homer  on  a  fierce  fight  fought 
by  Ajax  has — 

"  On  this  and  the  next  two  frs.,  of.  Livy,  XLI,  2,  and  notes 
on  pp.  154—5. 

153 


ENNIUS 

A'a?  8'  ovKfr'  ffiifive-  ^Lalero  yap  PeXeeaaiV' 
8diJ.va  ^iv  Zrjvos  re  voos  koI  Tpaies  ayavol 
PdXXovTes'  Seivvv  Se  nepl  KpOTa^oiai  (ftaeivfj         ^ 
TfqX-q^  ^aAXofievr]  Kavaxijv  e;^e'  ^dXXeTO  8'  ai'ei 
#ca7r  (f>dXap'  evTToirjd'-  6  8'  dpiorepov  cofiov  (KUfivev 
efineSov  aiev  €^u>v  oaKos  aloXov,  ouS'  ibvvavro 
a^cfi'  avTw  neXeixiiai  epeiSovrej  peXeeaoiv 
aiel  8'  dpyaXew  e^er'  dai-iari  kolS  8e'  ol  iSpws 
iravTodev  eV  fxeXecov  peev  daneTOS,  ovBe  vrj  eix^v 
ajXTTvevaai,  TravTr)  be  kukov  KaKU>  iar-qpiKTo. 

Hunc  locum  Ennius  in  XVI  ad  pugnam  C.  Aelii  tribuni  his 
versibus  transfert — 

Undique  conveniunt  velut  imber  tela  tribuno : 
configunt  parmam,  tinnit  hastilibus  umbo 
aerato  sonitu  galeae,  sed  nee  pote  quisquam 
undique  nitendo  corpus  discerpere  ferro  ; 
semper  abundantes  hastas  frangitque  quatitque  ; 
totum  sudor  habet  corpus  multumque  laborat, 
nee  respirandi  fit  copia;  praepete  ferro  1415 

Hlstri  tela  manu  iacientes  sollicitabant. 

Hinc  Vergilius  eundera  locum  de  incluso  Turno  gratia 
elegantiore  composuit  (Aen.,  IX,  803-811) — 

Ergo  nee  clipeo  iuvenis  subsistere  tantum 
nee  dextra  valet,  obiectis  sic  undique  telis 
obruitur,  strepit  adsiduo  cava  tempora  circum 
tinnitu  galea  et  saxis  solida  aera  fatiscunt 

Macrob.  VI,  3,  3  :  vide  p.  I52,fi7i. 

*'^  fortasse  et  galea  aerato  sonitu       excidisse  versumconi.  V 

"  Bergk's  attribution  of  this  fr.  to  Book  XVI  must  be 
accepted.  In  the  tradition  the  name  of  the  brave  tribune 
was  confused  with  that  of  another  in  the  same  legion.  Pliny 
has  T.  Caecilius  Teucrus,  which  Bergk  corrected  to  T.  Aelius 
Teucrus;  Macrobius  has  Caelius  (or  C.  Aelius);  Livy  (XLI, 
2,9)  has  M.  Licinius  Strabo;  but  in  XLI,  1,  7,  and'4,  3  he 
mentions  two  brothers,  both  tribunes — T.  and  C.  Aelius  who 
correspond  with  T.  Caecilius  Teucrus  and  his  brother  in  Pliny. 
Steuart  .suggests  some  falsification  by  the  annalist  C.  Licinius 

154 


ANNATE 

But  Aias  could  no  longer  stand  his  ground ;  for  distressed 
was  he  by  spears.  Yea,  the  will  of  Zeus  overmastered  him, 
the  Trojans  too  who  pelted  him ;  dread  was  the  rattle  which  his 
shining  helmet  thus  pelted  kept  around  his  brows,  for  pelted 
was  it  again  and  again  over  its  fair-wrought  cheek-pieces. 
Wearj-  was  he  too  in  his  shoulder — the  left  where  he  firm  and 
constant  held  his  motley  shield,  nor  could  they  by  lunging 
all  around  him  with  their  javelins  so  dash  him  off.  And  ever 
was  he  gripped  in  cruel  gasping,  while  sweat  unquenched 
poured  down  off  his  limbs  from  every  point,  nor  coiild  he  in 
any  wise  draw  breath;  but  on  all  sides  heaped  was  hurt 
on  hurt. 

This  passage  Ennius  "  in  the  sixteenth  book  transferred 
to  the  fight  of  the  tribune  C.  Aelius,  in  the  following  lines — 

From  all  sides  the  javelins  like  a  rain-storm 
showered  in  upon  the  tribune,  and  pierced  his 
buckler ;  then  jangled  the  embossment  under  spears, 
the  helmets  too  with  brassy  clang ;  but  not  one  of 
them,  though  strain  they  did  from  every  side,  could 
rend  apart  his  body  with  the  iron.  Every  time  he 
shakes  and  breaks  the  waves  of  lances  ;  sweat  covers 
all  his  body ;  he  is  hard  distressed ;  to  breathe  he 
has  not  a  chance.  The  iron  came  flving  as  the 
Histrians  cast  the  spears  from  their  hands  to  harass 
him. 

By  the  use  of  this  as  an  example  *  Virgil,  on  the  subject  of 
Turnus  hemmed  in,  has  rendered  the  same  passage  with  a 
more  elegant  grace — 

Thus  neither  by  the  strength  of  his  shield  nor  of  his  right 
hand  can  the  young  warrior  withstand  an  onset  so  great,  so 
overwhelmed  is  he  by  javelins  cast  at  him  from  all  sides  : 
again  and  again  his  helmet  jingles  and  jangles  round  the  hollows 
of  his  temples,  the  firm  plates  of  brass  gave  way  under  the 

Macer.  For  another  view  cf.  Vahlen,  Abh.  B.  Akad.,  1886, 
18  ff.  Cf.  also  Havet  in  Bibl.  de  Fecole  des  hauies  it.,  XXXV^ 
35  ff. 

*  It  looks,  however,  as  though  Virgil  took  his  idea  directly 
from  Homer. 

155 


ENNIUS 

discussaeque  iubae  capiti  nee  sufficit  umbo 
ictibus;   ingerainant  hastis  et  Troes  et  ipse 
f ulmineus  Mnestheus ;  turn  toto  corpora  sudor 
liquitur  et  piceum,  nee  respirare  potestas, 
Huinen  agit,  fessos  quatit  aeger  anhelitus  artus. 


417 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,   1,  24:    '  Corruit  in  vulnus;    sonitum 
super  arma  dedere  '  (Aen,,  X,  488).     Ennius  in  XVI — 

concidit  et  sonitum  simul  insuper  arma  dederunt. 

Horn.,  //.,  IV,  504  SovTrrjoev  Be  neaaiv,  dpd^-qae  8e  rev^e'  en' 
OUT  a* 

418 

Diomedes,  ap.  O.L.  I,  382,  21  K  :   '  Hortatur '  .  .  .  '  hori- 
tnr  '  dixerunt  ...  — 

pi'andere  iubet  horiturque. 

419-20 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Aen.,  XI,  19:    Alii  'vellere'  movere 
accipiunt.     Ennius — 

Rex  deinde  citatus 
convellit  sese. 

421 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  103  :  Multa  ab  animalium  voeibus  tralata 
in  homines  .  .  .  Ennii  .  .  .  ab  haedo — 

Clamor  ad  caelum  volvendus  per  aethera  vagit. 
*^^  clamos  L 
"  Cf.  Livy,  XLI,  2,  12.  "  Livy,  XLI,  4,  7. 


ANNALS 

stones,  and  his  horse-hair  crest  was  struck  from  his  head; 
the  embossment  could  not  bear  the  blows;  the  Trojans, 
yea  and  Mnestheus  too  like  a  thunder-bolt,  redoubled  the 
thrusts  of  their  spears.  Then  over  all  his  body  sweat  trickled 
and  flowed  in  a  dark  stream;  no  power  had  he  to  draw  his 
breath;    a  sick  sore  gasping  shook  his  wearied  limbs. 

417 
The  death,  of  Aeltus  1 : 

Macrobius  :  '  He  fell  forward  upon  the  wound ;  his  weapons 
dinned  over  him.'     Eimius  in  the  sixteenth  book — 

He  tumbled  and  >Wthal  his  armour  dim[ied  over  him. 

418 

The  Istrians  prevailed  ;  they  feast  "  in  the  Roman  camp  at 
the  order  of  the  king  : 

Diomedcs  :   '  Horitur  '  was  used  for  '  hortatur  '  .  .  .  — 
He  orders  and  encourages  them  to  break  their 
fast. 

419-20 

The  Romans  recover  their  camp  ;  King  Epulo,  half-drunk, 
escapes  : 

Servius  (supplemented) :  Others  take  '  vellere '  to  mean 
*  to  move.'     Ennius — 

Then  the  king,  full  roused,  pulled  himself  up.* 

421 

The  siege  of  Xesactum '  by  C.  Claudius  Pulchcr,  177  B.C.  ?  : 

Varro  :  There  are  many  sounds  which  though  belonging 
to  animals  have  been  used  figuratively  of  men  .  .  .Ennius.  .  . 
transferred  from  the  goat — 

The  clamour  rolling  skyward  bleated  through  the 
air. 

'  Or  the  slaughter  of  the  Istrians  by  the  Romans ;  cf.  Livy, 
XLI,  11,  3.  The  attribution  to  this  book  is  suggested  by  the 
next  fragment. 

157 


ENNIUS 

422 
Festus,  570,  8  :    '  Vagorem  '  pro  vagitu  ...  — 
qui  clamos  oppugnantes  vagore  volauti 

423 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  518,  13  K  (p.  140)  :  Ennius  .  .  in 
XVI— 

Ingenio  forti  dextruni  latus  pertudit  hasta. 

424 

Macrobius,  6'.,  VI,  1,  50 :  '  Turn  gelidus  toto  manabat 
corpore  sudor'  (Aen.,  Ill,  175).     Ennius  in  XVI — 

Tunc  tiinido  manat  ex  omni  corpore  sudor. 

425-6 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  1,  53  :  '  Apiccm  tamen  incita  summum 
hasta  tulit  {Aen.,  XII,  492).     Ennius  in  XVI— 

tamen  induvolans  secum  abstulit  hasta 
insigne. 

LIBER  XVII 

427 

Festus,  510,  28  :    '  Spccus  '  feminino  genere  .  .  .  Ennius — 

Turn  cava  sub  nionte  late  specus  intus  patebat. 

Cp.  Non.,  223,  1 ;  Priscian.,  ap.  G.L.  II,  260,  2  K  (Ennius  in 
XVII  Annalium);   Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  VII,  568. 

*-'  dextrum  Merula  dextra  Prise. 

*-'  turn  cava  Prise.  concava  Non.  turn  causa  Fest. 
cum  coni.  V  monte  Prise,  Fest.  montis  Non.  mon- 
tcm  Colonna         montei  0.  Mueller         mentis  latere  Fruter. 

"  So  I  conclude  from  fr.  429.  The  book  would  include, 
e.g.,  Lex  Claudia  ejecting  socii  (177  B.C.);  subjugation  of 
the  Sardinians  by  Tib.  Gracchus  (177);  embassies  between 
Greece  and  Rome,  especiallv  in  173;   trouble  between  Massi- 


ANNALS 
422 

Festus  :    '  V'agor  '  instead  of  '  vagitus  '  .  .  .  — 
this   clamour  .  .  .  the   besiegers  .  .  .  with   Avinged 
bleating 

423 

From,  scenes  of  battle  : 

Priscianus  on  '  tutudi ' :  .  .  .  E.  in  the  sixteenth  book — 

The  lance  of  sturdy  mettle  punched  through  his 
right  side. 

424 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  Then  a  cold  sweat  came  flow  ing 
down  all  my  body.'     Ennius  in  the  sixteenth  book — 

Tlien  SAveat  flowed  from  all  his  fear-filled  body. 

425-6 
Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :    "  Still  the  darting  lance  took 
away  the  helmet  top.'     Ennius  in  the  sixteenth  book — 

Still  the  lance  flying  at  him  carried  away  with  it 
the  badge. 

BOOK   XVII 

Probably  from  the  end  of  the  Istrian  War  to  the 
Defeat  of  P.  Licixius  Crassus  at  Callinicus," 

171    B.C.,   DURING   THE   ThIRD    MACEDONIAN   WaR 

427 
Perseus  of  Macedon  fortifies  the  passes  of  Tempf,  171  B.C.  ?  * 
Festus  :   '  Specus  '  in  the  feminine  gender  .  .  .  Ennius — 
Then    a   hollow   cavern   opened   widely    inwards 
under  the  mountain. 

nissa  and  Carthage;  Perseus  and  his  rupture  with  Rome, 
172  B.C.  The  extant  fre.,  all  of  doubtful  context,  seem  to 
refer  to  the  year  171. 

*  At  any  rate  the  fr.  describes  a  piece  of  Greek  scenery. 
Prisciau  quotes  the  fr.  from  Book  XVII. 

159 


ENNIUS 

428 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  198,  6  K  :  Genetivum  etiam  in  as 
(199,  4  K)  .  .  .— 

.  .  .  dux  ipse  vias 

429 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  1,  22  :  '  Quadrupedante  putrem  sonitu 
quatit  ungula  campum  '  {Aen.,  VllI,  596).  Ennius  ...  in 
XVII— 

It  eques  et  plausu  cava  concutit  ungula  terrain. 


430-32 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  2,  28  :  '  Diversi  magno  ceu  quondam 
turbine  venti  confligunt  zephyrusque  notusque  ot  laetus  Eois  | 
eurus  equis  (Aen.,  II,  416).     Ennius  in  XVII — 

Concurrunt  veluti  venti  quom  spiritus  Austri 
imbricitor  Aquiloque  suo  cum  flamine  contra 
indu  mari  magno  fluctus  extollere  certant. 

Homer,  11,  IX,  4  : 

toy  8'  di^efioi  bvo  ttovtov  opivsTOv  IxOvoevra 
BopeTjs  Kal  Z€(f>vpog,  tu)  tc  &p\,kt}6iv  drjTov 
iXdovr'  i^anivtjs'    dfivBis  Se  re  KSfia  KeXaivov 
Kop6v€Tai, 


433 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  1,  21  :   'Tollitur  in  caelum  clamor,  cunc- 
tique  Latini '  (Aen.,  XI,  745).     Ennius  in  XVII — 

Tollitur  in  caelum  clamor  exortus  utrimque. 

*^  utrimque  Merula        utrisque  Macrdb. 
i6o 


ANNALS 

428 
Perseua  loatcha  Crasaua  from,  Mount  Oata  f  : 
Priscianus  :   Genitive  even  in  -as  .  .  .  — 
himself  the  leader  of  the  way 

429 

Defeat '  of  P.  Licinius  Craasua  in  a  cavalry-battle  at  CaUinicua, 
171  B.C. : 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  The  four-footed  beat  of  the 
hoof  shakes  the  crumbling  plain.'  Ennius  ...  in  the 
seventeenth  book — 

The  horsemen  charged,  and  the  beating  of  their 
hollow  hoofs  shook  the  ground. 

430-32 
The  cUuh  : 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  As  from  time  to  time  with  a 
great  whirlwind  gales  set  against  each  other  meet  in  conflict — 
the  west  wind  and  the  south,  and  the  east  happy  in  his  horses 
of  the  dawn. '     Ennius  in  the  seventeenth  book — 

They  rushed  together  as  when  the  breath  of  the 
showery  Wind  of  the  South  and  the  Wind  of  the 
North  •with  his  counterblast  strive  to  upheave 
billows  on  the  mighty  main. 

Homer  :  As  when  two  winds,  the  Northern  and  the  Western, 
stir  up  the  fishy  sea;  they  come  on  a  sudden,  blowing  from 
Thrace,  and  forthwith  the  black  billow  rises  to  a  head, 

433 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  *  Uproars  to  heaven  a  shout  and 
the  Latins,  one  and  all,'  .  .  .  Ennius  in  the  seventeenth 
book — 

Uproars  to  heaven  the  shout  that  rose  from  either 
side. 

*  Or  possibly  the  charge  of  the  Thracians  under  Cotys  at 
Lariasa  earUer  in  the  year — St.,  p.  206. 

i6x 

VOL.  I.  M 


ENNIUS 

434-5 

Servius  (auctus),  ad  Georg.,  IV,  188  :   '  Mussant '  hie  '  mur- 
murant ' ;   quae  vox  ponitui*  et  in  tacendi  significatione  .  .  . 

'  Noenu  decet  mussare  bonos  qui  facta  labore 
nixi  militiae  peperere. 
Cp.  Serv.  ad  Aen.,  XII.  657;  Paulus,  ex  F.,  127,  7. 

436-8 
Nonius,  134,  19 :  '  Longiscere,'  longum  fiefi  vel  frangi ...  — 
neque  corpora  firma 
longiscunt  quicquam. 

idem — 
quom  soles  eadem  facient  longiscere  longe. 


LIBER  XVIII 

439 

Nonius,  63,  4  :  Est  autem  gruma  mensura  quaedam  qua 
fixa  viae  ad  lineam  deriguntur  .  .  .  Ennius  lib.  XVIII  gruma 
derigere  dixit — - 

degrumare  forum 

*^*  noenu  decet  V  non  decet  hie  Merula  non  decet 

Paul.  non  possunt  Serv.  auct.  bonos  Paul.  boni 

Serv.  auct.  facta  D  (I.)         factam  Serv.  auct. 

"'  nixi  mUitiae  D  (I.)         enixi  militiam  Serv.  auct. 

***  soles  V  sol  aestate  diem  B  'prob.  St.  soles  terras 
Hug  cum  soles  tandem  olim  V  cum  sola  est  eadem 

cdd.         facient  cdd.         faciens  Bergk 

*'*  degrumare  forum  V  degrumari  ferrum  cdd.        for- 

tasse  degrumare  forum  ferro 

"  '  mumbling  '  or  '  grumbling  '  without  distinct  words — 
cf.  68,  122,  253,  378. 

162 


ANNALS 

434-5 
Slackness  of  discipline  in  the  Boman  army  ?  : 
Servios   (supplemented) :     '  Mussant '   here   means   '  mur- 

morant ' ;   it  is  a  term  which  is  also  used  with  a  sense  of  not 

speaking  •  .  .  . — 

No,  it  is  not  meet  that  good  warriors  should 
mumble ;  warriors  who,  straining  in  the  toil  of 
battle-fields,  have  given  birth  to  deeds. 

436-8 

Unplaced  fragments  : 

Nonios :  '  Longiscere,'  to  become  long,  or  to  be  broken  ...  — 
nor  do  their  firm  bodies  languish  **  at  all. 

The  same  '  poet — 
when  the   sunny   days   shall   make   them  lengthen 
long. 

BOOK  XVIII 
Further  Events  of  the  year  171  ?  ** 

439 

Making  a  camp  : 

Nonius  :  The  '  gruma  '  is  a  certain  measnring-instrument ; 
by  means  of  this,  when  it  is  fixed  in  position,  roads  are  built 
in  a  truly  straight  line.  .  .  .  Ennius  in  the  eighteenth  book, 
for  '  to  mark  out  with  the  measuring  rod,'  uses  the  phrase — 

to  level  off  the  meeting-place  ^ 

*  '  Nor  do  even  firm  bodies  last  at  all  ( ? ).'  If  Nonius  is 
right,  the  meaning  may  be  '  stretch '  (so  as  to  grow  weaker 
by  the  strain) ;   see  also  next  not«. 

*■  Probably  in  the  same  book ;  if  this  and  the  last  fr.  come 
from  the  same  context,  then  corpora  in  the  last  may  refer  to  the 
trunk,  stem,  or  sap  of  plants;  cf.  line  240. 

■*  In  all  probability  this  book  was  unfinished  at  the  time 
when  Ennius  died  in  169  B.C. 

'  forum,  '  parade-ground.'  But  we  ought  perhaps  to  read 
degrumari  ferro. 

163 

k2 


ENNIUS 

440 

Grellius,  XIII,  21,  14 :   Contra  vero  idem  Ennius  in  Annali 
XVIII— 

aere  fulva 

dixit,  non  fulvo,  non  ob  id  solum  quod  Homerus  ijepa  ^adetav 
{II.,  XX.  446,  XXI,  6)  dicit,  sed  quod  hie  sonus  opinor  voca- 
bilior  est  visus  et  amoenior. 

Cp.  Gell.,  II,  26,  11. 


Ex    LiBRO    VIII    AUT    IX? 

The  six  following  fragments,  to  judge  from  the  probable 
parallelisms  in  Virgil,  come  from  a  description  of  a  sham  naval 
fight  or  of  a  fleet  in  training;  the  racing  ships  are  compared 
with  racing  chariots  and  horses.  Cf.  V.,  87-8 ;  H.  A.  Koch, 
Exercit.  Crit.,  11;  Norden,  165-7.  The  scene  may  be  the 
sham  display  by  Scipio  at  New  Cartihage  in  210  B.C.  (Livy, 

441 

Festus  550,  22  :  '  Termonem  '  Ennius  Graeca  consuetudine 
dixit  .  .  . — 

hortatore  bono  prius  quam  lam  finibus  termo 

Cp.  Paul.,  551,  2. 

Vergilius,  Aen.,  V,  129-130,  139-141. 

442 

Isidorus,  Orig.,  XIX,  1,  22  :  '  Celoces  '  quas  Graeci  KeXijras 
vocant,  id  est  veloces  biremes  vel  triremes  agiles  et  ad  minister- 
ium  classis  aptae.     Ennius — 

Labitur  uncta  carina  per  aequora  cana  celocis. 

Vergilius,  Aen.,  V,  142-3. 

**^  quam  vel  quam  iam  cdd.  qui  iam  ed,  pr.  quam 

qui  V 

164 


ANNALS 
440 

the  indecisiix  battle  at  Phalanna  ?  : 

Grellius  :  But  on  the  other  hand  Ennius  again  in  the  ei^t- 
eenth  book  of  Annals  writes — 

a  tawny  mist 

'  fulva '  not  '  fulvo,'  not  only  because  Homer  says  -qepa 
PaOeiav  but,  I  think,  because  he  beUeved  the  former  sound 
o  to  be  more  musical  and  pleasant. 

From  Book  VIII  or  IX  ? 

XXVI,  51;  Polyb.,  X,  20,  1,  6);  or  at  SjTacuse  in  204  B.C. 
(Livy,  XXIX,  22);  or  possibly  the  frs.  describe  the  training 
of  Scipio's  fleet  in  205  (Livy,' XXVIII,  45-6);  or  even  the 
activities  of  the  Spartan  Xabis  at  Gj-theion  in  192  B.C.  (Livy, 
XXXV,  25  ff.). 

441 

Festus  :  '  Termo  '  is,  as  used  by  Ennius,  a  Graecism  <"  .  .  .  — 
...  a  good  prompter  before  the  boundary-post 
at  the  limits  is  reached.  .  .  . 
tVirgil  describes  a  boat-race  round  a  post  set  up  by  Aeneas.] 

442 

Isidorus :  '  Celoces '  are  what  the  Greeks  call  KeXrjreg,  that  is, 
swift  biremes  or  tri hemes  fitted  for  the  sersice  of  a  fleet. 
Ennius  has — 

The  cutter 
Smooth    o'er  the  white    o'   the   waves  on  a  keel 

very  greasy  she  glided.* 
[Virgil  goes  on  to  describe  the  racing  ships.] 

"  In  fact,  however,  the  form  is  old  Latin.  Festus  is  think- 
ing of  the  Greek  repfiCDv;  but  -o  in  Latin  does  not  represent 
-CUV  in  Greek. 

*  Cp.  Bk.  XTV,  fr.  374.     Ennius'  rhythm  is  intentional. 

165 


ENNIUS 

443-4 

Schol.   Bern.,  in  Georg.,  I,  512  (Ut  cum  carceribus  sese 
effudere  quadrigae)  '  Carceribus,'  ianuis.     Ennius  ait — 

quom  a  carcere  fusi 
currus  cum  sonitu  magno  permittere  certant, 

445 

Charisius  ap.  G.L.,  1,  272,  22  K  :    Quemadmodum  in  navi 
auriga  dici  potest,  ita  et  in  curru  gubernator,  ut — 

quomque  gubernator  magna  contorsit  equos  vi, 

Cp.  Diomed.,  ap.  G.L.,  VI,  457,  29  K  :   Quintil.,  VIII,  6,  9; 
Mar.  Plot.  Sac,  ap.  G.L.,  VI,  466,  29  K. 

Vergilius,  Aen.,  V,  144-147 ;  Horn.,  Od.,  XIII,  81  ff. 

446 

Festus,  394,  32  :    '  Restat '  pro  distat  ait.  .  .  .     Ennium 
ponere  cum  is  dicat — 

Impetus  haud  longe  mediis  regionibus  restat. 

Cp.  Paul.,  395,  7. 

Vergilius,  ^ew.,  V,  218  :  illam  fert  impetus  ipse  volant  em. 

447 

Festus,  550,  22  :   '  Termonem  '  Ennius  Graeca  consuetudine 
dixit.  ...  —  ' 

Ingenti  vadit  cursu  qua  redditus  tv-i'mo  est. 

Cp.  Paul.,  551,  2. 

Vergilius,  Aen.,  V,  241-243  (manu  magna  ex  altera  E.  loco, 
Jr.  541). 


**'  a  cd.  (cp.  Varr.,  Menipp.,  488  a  carcere)  e  Hagen 
***  cumque  Charts.,  Diomed.         atque  Mar.   Plot. 
Enn.  Gesner  prob.  V 


trih. 
Gesner  prob.  V 

i66 


ANNALS 

443-4 

A  scholiast,  on  Virgil's  '  even  as  when  teams  of  four  pour 
out  from  the  barriers  '  :    '  Barriers,'  doors.     Ennius  says — 

When  pouring  from  the  barriers  the  chariots  \\-ith 
a  mighty  clatter  strive  to  move  headlong," 

445 

Charisius  :  As  in  the  case  of  a  ship  we  can  speak  of  a  driver, 
so  in  the  same  way  we  can  speak  of  a  steersman  in  the  case 
of  a  chariot,  for  example —  * 

and  when  the  steersman  has  turned  his  horses  with  a 
mighty  pull, 

[Virgil  likewise  compares  the  racing  ships  to  racing  chariots, 
and  imitates  Homer.] 

446 

Festus  :  '  Restat.'  Ennius  is  stated  to  use  this  word  for 
'  distat '  "  when  he  says — 

Its  rush  not  far  off  keeps  steady  in  the  course. 

Virgil  has  :  her  own  speed  bears  her  flying  on. 

447 
Festus  :  '  Termo  '  is,  as  used  by  EnniiLs,  a  Graecism  *  .  .  .  — 
with  giant  speed  it  overruns  the  place  where  the 
boundarj'-post  is  set. 

"  Nonius  (162,  1)  explains  the  word  as  mittere,  incUare,  vel 
'pmeci'pitare ;   the  reflexive  is  not  included  in  the  fr. 

*  Attribution  to  Ennius  is  doubtful  but  probable.  Auriga, 
gubernator — Cp.  '  man  at  the  wheel.' 

'  But  I  take  '  restat '  as  meaning  '  remains  firm.'  Or  it 
might  mean  '  comes  to  a  standstill '  (of  a  ship  which  as  it  were 
'  breaks  down  '  in  the  race).  If,  however,  restat  really  means 
distat  here,  Ennius  describes  a  ship  or  ships  not  far  behind  other 
ships. 

^  See  n.  on  fr.  441. 

167 


ENNIUS 

Ex  Aliis  Annalium  Incertis  Libris 

448 

Cicero,  de  Nat.  Dear.,  II,  2,  4  :  Ilium  vero  et  lovem  {invocant) 
et  dominatorem  rerum  et  omnia  natu  regentem  et,  ut  .  .  . 
Ennius — • 

patrem  divumque  hominumque 

Cp.  Cic,  id.,  25,  64. 

II.,  V,  425,  1  al.  :  TraTtjp  dv8pwv  re  dfu>v  re. 


449 

Varro,  L.L.,  V,  65  :  Ennius  .  .  .  eundem  (sc.  lovem)  appel- 
lans  dicit — 

divumque  hominumque  pater  rex 

Cp.  Enn.,  Ann.,  207-8. 


450-51 

Vergilius,  Aen.,  I,  254-6  : 

Olli  subridens  hominum  sator  atque  deorum 
vultu,  quo  caelum  tempestatesque  serenat, 
oscula  libavit  natae. 

Servius,  ad  254  :  '  Subridens.'  Laetum  ostendit  lovem  et 
talem  qualis  esse  solet  cum  facit  serenum :  .  .  .  Servius 
auctua  ad  loc.     Ennius — 

luppiter  hie  risit,  tempestatesque  serenae 
riserunt  omnes  risu  lovis  omnipotentis. 

Homerus,  II.,  V,  426  :  u>s  <f>a.TO,  fielbrjoev  he  TTarrjp  dv8pa>v  re 
6twv  TC. 

i68 


ANNALS 

Other  Fragments  of  the  Annals  not  assigned 
TO  ANY  Book 

(A)  The  gods: 

448 

Cicero  :  Yes,  men  call  upon  him  not  only  aa  Jupit-er  but 
also  as  lord  of  the  xmiverse,  and  ruler  of  all  things  by  his  nod, 
and,  as  Ennius  says — 

father  of  gods  and  men 

449 
Varro  :  Ennius  .  .  .  calling  upon  the  same  god,  says — 
father  and  monarch  of  gods  and  men 

450-51 
Virgil  says : 

The  begetter  of  gods  and  men,  with  a  gentle  smile  for  her  in 
his  look,  with  which  he  calms  the  sky  and  the  weather,  gently 
kissed  his  daughter. 

Servins,  on  '  subridens ' :  '  With  a  gentle  smile.'  He 
represents  Jupiter  as  happy  and  such  as  he  is  wont  to  be  when 
he  brings  calm  weather.  .  .  .  An  augmenter  of  Servius  adds: 
Ennius  has — 

Here  Jupiter  smiled,  and  with  °  the  almighty's  smile 
Smiled  clear  and  calm  all  weathers. 

Homer  says :  So  spake  and  smiled  the  father  of  men  and 
gods. 

"  Here  Ennius  expands  Homer. 

169 


ENNIUS 

452-3 

Serviua  (auctus)  ad  Aen.,  I,  31  :  '  Arcebat,'  prohibebat. 
Significat  autem  et  continet.     Ennius — • 

qui  fulmine  claro 
omnia  per  sonitus  arcet, 

Cp.  Prob.  (ad  Verg.  Ed.,  VI,  31) :  Plane  trinam  esse  mundi 
originem  et  Lucretius  confitetur  dicens.  .  .  .  '  Omnia  per 
sonitus  arcet,  terram  mare  caelum.' 

Cp.  Lucret.,  VI,  400. 

454 

Cicero,  de  Div.,  II,  39,  82  :  Ad  nostri  augurii  consuetudinem 
dixit  Ennius — 

Turn  tonuit  laevum  bene  tempestate  serena. 

Cp.  Varr.,  ap.  Non.,  408,  3 ;  Vergil.,  Aen.,  IX,  627  de  parte 
Serena  |  intonuit  laevum ;   II,  693. 

455 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  334,  19  K:  '  Celerissimus '  pro 
'  celerrimus.'  ...  E.  in  Annalibus — 

Exin  per  terras  postquam  celerissimus  rumor 

456.  .  . 

Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  XII,  709  :  '  Inter  se  coisse  viros  et  cernere 
ferro  ' ;   vera  et  antiqua  est  haec  lectio.     Nam  E.  secutus  est 

Olli  cernebant  magnis  de  rebus  agentes. 

Cp.  Lucret.,  V,  393  :  Magnis  inter  se  de  rebus  cernere 
certant. 

**3  omnia  personitans  arcet  terram  mare  caelum  Bemays 
coU.  Prob.  ad  Ed.,  VI,  31 

170 


ANNALS 


452-3 


Servius  (supplemented) :    '  Arcebat,'  kept  off.     It  means 
also  '  contains.'     Ennius — 

■who  ^N-ith  bright  thunderbolt 
Encloses  all  things  in  a  burst  of  sound," 


454 

Cicero :  It  was  with  reference  to  our  system  of  augury 
that  Ennius  wrote — 

Then  on  the  left,  in  weather  clear  and  calm. 
He  thundered  a  good  omen. 

(B)  Affairs  of  State. 

455 

Priscianus :  '  Celerissimus '  for  '  celerrimus.'  .  .  .  Ennius  in 
the  Annals — 

*  And  then  after  most  swiftest  rumour  had  spread 
through  the  lands, 

456 

Servius,  on  Virgil's  '  making  decision  with  the  sword ' : 
This  reading  is  old  and  the  true  one.  For  he  followed 
Ennius  ...  — 

Busied  ^\•ith  great  affairs  they  were  making  a 
decision. 

"  Probus  quotes  a  whole  line  Omnia  p.s.a.  terrain  mare 
caelum  and  gives  the  author  as  Lucretius,  though  our  extant 
MSS.  do  not  contain  the  line.  Cf.  Lachmann,  on  Lucret., 
IV,  126;  Munro,  Lucret.,  Vol.  I,  163-4. 

171 


ENNIUS 

457 

Servius,    ad    Georg.,  II,   424 :  .  •  .  '  cum '    abundat.  .  .  . 
Ennius — 

EfFudit  voces  proprio  cum  pectore  sancto ; 

id  est  proprio  pectore,  nam  '  cum  '  vacat. 

458-9 

Charisius,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  201,  15  K  :  'In  mundo  '  pro  '  palam  ' 
et '  in  expedite  '  ac  '  cito.'  .  .  .  Ennius — 

'  tibi  vita 
seu  mors  in  mundo  est  ' 

460 

Servius   (auctus)   ad   Aen.,   I,   69  :     '  Incute  vim  ventis.' 
.  .  .  Ennius — 

dictis  Romanis  incutit  iram 

461 

Cicero,  ad  Alt.,  VI,  2,  8  :    Ain  tandem,  Attice,  laudator 
integritatis  et  elegantiae  nostrae — 

Ausus  es  hoc  ex  ore  tuo  .  .  .   ? 

inquit  Ennius,   ut  equites  Scaptio  ad  pecuniam  cogendam 
darem,  me  rogare  1 

462 

Varro,  L.L.,   VII,   12  :     '  Tueri '   duo  significat,  unum  ab 
aspectu  .  .  .  unde  est  Ennii  ...  — 

*  Quis  pater  aut  cognatus  volet  vos  contra  tueri  ? 

*®2  vos  lun.        nos  Varro 

»  A  mistake  of  Servius.     In  Virgil's  passage  cum  is  tem- 
poral. 

172 


ANNALS 

457 

Servius,  on  '  cum  Tomere  '  in  Virgil :  '  Cum '  is  redun- 
dant "...     Ennius — 

From  his  own  hallowed  heart  he   poured  forth 
speech ; 
that  is,  '  praprio  'peciore^  for  '  cum  '  has  no  force  here. 

458-9 

Charisius  :  '  In  mundo  '  for  '  palam  '  and  '  in  expedito ' 
and  '  cito  '  .  .  .  Ennius — 

'  Whether  it  is  life  or  death  is  now  in  readiness  for 
you  ' 

460 

Servius  (supplemented),  on  '  Strike  strength  into  the 
winds '  in  Vii^  :  .  .  .  Ennius —  * 

By  his  words  he  struck  -wTath  into  the  Romans 

461 

Cicero :    You  don't  say  so,  Atticua !     You,  who  iH>ai3ed 

the  nice  honour  of  my  conduct — 

'  Durst  you  thus  out  of  your  own  mouth  .  .  . 

(says  Ennius),  ask  me  to  give  Scaptius  some  cavalry  to  collect 
bis  debts  with  ? 

462 

Varro  :  '  Tueri '  has  two  meanings,  one  derived  from  the 
idea  of  looking  at,  whence  comes  Ennius*  use  of  it  .  .  . — 

'  WTiat  man,  father  or  kinsman,  will  wish  to  look 
you  all  in  the  face  ?  ^ 

*  Vahlen  suggests  relating  this  fr.  to  fr.  510.  He  compares 
Virg.,  Atn.,  X,  367-8,  and  Homer,  //.,  XI,  291. 

'  This  and  the  next  fr.  seem  to  belong  to  the  same  context 
(V,  83-4).  They  may  be  words  of  Scipio  to  those  who  opposed 
his  African  schemes.  That  462  is  a  hexameter  need  not  be 
doubted,  since  Ennius  certainly  shortened  the  second  syllable 
of  *  contra '  (cf.  pp.  436-7). 

173 


ENNIUS 

463 
Nonius,  230,  10  :    '  Vultus  '  .  .  .  neutro.  .  .  .  Ennius — 
'  Aversabuntui*  semper  vos  vostraque  vulta 

464-6 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  103  :  Multa  ab  animalium  vocibus  tralata 
in  homines  .  .  .  perspicua  ut  Ennii — 

animus  quom  peetore  latrat 

.  .  .  minus  aperta  ut.  .  .  .  Enii  a  vitulo  .  .  .  eiusdem  a 
bove — 

clamore  bovantes 
eiusdem  a  leone — 

pausam  fecere  fremendi. 

Cp.  Paul.,  ex  Fest.,  87,  9  :  '  latrare  '  Ennius  pro  poscere 
posuit.  Homer.,  Od.,  XX,  13  :  KpaBi-q  Be  oi  evBov  vXaKTei,  11., 
II,  142  :  Ovfiov  €vi  arridfaaiv  upivev.  et  al.  ;  Verg.,  Aen.,  V, 
363  :  animusque  in  peetore. 


467 

Augustinus,  De  Civ.  Dei,  II,  21 :  Sicut  etiam  ipse  Tuilius  non 
Scipionis  nee  cuiusquam  alterius  sed  suo  sermone  loquens  in 
principio  quinti  libri  [de  Re  Publica)  commemorate  prius 
Ennii  poetae  versu  quo  dixerat — 

Moribus  antiquis  res  stat  Romana  virisque. 

««3  aversabuntur    Quich.  avorsabuntur    S  advers- 

ab<antur  cdd. 

*•*  animus  cum  Varro  animusque  in  S  coll.  Od.,  XX,  1 


"  But  adversabantur  may  be  right,  '  were  set  against  me.' 
174 


ANNALS 

463 
Nonius  :   '  Vultus '  ...  in  the  neuter.  .  .  .  Ennius — 
*  You  and  your  faces  mil  be  ever  turned  away  " 

464-6 

Varro  :  Many  animal  sounds  have  been  used  figuratively 
of  human  beings;  ...  of  quite  clear  cases  there  is,  for 
example,  Ennius' — 

when  his  heart  in  his  breast  barks  his  wants  * 

.  .  .  and  of  less  obvious  cases  there  is  for  example  .  .  . 

.  .  .  Ennius'  usage  drawn  from  the  calf  ...  and  the  same 
poet's  usage  drawn  from  the  cow — 

clamorously  mooing 

and  also  his  usage  drawn  from  the  lion — 

they  put  a  stop  to  their  roaring. 


467 

Augustine  :  Just  as  Tully  himself  declared,  speaking  not  in 
Scipio's  nor  anyone  else's  words  but  in  his  own  person  at  the 
beginning  of  his  fifth  book  {sc.  On  the  Republic),  having  first 
quoted  the  line  of  Ennius  where  that  poet  had  written — 

On  manners  and  on  men  of  olden  time 
Stands  firm  the  Roman  State. 

*  Paulus  says  :  Ennius  used  lalrare  in  the  sense  of  foscere. 
These  frs.  should  possibly  be  attributed  to  the  Satires.  In 
fr.  464  we  should  perhaps  write  cum  (preposition),  as  Varro 
does,  instead  of  quom  which  is  the  spelling  used  by  Ennius 
for  temporal  cum. 

175 


ENNIUS 

468-9 

Varro,  R.R.,  III,  1,  2  :  In  hoc  nunc  denique  est  ut  dici 
possit,  non  cum  Ennius  scripsit — - 

Septingenti  sunt  paulo  plus  aut  minus  anni 
augusto  augurio  postquam  incluta  condita  Roma  est 
Cp.  Suet.,  August.,  7. 

470 

Nonius,  197,  2 :   '  Caelum  '  .  .  .  masculino.  .  .  .  Ennius — ■ 

Fortes  Romani  sunt  tamquam  caelus  profundus 

Cp.  Charis.,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  72,  16  K;  Vergil.,  Aen.,  I,  58: 
caelum  que  profundum. 

471-2 

Porphyrio,  ad  Hor.,  S.,  I,  2,  37 :  '  Audire  est  operae  pretium 
procedere  recte  |  qui  moechis  non  vultis  ut  omni  parte  laborent.' 
Urbane  abutitur  Ennianis  versibus — 

'  Audire  est  operae  pretium  procedere  recte 
qui  rem  Romanam  Latiumque  augescere  vultis.' 
Cp.  Acr.,  ad  loc. ;  Varr.,  ap.  Non.,  478,  16. 

473 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  XI,  27  : — 

quem  non  virtutis  egentem, 
Ennii  versus  est. 

474 

Ekkehart,  ad  Oros.,  Ill,  9,  5  (Anno  autem  post  hunc — 
8C.  A.U.C.  CCCC F7X—subsequenti) :  Ennius— 

quom  nihil  horridius  unquam  lex  uUa  iuberet. 

*'•*  sunt  swppl.  Merula        tamquam  B         quamquam  Non. 

"  It  is  unknown  what  caused  Ennius  to  date  the  foundation 
of  Rome  in  the  ninth  century.  This  fr.  may  be  a  rough-and- 
ready  remark  from  a  speech  (cf.  St.,  pp.  222-23;  V.,  CLIV  fiF.) 

176 


ANNALS 

468-9 

Varro :  With  r^ard  to  this  matter,  only  now  could  it  be 
said,  and  not  when  Ennius  wrote,  that — 

Seven  hundred  years  it  is,"  a  little  more  or  less, 
since  renowned  Rome  was  founded  by  august  augury 

470 
Xonius :   '  Caelum  '  ...  in  the  masculine.  .  .  .  Ennius — 
Brave  are  the  Romans  as  the  sky  's  profound 

471-2 

Porphyrio,  on  Horace's  words  :  '  It's  worth  your  while, 
all  you  who  wish  no  successftd  path  for  adulterers,  to  hear 
how  they  are  burdened  on  all  sides ' :  He  wittily  perverts 
lines  of  Ennius — 

'  To  hear  is  worth  your  while,  all  you  who  ^\•ish  the 
Roman  State  to  tread  a  successful  path  and  Latium 
to  increase.' 

473 

Servius,  on  Virgil's — 

whom,  lacking  not  of  valour, 
says  :  This  is  a  line  of  Ennius. 

474 

Over  a  passage  of  Orosius,  in  a  codfx  SangaUensis,  mention- 
ing the  punishment  of  Minucia  a  vestal  virgin  in  343  B.C., 

Ekkehart  wrote  :   Ennius — 

since  nothing  more  horrible  could  any  law  ever 
demand. 

The  most  attractive  theory  is  that  of  Soltan  (Philol.,  X.F., 
XXV,  317  CF.),  who,  calculating  that  Ennius  dated  the  founda- 
tion of  Rome  c.  1100,  suggests  that  these  words  are  spoken 
by  Camillus  on  the  occasion  of  the  invasion  of  the  Gauls 
(390  or  387  B.C.).  In  Livy,  V,  54  Camillus  speaks  of  the 
365th  year  of  Rome's  existence — this,  of  course,  follows  the 
system  by  which  753  was  the  date  of  Rome's  foundation. 

177 
VOL.  I.  N 


ENNIUS 

475 

Nonius,  64,  29  :  '  Propages '  est  series  et  adfixio  continuo 
•vel  longe  ducta.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

nobis  unde  forent  fructus  vitaeque  propagmen. 

Cp.  Non.,  221,  12. 

476 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  470,  21  K  :  Propria  necatus  ferro, 
nectus  vero  alia  vi  peremptus  dicitur.     Ennius — 

Hos  pestis  necuit,  pars  occidit  ilia  duellis. 

477 

Cassiodorius,  ap.  G.L.,  VII,  207,  IK:'  Cum  '  praepositio 
per  c  scribenda  est,  '  quum  '  adverbium  temporis,  quod  sig- 
nificat  '  quando,'  per  q  scribendum  est  discretionis  causa, 
ut  apud  Ennium — 

Cum  legionibus  quom  proficiscitur  induperator, 

478 

Nonius,  214,  7  :    '  Metus  '  .  .  .  feminino.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

Nee  metus  ulla  tenet ;  freti  virtute  quiescunt. 

Cp.  Test.,  402,  15  (.  .  .  Ennius  .  .  .  'nulla  metus'); 
11.,  XI,  9  :  ■^voper]  niavvoi. 

479 

Festus,  510,  17  :  '  Sultis  '  si  vultis  significat.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

'  Pandite  sultis  genas  et  corde  relinquite  somnum.' 

Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  66,  37  (15) :  genas  Ennius  palpebras 
putat  cum  dicit.  ... 

«"  trib.lib.IVY 

*'*  nee  Mercier  ni  cdd.  freti  Mercier  rite  cdd. 
(tennet  riae  Lu.)         virtutem,  rite  V 

178 


ANNALS 

475 

Nonius :  '  Propages '  is  a  connected  series  drawn  out 
without  a  break,  or  at  great  length.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

\S'henee  there  might  be  crops  and  prolonging  of 
life  for  us, 

476 

Priscianus  :  '  Xecatus  '  is  the  proper  term  to  use  of  a  man 
killed  by  the  sword,  but  '  nectus '  of  a  man  killed  by  some 
other  violence.     Ennius — 

Some  a  plague  did  kill ;  others  of  them  fell  in  wars. 

(C)  War. 

477 

Cassiodorius  :  '  Cum '  as  a  preposition  must  be  written 
with  a  c ;  '  quum  '  as  an  adverb  of  time  meaning  '  quando,' 
with  a  q  for  the  sake  of  distinction,  for  example  in  Ermius —  * 

\Mien  the  commander  sets  forth  ^^^th  hi*;  ho^ts, 


478 

Nonius  :   '  Metus  '  ...  in  the  feminine.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

Nor  any  fear  holds  them ;  trusting  in  their  valiance, 
they  rest. 

479 
Festus  :    '  Sultis  '  means  '  si  vultns  ' ;  .  .  .  Ennius — 

•  Open  your  eyelids,*  will  you  all,  and  leave  behind 
the  sleep  in  your  hearts.' 

•  He  describes  probably  the  voiorum  nuncupalio  on  the 
Capitol.  

•  Paulus  says  that  Ennius  uses  genae  in  the  sense  of  eyelids. 

179 
n2 


ENNIUS 

480 

'  Lactantius  '  ad  Stat.,  Theb.,  VI,  27  :  '  et  cornu  fugiebat 
somnus  inani '  ...  sic  a  pictoribus  simulatur,  ut  liquidum 
somnum  ex  cornu  super  dormientes  videatur  efifundere.  Sic 
Ennius — 

Quom  sese  exsiccat  somno  Romana  iuventus. 

481-2 

Nonius,  134,  29  :  '  Latrocinari,'  militare  mercede.  .  .  . 
Ennius — - 

.  .  .  fortunasque  suas  coepere  latrones 
inter  se  memorai'e. 

483 
Nonius,  223,  33  :  '  Sagum  "...  Masculini.     Ennius — 
tergus  igitur  sagus  pinguis  opertat 

484 
Festus,  400,  29  :   Enniua  .  .  .  — 
.  .  .  surum    unum    unus    ferre,    tamen    defendere 
posset.  .  .  . 

Suri  autem  sunt  fustes,  et  viroKopLOTiKais  surculi. 
Cp.  Test.,  424,  7,  Paul.,  ex  F.,  425,  1. 

485 

Vergilius,  Aen.,  XI,  307  :  Nee  victi  possunt  absistere  ferro. 
Servius  auctus  :  Ennius — 

Qui  vicit  non  est  victor  nisi  victus  fatetur  ' 

Varro  et  eeteri  invictos  dicunt  Troianos  quia  per  insidias 
oppressi  sunt ;  illos  enim  vinci  adiirmant  qui  se  dedunt 
hostibus. 


**^  suas  Mereier  quas  cdd. 

***  surum  unum  unus  V  alii  alia  unu  usuru  surus 

Fest.,  400  *  *  *  urus  surum  *  *  Fest.,  424  unus  surus 

surum  ferret  Paul. 

l8o 


ANNALS 

480 
'  Lactantius,'  on  '  And  sleep  fled  away,  his  horn  empty ' 
in  Statins  :    Sleep  is  represented  by  painters  so  as  to  appear 
to  pour  out  over  slumberers  liquid  sleep  from  a  horn.     So 
Ennius  has — 

\Mien  the  young  warriors  of  Rome  dry  themselves 
from  sleep. 

481-2 

Nonius  :  '  Latrocinari '  to  serve  as  a  soldier  for  pay.  .  .  . 
Ennius — 

and  the  hired  warriors  began  to  talk  among  them- 
selves of  their  fortunes 

483 
Nonius  :   '  Sagum  '  .  .  .  Masculine  form.     Ennius — 
Therefore  a  thick  cloak  covers  his  back 

484 

Festus  :  Ennius  ...  — 

.  .  .  Still  could  one  bring  one  stake,  still  could  he 
defend  ..." 
'  suri '  are  stakes ;   the  diminutive  is  '  surculi.' 

485 
Virgil :   Not  when  conquered  can  they  have  done  with  the 
sword.     An  augmenter  of  Servius  adds :  Ennius —  * 

*  He  who  has  conquered  is  not  conqueror 
Unless  the  conquered  one  confesses  it  ' 

Varro  and  the  rest  speak  of  the  Trojans  as  '  unconquered  ' 
because  they  were  overthrown  by  trickery;  they  affirm  that 
only  those  who  surrender  themselves  are  conquered. 

"  This  fr.  is  almost  hopeless,  but  it  seems  to  refer  to  stakes 
of  which  each  legionary  carried  one  for  the  fortification  of  the 
camp,  v.,  95. 

*  If  the  augmenter,  in  '  Varro  and  the  rest,'  includes 
Ennius,  then  the  context  is  probably  the  same  as  the  frs. 
about  Troy  not  being  really  captured — see  pp.  128-9. 

l8i 


ENNIUS 

486 
Festus,  434,  30  :  '  Superescit '  significat  supererit.  Ennius — 
'  Dum  quidem  unus  homo  Romanus  toga  superescit, 
Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  435,  8. 

487 
Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  46  :  Apud  Ennium — 
lam  cata  signa  fere  sonitum  dare  voce  parabant, 
'  cata  '  acuta  j  hoc  enim  verbo  dicunt  Sabini. 

488 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  83,  16  (26) :    '  Lituus '  appellatus  quod  litis 
sit  testis.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

Inde  loci  lituus  sonitus  effudit  acutos 


489 

Donatus,  ad  Ter.,  Phorm.  Ill,  1,  1  :  .  .  .  '  cum  istoc  animo. 
.  .  .  Ennius — 

Optima  cum  pulchris  animis  Romana  iuventus 


490 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  37,  24(16) :  '  Cracentes,' graciles.     Ennius — 
Succincti  gladiis  media  regione  cracentes. 


I 


*'*  fortasse  super  escit 

**'  fere  Laetus        fera  0.  Mr.         ferae  fer§  ( Varro) 

l82 


4 

1 


ANNALS 

486 
Festus  :   '  Superescit '  means  '  supererit.'     Ennius — 

'  Yes,  so  long  as  one  gowned  man  of  Rome  is  left 
alive, 

487 
Varxo  :  In  a  passage  of  Ennias — 

Just  then  the  shrill  watchwords  were  making  ready 
to  give  sound  in  a  call, 

'  cata  '  means  sharp ;  for  this  is  the  word  used  by  the  Sabines 

for  '  acuta.' 

488 

Paulus  :    '  Litnus '  is  so  called  on  the  ground  that  it  is  a 
witness  of  '  lis  '  "  (strife)  .  .  .  Ennius — 

Thereupon  the  war-horn  poured  forth  sharp  sounds 


489 

Donatus,  on  '  With  such  faint  spirit  as  that '  in  Terence  : 
Ennius — 

The  best  youth  of  Rome  with  fine  spirit 


490 
Paulas  :  '  Cracentes,' '  slender.     Ennius — 
Sword-girt  and  slender  round  the  waist. 


"  In  fact  lUuus  originally  meant  crooked  and  was  perhaps 
an  Etruscan  word. 

*  This  word  occurs  here  only;  crac-  is  obviously  kindred 
with  graC: 

183 


ENNIUS 

491 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  IX,  675:  'Armati  ferro';  aut  bene 
instructi  armis  aut,  ut  Asper  dicit,  ferrea  corda  habentes, 
id  est  dura  et  cruenta  cogitantes,  ut  Ennium  sit  secutus  qui 
ait — 

succinct!  corda  machaeris. 

492 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Aen.,  V,  37  :  '  in  iaculis.'  In  hastia 
Ennius — 

levesque  sequuntur  in  hastis. 

493 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  500,  18  (20) :  '  Siciles,'  hastarum  spicula 
lata.     Ennius — 

Incedit  veles  vulgo  sicilibus  latis. 

494 

Nonius,  555,  14 :  '  Falarica,'  telum  maximum.  .  .  . 
Ennius — 

.  .  .  quae  valide  veniunt ;  falarica  missa 

Cp.  Virgil.,  Aen.,  IX,  702  :  contorta  falarica  venit. 

495 

Schol.  Bern.,  ad  Luc,  Phars.,  I,  6 :  Infestisque  obvia 
signis  1  signa,  pares  aquilas  et  pila  minantia  pUis  ' ;  Ennii 
versus — 

Pila  retunduntur  venientibus  obvia  pilis 

"1  trib.  lib.  XV  Y. 

***  q.  V.  V.  <velut  alta>  f.  m.  coni.  V  q.  valido  venit 

contorta  falarica  missu  mg.  lunian.  (vibrata  coni.  olim  V) 
quae  valide  venit  falarica  missa  coni.  Linds. 

184 


ANNALS 

491 

Servius,  on  '  Armed  in  iron '  in  Virgil :  Either  '  well 
equipped  with  arms  '  or,  according  to  the  statement  of  Asper, 
'  having  hearts  of  iron,'  that  is,  '  thinking  hard  and  bloody 
thoughts  ' ;  this  makes  him  follow  Ennius,  who  says — 

girt  round  their  hearts  with  broadswords. 


492 

Servius  (supplemented),  on  '  In  the  midst  of  spears '  in 
Virgil :   Ennius  has  '  in  the  midst  of  lances  ' — 

and  the  light-armed  followed  in  the  midst  of  lances. 

493 

Paulus  :   '  Siciles,'  broad  points  of  lances.     Ennius — 

The  skirmishers,  holding  broad  cutting-spears, 
advanced  in  a  body. 

494 

Nonius  :  '  Falarica,'  a  very  large  javelin.  .  .  .     Ennius — 
.  .  .  which  come  sturdily ;  the  fire-spear  was  hurled  " 

495 

A  Scholiast  on  Lucan's  '  How  standards  faced  enemy 
standards,  eagles  were  matched  one  with  another,  and  spears 
threatened  spears  ' :  A  line  of  Ennius — 

Blunted  back  were  spears  that  clashed  against 
oncoming  spears 

"  The  quotation  is  defective.  Vahlen  thinks  Ennius 
compares  fulmina  with  missiles  (V.,  in  SUz.-Ber.  B.  Akad., 
1896,  727);  the  comparison,  however,  might  well  be  of 
missiles  mth^  fulmina. 


ENNIUS 

496 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Aen.,   XII,   294 :    '  teloque  orantem 
multa  trabali  (.  .  .  ferit)';    Ennius — 

teloque  trabali 


497 

Paulus,    ex    F.,    353,    1  :     '  Runa '    genus   teli    significat. 
Eniiius — 

runata  recedit 

id  est  proeliata.     Cp.  Feat.,  362,  1. 


498 

Festus,  490,  15  :  '  Spira '  dicitur  .  .  .  basis  columnae. 
.  .  .  Ennius  quidem  hominum  multitudinem  ita  appellat 
cum  dicit — 

spiras  legionibus  nexit. 

Cp.  Paul,,  ex  F.,  491,  1. 


499-500 

'  Lactantius,'  ad  Stat.,  Theb.,  XI,  56  (.  .  .  iam  gelida  ora 
tacent;   carmen  tuba  sola  peregit) :  Ennius — 

Quomque  caput  caderet,  carmen  tuba  sola  peregit 
et  pereunte  viro  raucus  sonus  acre  cucurrit. 

Cp.  SU.  Ital.,  IV,  169  ff. 


"  But  it  probably  means  simply  '  armed  with  the  runa,' 
just  as  pilatus,  as  used  by  Virgil  and  Martial,  means  '  armed 
with  the  pihim.'     The  subject  would  be  turba  or  the  like. 

l86 


ANNALS 

496 

Servixis  (supplemented)  on  '  and  with  a  spear  stout  as  a 
beam  he  smot«  him  praying  many  a  prayer '  in  Virgil : 
Ennius — 

and  ^\^th  a  spear  stout  as  a  beam 


497 
Paulus :  '  Runa  '  means  a  kind  of  spear.     Ennius — 
armed  with  spear,  gave  way 
'  runata,'  that  is,  '  having  given  battle.'  " 


498 

Festus  :  '  Spira '  is  a  term  applied  to  the  base  of  a  pillar. 
.  .  .  But  Ennius  gives  the  name  to  a  multitude  *  of  men  when 
he  says — 

coils  wove  he  with  his  hosts. 


499-500 

'  Lactantius,'  on  Statins  .  .  .  '  then  his  chill  mouth  fell 
silent ;   the  trumpet  finished  alone  its  tune  '  :   Ennius —  <= 

And  when  his  head  was  falhng,  the  trumpet 
finished  alone  its  tune ;  and  even  as  the  warrior  did 
perish,  a  hoarse  blare  sped  from  the  brass. 

*  This  suggests  not  spira  (a  twisted  rope  or  the  like)  but  a 
transliteration  of  oTreipa  (which  Polybius  uses  for  manipulus). 

'  There  is  another  imitation  of  Ennius'  passage  in  Statins 
(IV,  169  ff.)  where  he  is  narrating  the  battle  at  the  Ticinus. 
But  Ennius'  own  context  is  not  known. 

i87 


ENNIUS 

501-2 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  X,  396  (395-6) :  Te  decisa  suum,  Laride, 
dextera  quaerit,  |  semianimesque  micant  digiti  ferrumque 
retractant.'     Ennii  est,  ut — 

Oscitat  in  campis  caput  a  cervice  revulsum 

semianimesque  micant  oculi  lucemque  requirunt. 

Cp.  Sil.  Ital.,  VI,  10;  Vergil.,  Aen.,  IV,  691. 


503 

Porphyrio,  ad  Hor.,  C,  I,  9, 1  :  Vides  ut  alta  stet  nive  candi- 
dum  (Soracte).  .  .  .  '  Stet '  autem  '  plenum  sit '  significat,  ut 
Ennius — 

stant  pulvere  campi 

et  Vergilius  {Aen.,  XII,  408) :  lam  pulvere  caelum  \  stare 
vides. 

504-5 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Aen.,  I,  81  (82  cavum  converea  cuspide 
montem  |  impulit  in  latus)  :  .  .  .  Ennius — 

'  nam  me  gravis  impetus  Orci 
percutit  in  latus. 


506 

Charisius,   ap.  G.L.,  I,  240,  6  K  :  .  .  .  Ennius  quoque  in 
Annalium  libro — 

Euax  !   Aquast  aspersa  Latinis. 

*"*  pertudit  coni.  V  coll.  Jr.  423 

euax  r 

*'•  liber  aquas  istas  pensa  lituus  exc.  Caiich.         annalium 
libro  aquast  aspersa  latinis  Charis. 


ANNALS 

501-2 

Servins,  on  Virgil's  '  Yon,  Larides,  yonr  severed  right  hand 
seeks — ^you — its  master;  and  your  fingers  half  alive  lie 
twitching,  and  clench  at  the  sword ' :  The  idea  is  Ennius', 
thus — 

On  the  plains  gaped  his  head  torn  out  from  the 
neck,  and  his  eyes  half  alive  lay  twitching,  and  were 
fain  to  see  the  light. 

503 

Porphyrio,  on  Horace's  '  Do  you  see  how  Soracte  stands 
white  in  deep  snow  ...?'...:'  Stet '  means  '  is  laden,' 
as  Eiuiius  has  it — 

The  plains  stand  thick  with  dust 

and  Virgil :   '  And  now  you  see  the  sky  stand  thick  with  dust.' 


504-5 

Servios  (supplemented),  on  Virgil's  '  With  intumed  apear 
he  struck  into  the  hollow  mountain's  side ' :  Ennius — 

'  for  a  heavy  onset  of  Death  strikes  into  my  side. 


506 
Charisius  :    .  .  .  Ennius  also  in  a  book  of  the  AnnaU — 
Bravo !  The  Latins  were  refreshed." 

"  The  text  is  doubtful ;    dqvast,  three  syllables.     Aspergere 
aquam  means  to  revive. 

189 


ENNIUS 

507-8 

aucior,  Bell.  Hisp.,  XXXI,  6 :  Ita  cum  clamor  esset 
intermixtus  gemitu  gladiorumque  crepitus  auribus  oblatus, 
imperitorum^  mentes  timore  praepediebat.     Ut  ait  Ennius — 

.  .   .  (hicy  pede  pes  premitur,  armisque  teruntur 
arma <(viro  vir). 

Cp.  Fur.  Bibac,  ap.  Macrob.,  S.,  VI,  3  :  '  pressatur  pede 
pes,  mucro  mucrone,  viro  vir.'  Vergil.,  Aen.,  X,  361  :  Haeret 
pede  pes  densusque  viro  vir.  Homer.,  11.,  XIII,  130  s. 
(cp.  XVI,  214  ff.) :  (ppd^avres  86pv  Soupi,  aaKOs  aaKe'C  TrpoOeXvfivo). 
'Aanls  dp'  dairi8'  epeihe,  Kopvs  KOpvv,  dvepa  S'  avrjp- 

509 

auctor,  Bell.  Hisp.,  XXIII,  2  :  Hie  dum  in  opere  nostri 
distenti  essent,  complures  ex  superiore  loco  adversariorum 
decucurrerunt  nee  detinentibus  nostris  multis  telis  iniectis 
complures  vulneribus  affecere ;  ut  ait  Ennius — 

Hie  turn  nostri  eessere  parumper. 

510 

Servius  (auctus),  ad  Aen.,  IX,  327 :  '  Temere '  .  .  . 
significat  et  subito.     Ennius — 

*  quo  tam  temere  itis  ? 

511 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  100 :  Apud  Ennium— 
Decretum  est  stare  <(et  fossari)  corpora  telis. 
Hoc  verbum  Ennii  dictum  a  fodiendo,  a  quo  fossa. 

607-8  i^Q  p  p  g  g  ^  ^Y  jji(,  p  p  p  j^(j  armis  arma  teruntur 
B  pes  premitur  pede  et  armis  arma  teruntur  V  (seclud.  hie) 
<viro  vir>  sitppl.  Norden  hie,  ut  ait  Ennius,  pes  pede 

premitur  armis  tenmtur  arma  aiict.  Bell.  Hisp. 
^"^  hie  tum  ut  ait  Ennius  Auct.         h.  t.  seclvd.  V 
*^*  et  fossari  suppl.  Bergk         decretum  est  fossari  Colonna 
decretum  fossari  O.  Mr. 

190 


ANNALS 

507-« 

The  author  of  The  Spanish  War :  Thus  since  shouts  were 
mingled  with  groans,  and  a  clattering  of  swords  struck  upon 
the  ear,  the  din  confused  the  minds  of  the  raw  levies.  As 
Ennius  says — 

Hereupon  foot  pressed  foot  and  weapons  weapons 
rubbed,  and  warrior  warrior  thronged.^ 


509 

The  same  author  :  At  this  point,  while  our  men  were  busied 
at  the  work,  a  number  of  our  adversaries  ran  down  from 
a  higher  level  and  by  casting  many  spears  wounded  a  number 
of  our  men  who  were  unable  to  hold  them  back.     As  Ennius 


Here  now  our  men  gave  way  a  little  while.* 

510 

Servius  (supplemented)  on  Virgil  :  '  Temere '  .  .  .  also 
means  '  suddenly.'     Ennius — 

'  WTiither  go  you  aU  so  rashly  ? 

511 
Varro  :  In  a  passage  of  Ennius — 

Order  was  given  to  stand  and  delve  into  then- 
bodies  with  spears. 

This  word  '  fossari '  in  Ennius  is  derived  from  '  fodio,' 
whence  comes  the  word  '  fossa.' 

"  Restorations  of  Ennius'  words  are  all  doubtful.  That 
they  include  viro  vir  is  likelj-,  if  we  judge  from  other  imitations 
(quoted  opposite)  of  the  Homeric  originaL  V.,  105;  Norden, 
159. 

*  Cp.  Livy,  XXVI,  44,  Bomani  parumper  ctssere. 

191 


ENNIUS 

512 

Isidorus,  Orig.,  X,  270  :    '  Taeterrimus  '  pro  fero  nimium 
.  .  .  Ennius — 

taetros  elephantos 

Cp.  Placid.,  ap.  C.O.L.,  V,  157,  21  :  excerpt,  ex  cod.  Cassin., 
ap.  C.GJL.,  581,  14  (.  .  .  tetros  elephantos  f  ad  inguinem  t)- 

513 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  IV,  404  : — 

It  nigrum  campis  agmen 

Hemistichium  Ennii  de  elephantis  dictum,  quo  ante  Accius 
est  usus  de  Indis. 

514-15 

Priscianus,  ap.  O.L.,  II,  518,  13  K:  'Tutudi'  .  .  .  Ennius 
in  Annalibus — 

viresque  valentes 
contudit  crudelis  hiems 

Hie  produxit  paenultimam. 

516 

Nonius,  211,  10  :   '  Lapides  '  et  feminino  genere  dici  possunt 
ut  apud  Ennium — 

Tanto  sublatae  sunt  agmine  tunc  lapides, 

ad  Homeri  similitudinem  qui  genere  feminino  lapides  posuit. 

II.,  XII,  287  :    <t)s  Tuiv  d.fjul)OT€pu)ae  Xi8oi  iTonwvTO  dafieiai, 
Cp.  Od.,  XIX,  494. 

'^*  tetros  (tetrosque  dett.)  elefantos  (elephantes  dett.)  cdd. 
Isid.   Placid.  elephantos  ad  inguinem   exc.  cd.   Cassin, 

elephantos  anguimanus  coni.  V  (Sitzungs.-Ber.  B.  Akad., 
1896,  725  ff.  cdl.  Lucret.  V,  1302  :  inde  boves  lucas  turrito 
corpore,  taetras  |  anguimanus) 

*i*  augmine    Wakefield  lapides    <vi>     coni.    V 

<;his>   coni.  Mr.  tanto  sunt  sublatae  a.  t.  1.  (pentam.) 

coni.  St.  foriasse  t.  s.  s.  j  a.  t.  1. 

192 


ANNALS 

512 
Isidorus  :   *  Taeterrimus  '  for  very  savage.  .  .  .  Ennias — 

foul  elephants  <* 

513 
Servius,  on — 

goes  a  black  column  upon  the  plains 

in  Virgil  * :    a  half-line  of  Ennius  used  of  elephants.     Acciua 
used  it  earlier  («c.  than  Virgil)  of  Indians. 

514-15 
Priscianus  :   '  Tutudi '  .  .  .  Ennius  ...  in  the  Annals — 
and  their  sturdy  strength  cruel  winter  crushed 
Here  he  has  scanned  the  penultimate  long. 

516 

Nonius  :    '  Lapides.'     This  term  can  be  used  even  in  the 
feminine  gender ;  for  example,  Ennius — 

With  so  great  a  column  were  stones  then  upraised, 

This  is  after  the  manner  of  Homer,  who  used  his  word  for 
'  stones  '  in  the  feminine  gender. 


"  Vahlen's  attractive  conjecture  anguimanus  for  ad  inguinem 
in  the  Exc.  ex  cod.  Cass,  is  apparently  not  right — cf.  Goetz,  in 
C.G.L.,  VII,  330.  This  and  the  next  fr.  obviously  come  from 
some  narrative  about  Pyrrhus  or  the  Second  Punic  War,  or 
warfare  in  Greece  or  Asia. 

*  Who  used  the  phrase  in  describing  ants. 

193 


ENNIUS 

517-21  i 

Macrobius,   8.,  VI,   3,   7 :    Homerica  descriptio  est  equi 
fugientis  in  haec  verba  {II.,  VI,  506  fiF.) 

oiS  S'  ore  Ti?  araros  imros  o-Kocmjaas  cm  <f>dTVT] 
Seofiov  anoppT^^as  Oelrj  nebCoio  Kpoaivaiv, 
eliodios  Xoveadai  eiippelos  TTOTap.olo, 
KvBiocov  vi/iov  8e  Kapr)  e)(€i,  dfi(f>l  Se  ;^arTai 
to/Ltoiy  atCTaovraf  d  S'  dyAcur](l)t  7TeTTOi6u>s, 
pifjuf>a  e  yovva  (f>€pei  /iera  r*  ■^^ea  /cat  vofiov  'vttmv, 

Ennius  hinc  traxit — 

Et  turn  sicut  equus  qui  de  praesepibus  fartus 
vincla  suis  magnis  animis  abrupit  et  inde 
fert  sese  campi  per  caerula  laetaque  prata 
.celso  pectore  ;  saepe  iubam  quassat  simul  altam  ; 
spiritus  ex  anima  calida  spumas  agit  albas, 

Vergilius  '  qualis  ubi  abruptis  fugit  praesepia  vinclis  '  et 
cetera.  , 

[Vergilius,  Aen.,  XI,  492  ff. 
Qualis  ubi  abruptis  fugit  praesepia  vinclis 
tandem  liber  equus,  campoque  potitur  aperto  : 
aut  ille  in  pastus  armentaque  tendit  equarum 
aut  assuetus  aquae  perfundi  flumine  noto 
emicat  arrectisque  fremit  cervicibus  alte 
luxurians;  luduntque  iubae  per  coDa  per  armos.] 


522 
Charisius,  ap.  6.L.,  I,  83,  22  K :   Quod  Ennius  ait- 
It  equitatus  uti  celerissimus, 
barbarismus  est. 


"2  sic  Havet,  Bev.  de  Phil,  XIV,  27  equitatus  iit 
c.  B  equitum  celerissimus  ed.  princ.  equitatus  [  ut 
celerissimus  V  fortasse  recte  Ennius  ait  equitatus  ut 

S3 

celcffimus  Charts. 
194 


ANNALS 

517-21 

Macrobius  :  There  is  in  Homer  a  description  of  a  horse  in 
flight,  in  these  words  : 

Even  as  when  a  stalled  horse  full  fed  at  the  manger  breaks 
his  tether  and  gallops  clattering  over  the  plain,  being  wont 
to  bathe  himself  in  a  fair-flowing  river,  glorying  therein, 
high  holds  he  his  head,  and  round  his  shoulders  floats  his 

me;  and  he  trusting  in  his  glory — swiftly  do  his  limbs 
bring  him  to  the  haunts  and  pastures  of  mares, 

From  this  Ennius  derived  the  following — 

And  then  j^^st  as  a  horse  which,  full  fattened  from 
the  stalls,  bursts  his  tether  in  his  high  fettle,  and 
away  with  breast  upUfted  bears  himself  over  the  rich 
grey-green  meadows  of  the  plain ;  and  withal  again 
and  again  tosses  his  mane  on  high ;  and  his  breath 
born  of  his  hot  temper  flings  out  white  froth, 

and  Virgil :   '  As  when,  tether  burst,  has  fled  his  stalls,'  and 
the  rest. 

[Virgil  (speaking  of  Tumus)  has  : 

As  when,  tether  burst,  has  fled  his  stalls  a  horse,  free  at 
last  and  possessed  of  the  open  plain ;  maybe  he  makes  for 
the  pastures  and  herds  of  mares,  or,  accustomed  to  bathe 
in  the  water  of  a  river  known  to  him,  flashes  forth  and  neighs 
and  lifting  high  his  neck  goes  glorying;  and  his  mane  playa 
over  hia  neck  and  shoulders.] 


.     522 

Charisius  :   When  Ennios  says  '  celerissimus  ' — 

goes  like  the  most  swiftest  cavalry, 

it  is  a  barbarism. 

195 
o2 


ENNIUS 

523 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  IX,  37  (38  :  Hostis  adest.  Eia  !  ingenti 
clamore  per  omnes  ]  condunt  se  Teucri  portas) :  '  Hostis 
adest ' ;  hie  distinguendum,  ut  heia  militum  sit  properantium 
clamor.     Et  est  Ennianum  qui  ait — 

Heia  machaeras ! 

Ergo  heia  ingenti  clamore  dicentes  ad  portas  ruebant. 
Alii  '  hostis  adest,  heia  '  legunt. 

524 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  482,  34  H :  '  Detondeo '  .  .  . 
detotondi.     Ennius  in  Annalibus — 

deque  totondit  agros  laetos  atque  oppida  cepit. 

525 

Servius,  ad  Jew.,  X,  6  :  '  Quianam.'  Cur.  Quare.  Ennianua 
sermo  est.     Servius  auctus  : — 

'  Quianam  legiones  caedimus  ferro  ? 

526-8 

Gellius,  XVI,  10, 1  :  Legebatur  in  consessu  forte  complurium 
Ennii  liber  ex  Annalibus.     In  eo  libro  versus  hi  fuerunt — 

Proletarius  publicitus  scutisque  feroque 
ornatur  ferro,  muros  urbemque  forumque 
excubiis  curant. 

Cp.  Non.,  155,  21. 


***  deque   totondit   Merula  detondit   Bamb.   ra.    2 

detotondit  cdd. 

*"  trib.  lib.  II  Merula 
«"-8  trib.  lib.  VI  V 

196 


•^  ANNALS 

523 

Servias,  on  '  The  enemy  is  here,  Hi !  With  a  great  clamour 
the  Teucri  betook  themselves  through  all  the  gates,'  in  Virgil : 
'  The  enemy  is  here.'  At  this  point  we  must  punctuate  so 
as  to  make  '  hi !  '  a  clamour  of  hastening  soldiers.  The  idea 
belongs  to  Ennius,  who  says — 

Hi,  your  swords  I 

Thus  Virgil  means  : — shouting  '  hi '  with  a  great  clamour 
they  rushed  at  the  gates.  Others  read  '  the  enemy  is  here, 
hi!' 

524 

Priscianus  :  '  Detondeo  '  .  .  .  '  detotondi.'  Ennius  in  the 
Annals — 

Bare  also  stripped  he  the  joyful  fields,  and  he  took 
the  cities. 

525 

Servius,   on   '  quianam  '   in   Virgil :     '  Quianam,'   '  why  ?  ' 
for  what  reason?'     The  expression  is   Ennian.     An  aug- 
menter  of  Servius  adds — 

'  For  why  do  we  <•  cut  down  the  hosts  with  the 
sword  J 

526-8 

GeUius :  At  a  sitting  where  a  good  many  were  present,  it 
happened  that  a  book  chosen  from  Ennius'  Annals  was  being 
read.     In  that  book  occurred  these  lines — 

The  lowest  breeders ''  at  the  country's  cost  were 
armed  \Wth  shield  and  savage  steel ;  it  was  they 
with  sentries  guarded  the  city  and  its  walls  and 
mart. 

"  Perhaps  mutinous  soldiery  (at  the  beginning  of  the  Second 
Macedonian  war?)  (St.,  220).  Others  (Mr.,  Valmaggi,  V., 
after  Merula)  beUeve  the  fr.  to  have  come  from  the  story  of 
the  Horatii  and  the  Curiatii. 

*  prohtarii  were  the  lowest  class  who  served  the  state  merely 
by  breeding  children  (proles). 

197 


ENNIUS 

529 

Gellius,  X,  29,  2 :  '  Atque '  particiila  ...  si  gemina  fiat 
auget  incenditque  rem  de  qua  agitur,  ut  animadvertimus 
in  Q.  Ennii  Annalibus,  nisi  memoria  in  hoc  versu  labor — 

atque  atque  accedit  muros  Romana  iuventus. 

Cp.  Non.,  530,  3.  Cp.  11,  XXII,  221  :  ■npoirpoKvXi.vhoiicvos. 
Od.,  XVII,  525  :   irpo-npo  ApoU.  Rh.,  Ill,  453. 


530 

Paulus,   ex   Test.,   559,    7  :     '  Trifax  '   telum   longitudinis 
trium  cubitorum  quod  catapulta  mittitur.     Ennius — 

aut  permarceret  paries  percussa  trifaci 


531 

Festus,    140,    21  :     '  Metonymia '    est    tropos,    cum  .  . 
significatur  ...  a  superiore  re  inferior,  ut  Ennius — 

Cum  magno  strepitu  Volcanum  ventus  vegebat. 


532 

Schol.  Bembin.,  in  Ter.,  Heaut.,  II,  3,  16  :  '  Interea  loci.' 
Loci  parhelcon  .  .  .  Ennius — 

Flamma  loci  postquam  concussa  est  turbine  saevo, 

*'"  permarceret  0  permaceret  ML  Par.  permaneret 
T  perluceret  0.  Mr.  permaceat  olim  V  percussu  ' 
O.  Mr.        percussa  cdd. 

"*  rogi  Umpfenbach  concursat  t.  Umpf.  conclusa 
Faern  concussa    e     B  concussa     preturbine    c^. 

concussa  praeorbine  Victorin. 

198 


ANNALS 

529 

Gelliua  :  The  panicle  '  atque '  .  .  .,  should  it  be  doubled, 
increases  and  intensifies  the  action  with  which  it  is  connected, 
as  we  notice  in  the  Annals  of  Quintus  Ennius  (unless,  in  giving 
this  line,  my  memory  is  at  fault) — 

and   then  and   then   approached   the  walls    young 
warriors  of  Rome. 

530 

Paulus :  '  Trifax,'  a  javelin  three  ells  in  length ;  it  is  shot 
from  a  catapult.     Ennius — 

or  the  party-wall  pelted  by  long  spears  might  crumble 
away  " 

531 

Festus  :  '  Metonymia  '  (change  of  names)  is  a  trope  which 
comes  about  when  ...  a  lesser  thing  is  given  its  meaning 
from  a  greater  one ;  for  example,  Ennius  has — 

With  a  great  crackle  the  breeze  blew  big  the 
Fire-God's  blaze. 


532 

A  schoUast,  on  '  interea  loci '  in  Terence :  '  loci '  is  re- 
dundant;    .  .  .  Ennius — 

The  flame  there,^  when  it  had  been  tossed  about 
in  a  fierce  whirl, 

"  Permarceret  seems  to  be  right — cp.  luxuriae  rictu  Martis 
marcent  moenia — Petron.,  Cena,  55 ;   V.,  97  ;  St.,  p.  209. 

*  The  force  of  loci  here  is  not  clear.  At  any  rate  it  does 
not  go  with  'postquam.  Probably  the  scholiast  is  wrong  and 
loci  may  mean  simply  '  of  the  place.' 

199 


ENNIUS 

533 

Isidorus,  Orig.,  XIX,  2,  4 :  '  Agea '  viae  sunt,  loca  in 
navi  per  qua  ad  remiges  hortator  accedit;   de  qua  Ennius — 

Multa  foro  ponit  et  agea  longa  repletur. 

534-5 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Georg.,  I,  12  :  Cui  prima  frementem  | 
fudit  equum  (.  .  .  tellus).'  Nonnulli  veto  .  .  .  '  cui  prima 
frementem  |  fudit  aquam '  legunt,  quod  veteres  murmura 
aquae  fremitum  dicebant.     Ennius  ...  — 

ratibusque  fremebat 
imber  Neptuni. 

Cp.  Serv.  auct.,  ad  Aen..  XI,  299. 

536 

Servius  ad  Aen.,  VI,  705  (Lethaeumque  domos  placidas 
qui  praenatat  amnem) :  '  Praenatat,'  praeterfluit.  .  .  . 
Ennium  igitur  secutus  est  qui  ait — 

fluctusque  natantes 

537 

Servius  (auctus),  ad  Aen.,  IX,  327  :  '  Temere '  significat 
sine  causa.     Ennius — 

*  Haud  temere  est  quod  tu  tristi  cum  corde  gubemas. 

Cp.  Aen.,  VI,  185  tristi  cum  corde  volutat. 

538 

Isidorus,  Orig.,  XIX,  2,  12 :  '  Clavus '  est  quo  regitur 
gubernaculum ;  de  quo  Ennius — 

•  dum  clavum  rectum  teneam  navemque  gubernem. 

Cp.  QuintU.,  II,  17,  24. 

*''  ponit  Colonna  ponet  et  cdd.  pier.  ponit  et  Caesenas 
agoeae  longa  replentur  Valmaggi  agiavia  longa  repletur 

Isid.        et  longa  repletur  agea  coni.  olim  V 

200 


ANNALS 

(D)  Naval  affairs. 

533 

Isidorus  :  '  Agea  '  means  the  footways,  the  spaces  in  a  ship 
along  which  the  boatswain  approaches  the  rowers;  on  this 
Ennius  has — 

Many  wares  he  put  in  the  gang^vay ;  and  the  long 
passage  was  filled  full." 

534-5 

Servios  (supplemented),  on  '  At  whose  bidding  the  Earth 
first  gave  birth  to  the  neighing  horse  '  in  Virgil :  .  .  .  But 
some  read  '  cui  prima  frementem  |  fudit  aquam,'  because  old 
writers  used  the  term  '  fremitus '  for  the  murmuring  of 
water.     Ennius  .  .  . — 

and  Neptune's  water  roared  with  ships. 

536 

Serrius,  on  '  and  the  river  of  Lethe  which  floats  in  front  of 
the  peaceful  dwellings  '  in  Virgil :  '  Praenatat,'  flows  by. 
Thus  it  was  Ennius  whom  he  followed,  who  says — 

and  floating  billows 

537 

Servius  (supplemented) :  '  Temere '  means  without  cause. 
Ennius —  * 

'  No  chance  is  it  that  you  steer  sad  at  heart. 

538 

Isidorus  :  '  Clavus '  is  that  by  which  a  rudder  is  guided ; 
on  this  Ennius  has — 

*  SO  long  as  I  hold  tiller  straight  and  steer  the  ship. 

"  Uncertain  (St.,  pp.  216-17).  Whatever  the  correct  form 
of  '  agea  '  may  be,  we  can  begin  a  new  line  with  longa ;  or 
supply  ibi  after  agea ;  or  read  (as  Vahlen  once  suggested) 
loTiga  r.a.  Or  possibly  we  can  scan  agea  because  of  the  liquid 
consonant  which  follows. 

"  Xorden,  164. 

20I 


ENNIUS 
539 

Isidorus,  Orig.,  XIX,  2,  14 :  '  Tonsilla '  uncinus  ferreus 
vel  ligneus  ad  quern  in  litore  defixum  funes  navium  illigantur, 
de  quo  Ennius — 

Tonsillas  apiunt  configunt  litus  aduncas. 

540 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  VI,  545 :  '  Explebo  numerum '  ,  .  . 
'  explebo  '  est '  minuam.'     Nam  ait  Ennius — 

navibus  explebant  sese  terrasque  replebant. 

541 

Schol.  Veron.,  ad  Aen.,  V,  241  (Et  pater  ipse  manu  magna 
Portunus  euntem  |  impulit) :  Ennius — 

atque  manu  magna  Romanes  inpulit  amnis. 

Homer.,  II.,  XV,  694r-5  :  t6v  8e  Zevs  (Laev  oniade  \  x«'P' 
fJuaXa  fieydXr]. 

542 

GeUius,  VII,  6,  2  :  Cur  autem  non  Q.  quoque  Ennium 
reprehendit  (lulius  Hyginus)  qui  in  Annalibus  non  pennas 
Daedali  sed  longe  diversius — 

Brundisium  pulchro  praecinctum  praepete  portu 

Cp.  Gell.,  IX,  4, 1. 

543 

Porphyrio,  ad  Hor.,  S.,  1, 10, 30  :  '  Canusini  more  (bilinguis). 
Bilinguis  dicitur  quoniam  utraque  lingua  usi  sunt.  .  .  . 
Ideo  ergo  et  Ennius  et  Lucilius — 

Bruttace  bilingui 
dixerunt.     Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.  25,  21. 

*^*  tonsillas  apiunt  vd  sim.  cdd.  t.  rapiunt  edd.  fortasse 

aduncas  |  t.  a.  c.  1. 

*"  trib.  lib.  IX  Hug 

^*^  Braundisium  (vel  Brundisium)  quid  pulcro  cdd.  inquit 
p.  coni.  olim  V  portus  Vat.,  at.        portust  olim  V 


ANNALS 

539 

Isidoms  :  '  Tonsilla,'  an  iron  or  wooden  hook  to  which, 
when  it  is  fixed  on  the  shore,  ships'  hawsers  are  tiedj  on  this 
Ennius  has — 

They  transpierced  the  beach  and  tied  up  the  hooked* 
mooring-s  takes . 

540 

Servius  :  '  Explebo  numerum.'  .  .  .  '  Explebo  '  means  I 
will  diminish,*  for  Ennius  says — 

They  unfilled  themselves  from  the  ships  and  filled 
up  the  land. 

541 

A  Scholiast,  on  Virgil's  '  And  father  Portunus  himself  with 
mighty  hand  drove  him  on  his  way  '  :   Ennius — 

and  with  mighty  hand  the  river  drove  the  Romans 
on. 

542 

GeUius  :  Furthermore,  why  does  he  (Julius  Hyginus)  not 
call  to  task  Quintus  Ennius  also,  who  in  the  Annals  uses 
'  praepes  '  not  of  the  wings  of  Daedalus,  but  of  something 
quite  diflFerent — 

Brundisium  belted  by  a  beautiful  fair  haven  " 

543 

Porphyrio,  on  '  speaking  two  tongues  like  a  man  of 
Canusium  '  in  Horace  :  '  Bilinguis  '  is  the  term  used  because 
the  Canusians  used  both  languages  (Greek  and  Latin).  .  .  . 
On  that  account  therefore  both  Ennius  and  Lucilius  write — 

a  Bruttian  speaking  two  languages 

"  aduncas  is  certainly  right,  though  it  is  awkwardly  placed. 
By  apiunt  is  meant  they  tie  the  cables  to  the  stakes. 

*  Servius  blunders ;  Virgil  means  '  I  will  complete  the 
number.' 

"^  praepes,  often  used  of  a  favourable  bird-omen,  here  seems 
to  be  simply  '  good,  useful.' 

203 


ENNIUS 

544 

Festus,    400,    29 :     ...  Ennius    iocatus    videtur  .  .  .  et 
alibi — 

Inde  Parum< ul>ulabant. 


545 

Consentius,  ap.  G.L.,  V,  400,  4  K  :  Poetae  faciunt  meta- 
plasmos  cum  ipsi  iam  scripturam  relinquunt  corruptam.  .  .  . 
Ennius — 

huic  statuam  statui  maionim  obatus  Athenis ; 

.  .  .  per  metaplasmum  dempsit  litteram  r. 


546 

Cicero,  Tv^c.  Disp.,  I,  20,  45  :  Etenim  si  nunc  aliquid 
adsequi  se  putant,  qui  ostium  Ponti  viderunt  et  eas  angustias 
per  quas  penetravit  ea  quae  est  nominata  Argo.  .  .  .  (Enn. 
Med.,  257-8)  aut  ii  qui  Oceani  freta  ilia  viderunt — 

Europam  Libyamque  rapax  ubi  dividit  unda. 

quod  tandem  spectaculum  fore  putamus  cum  totam  terram 
contueri  licebit  ? 

Cp.  Cic,  de  Nat.  Dear.,  Ill,  10,  24. 


***  <circum     quam    caemla    salsa    ul>     suppl.     Ilberg 
<cui  caerula  vi  valida  assultabant  0.  Mr. 
et 

***  m.  o.  A.  M  (et  alt.  m.  superscript.)  maiorum  abitratu 
( =  arbitratu)  Buttmann  maiorem  horto  ( =  hortor)  auream 
ahenis  L  magis  mansuram  auguro  ahenis  Ilberg  obatus 
(fortasse  maiorem  obatus)  W 

204 


ANNALS 


544 


Festus:  .  .  .  Ennioa  seems  to  have  jested  .  .  .  and  else- 
where—  " 

Thence  .  .  .  Paros  ,  .  .  were  wailing. 


545 

Consentias :  Poets  make  metaplasms  when  they  of  set 
purpose  leave  a  wrong  spelling  uncorrected.  .  .  .  Ennius —  * 

To  him  of  my  forefathers  did  I  raise  in  my  bereave- 
ment a  statue  at  Athens; 

.  .  .  by  a  metaplasm  he  has  taken  away  (from  orhatus?)  the 
letter  r. 

546 

Cicero:  For  if  now  men  who  have  seen  the  gate  of  the 
Black  Sea  and  the  narrows  through  which  passed  the  ship 
which  was  called  Argo  .  .  .  (Ennius,  Medea)  ...  or  those 
who  saw  the  familiar  straits  of  the  Ocean — 

where  the  greedy  wave  parts  Europe  and  Libya," 

think  they  have  achieved  something,  whatever  kind  of 
spectacle  think  we  it  will  be  when  we  shaU  be  allowed  to  gaze 
on  the  whole  earth  ? 


*  Probably  in  a  book  later  than  the  ninth.  That  Paros 
island  is  meant  is  shown  by  the  continuation  of  the  mutilated 
notice  in  Festus. 

*  If  the  readings  are  tmcertain,  the  suggested  changes  are 
more  so.  If  obatus  is  orbatus,  it  may  go  with  maiorum,  but 
there  is  no  example  of  the  use  of  orbo  with  the  genitive  instead 
of  the  ablative. 

*  Almost  certainly  from  Ennius.  If  so,  it  may  belong  to 
Scipio  or  to  AnnaU,  Book  IX  (Y.,  CXCCI);  the  reference  is 
clearly  to  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar. 

205 


ENNIUS 

547-8 

Vergilius,  Georg.,  II,  42-44 — 

Non  ego  cuncta  meis  amplecti  versibus  opto, 
non  mihi  si  linguae  centum  sint  oraque  centum, 
ferrea  vox. 

Schol.  Bern,  ad  43 :  '  Non  mihi '  et  reliqua.  Homericus 
senaus ;   sic  nam  et  Ennius — 

Non  si,  lingua  loqui  saperet  quibus,  ora  decern  sint, 
innumerum,  ferro  cor  sit  pectusque  revinctum, 

II,  II,  487-9  : 

TrXrjdvv  8'  ovK  av  eyco  iivdriaofiai  ou8'  ovoimtjvco, 
ov8'  ei  fioi  Se'/ca  fiev  yXuyaaax  SeKa  be  orofiaT'  elev 

(fxjjvfj   8'  dpprjKTOS,   XttAKCOV  8€'  [lOl  TjTOp  CVfl'lJ, 

Cp.  Host.,  ap.  Macrob.,  S.,  VI,  3,  6;  Ov.,  Met.,  VIII,  533; 
Fast.,  II,  119;  Trist.,  I,  5,  53;  Sil.,  IV,  525  ff.;  VergU., 
Aen.,  VI,  625,  al. 

549 

Augustin.,  Ep.,  231,  3  :   Ego  autem  quod  ait  Ennius — 
Omnes  mortales  sese  laudarier  optant 
partim  puto  approbandum  partim  cavendum. 

Cp.  Augustin.,  de  Trin.,  XIII,  3,  6. 

550 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  XII,  499  (Saevam  nullo  discrimine  caedem  I 
suscitat  irarumque  omnes  effundit  habenas). '  Irarum  habenas  ' 
.  .  .  hie  moderate  locutus  est,  nam  Ennius  ait — 

irarum  efFunde  quadrigas. 

a  i 
**'  Non  si  Mommsen         monstra  si  sibi  B         mons  cd. 

quibus  {i.e.  qb)  V  (Herm.,  XV,  265)  at  cd. 

^**  innumerum    V        in    metrum    cd.        pectus    Momm. 

pecus  cd. 

2o6 


ANNALS 

(E)  Miscellaneous. 

547-8 

Virgil  says  : 

Not  all  of  it  do  I  ask  to  embrace  in  my  verses ;  not  if  I  were 
to  have  a  hundred  tongues  and  a  hundred  mouths  and  a  voice 
of  iron. 

A  scholiast  on  this  passage  :  '  not  if  I '  and  the  rest ;  the 
idea  is  taken  from  Homer.    And  thus  also  writes  Ennius — 

Not  if  I  were  to  have  ten  mouths  with  which  my 
tongue  could  have  skill  to  speak  words  without 
number,"  and  my  heart  and  breast  were  fast  bound  in 
iron, 

Homer  has : 

The  common  sort  I  could  not  number  or  name ;  no,  not  even 
if  I  were  to  have  ten  tongues  and  ten  mouths  and  a  voice 
that  none  might  break,  and  a  heart  of  bronze  within  me, 

549 

Augustine :  But  for  my  part  I  think  that  the  remark  of 
Ennius — 

All  mortal  men  long  to  be  themselves  acclaimed 

should  be  partly  approved  of  and  partly  avoided. 


550 

Servius,  on  Virgil's  '  He  wakened  cruel  slaughter  that 
spared  none,  and  let  loose  all  the  reins  of  wrath  ' ;  "  The  reins 
of  wrath '  .  .  .  here  he  used  a  moderate  expression,  for  Eimius 
says — 

Let  chariots  of  wrathfulness  loose  like  a  flood. 

"  Innumerum,  used  '  £idverbially '  like  multum,  is  probably 
right.  But  it  is  just  possible  that  in  metrum  is  a  gloss  which 
has  ousted  in  numeria  or  even  tn  numa^m. 

207 


ENNIUS 

551 

'  Macrobius,'  ap.  G.L.,  V,  651,  35  K  :  '  Eructo  '  ...  est 
a  verbo  erugit.     Enniua — 

Contempsit  fontes  quibus  exerugit  aquae  vis. 
Cp.  op.  cit.,  626,  21. 

552 
Servius,  ad  Aeti.,  IX,  163 — 

vertunt  crateras  ahenos ; 
potantes  exhauriunt;   et  est  hemistichium  Ennianum. 

553 

Gellius,  III,  14,  4  :  Varro  .  .  .  disserit  ac  dividit  subti- 
lissime,  quid  dimidium  dimidiato  intersit,  et  Q.  Ennium 
scienter  hoc  in  Annalibus  dixisse  ait — 

Sicuti  si  quis  ferat  vas  vini  dimidiatum, 

Pars  quae  deest  ei  vaso  non  '  dimidiata '  dicenda  est  sed 
'dimidia.' 

554 

Festus,  574,  1 :  (de  veneno)  »  *  *  cuius  color  inficiendo 
mutatur,  ut  Ennius  cum  ait— 

.  .  .  quom  illud '  quo  iam  semel  est  imbuta  veneno '  .  .  . 

655 

Festus,  426,  33  :   '  Solum,'  terram.    Ennius  ...  — 
sed  sola  terrarum  postquam  permensa  parumper, 
Cp.  Varr.,  L.L.,  V,  22. 

"^  trib.  lib.  XIII  V  fortasse  scribend.  a  verbo  erugo. 
Erugit  Ennius 

'**  sicuti  veil.  .       sicut  edd. 

***  cur   aut    cumque    coni.    V  cupa    illud    0.    Mr. 

imbutu  '  olim  V 

2o8 


I 


ANNALS 

551 

Macrobius  :  '  Eructo  '  ...  is  derived  from  a  verb  '  erogo.* 
Ennius — 

He  scorned  the  springs  whence  spirts  out  a  rush  of 
water." 

552 

Servius,  on  a  passage  in  Virgil : — 

They  tilted  up  the  brazen  bowls ; 
'  they  drained  at  a  draught ' ;   it  is  also  a  half-line  of  Ennius. 

553 
Gellius :      Varro  .  .  .  discusses    and     distinguishes    most 
acutely  the  difference  between  '  a  half  '  and  '  halved  ' ;    and 
he  says  that  Quintus  Ennius  in  the  Annals  was  wise  when  he 
wrote — 

Just  as  if  a  man  were  to  bring  a  halved  beaker  of 
wine, 

The  missing  part  of  that  beaker  should  be  spoken  of  as 
'  half,'  not  '  halved.' 

554 

Festus  {on  poison)  :  .  .  .  whose  colour  is  changed  by 
adulteration,  for  example  Ennius  when  he  says — 

When  that  proverb  '  by  the  poison  ^^ith  which  it 
is  imbued  "... 

555 
Festus  :   '  Solum,'  earth.     Ennius  ...  — 

But  when  she  had  passed  swiftly  over  the  fields  of 
Earth,* 

"  Possibly  from  a  speech  of  Hannibal  to  Antiochos  (Justin, 
XXXI,  5,  7. 

*  Unless  we  take  permensa  in  a  passive  sense  (neuter  plural), 
we  are  tempted  to  make  this  fr.  precede  (directly,  if  we  read 
postqiutm  est)  lines  1'2-A  in  Book  I — Indotudur  tbi  lupus  femina 
conspicit  om.nis.  But  sola  terrarum  suggests  that  Ennius  means 
'  the  world.' 

209 


ENNIUS 

556 
Charisius,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  141,  24  K  :  '  Partum  '  .  .  .  Ennius — 


iamque  fere  quattuor  partum 


557 

Isidorus,  de  Nat.  Rer.,  XII,  3  :  Partes  autem  eiua  {sc.  caeli) 
haec  sunt :  cohus  axis  cardines  convexa  poll  hemisphaeria. 
'  Cohus  '  quod  caelum  continet.     Unde  Ennius — 

vix  solum  complere  cohum  terroribus  caeli. 

558 

Isidorus,  Orig.,  XVIII,  36,  3 :  Ideo  rotis  quadrigas  currere 
dicunt  sive  quia  mundus  iste  circuli  sui  celeritate  transcurrit 
sive  propter  solem  quia  volubUi  ambitu  rotat,  sicut  ait  Ennius — 

Inde  patefecit  radiis  rota  Candida  caelum. 

Serv.,  ad^ew.,  VI,  748(mille)  rotam  volvereperannos  .  ,  . 
est  autem  sermo  Ennii. 

559 

Priscianus,  ap.  O.L.,  II,  170,  6K:  'lubar'  quoque  tam 
masculinum  quam  neutrum  proferebant.  Ennius  in 
Annalibus — 

Interea  fugit  albus  iubar  Hyperionis  cursum. 

***«  quattor  Ritschl 

**'  solidum  Ilberg,  fortasse  recte  [vel  soldum)  pilam  vix  | 
sol  mediam  complere  S        fortasse  vis  soldum 


"  Possibly  describing  the  vigiliae,  the  four  night-watches. 
*  Reading  and  meaning  uncertain.     I  take  cohus  or  chous 
to  be,  like  caelum,  akin  to  the  Sanskrit  gva,  be  hollow. 

2IO 


ANNALS 

556 
Charisias  says  :   '  Partum  '  .  .  .  Enniiis —  ■ 
and  by  then  almost  of  four  parts  .  .  . 

557 

Isidoros  :  And  the  parts  of  the  sky  are  the  hollow,  the  axis, 
the  hinges,  the  vaults,  the  poles,  and  the  hemispheres; 
'  hollow  '  is  so  called  because  it  '  holds '  the  sky.  Whence 
Ennius — 

hardly  to  fill  with  terrors  the  hollow  alone  of  the  sky.* 

558 

Isidorus  :  They  say  that  teams  of  four  *  run  '  on  '  wheels  ' 
because  this  our  universe  '  runs '  out  its  course  through  the 
swiftness  of  its  orbit,  or  because  of  the  sun,  since  it  '  wheels  ' 
in  a  circular  revolution ;  thus  Ennius  says — 

Then  the  white  wheel  laid  open  the  sky  with  its 

rays."^ 

Servius,  on  Virgil's  '  when  they  have  rolled  the  wheel 
through  a  thousand  years  ' :  .  .  .  and  further  this  expression 
is  Ennian. 

559 

Priscianus  :  '  lubar '  also  they  used  to  inflect  both  as  a 
masculine  and  as  a  neuter  noun.     Ennius  in  the  Annals — 

Meanwhile  the  white  brilliance  of  Hyperion  sped 
away  on  its  course.*^ 

'  'The  line  describes  the  return  of  spring'  (St.,  p.  214). 
Surely  it  describes  sunrise.  '  Candida ' :  bringing  fair 
weather '  (St.).     Surely  it  means  '  bright  white.' 

"*  Possibly  albus  iubar  is  the  moon ;  it  flees  before  the  sun's 
brightness.  - 


p2 


ENNIUS 

560 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  XII,  115  :  (116  lucemque  elatis  naribus 
efflant)  .  .  .  Ennianus  versus  est  ordine  commutato.  Ille 
enim  ait — 

funduntque  elatis  naribus  lucem. 

Cp.  Mar.  Victorin.,  ap.  G.L.,  VI,  28,  7  K  (efflantque),  Sil., 
V,  56. 

561 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  I,  51  (Loca  feta  furentibus  austris) : 
'  Austris.'  Figura  est  celebrata  apud  Vergilium  et  est  species 
pro  genere.     Legerat  apud  Ennium — 

furentibus  ventis 

562 
Osbem,  ap.  Mai,  Class  Auct.,  VIII,  332  :    '  Hoc  momen, 
-nis '  pro  momento.    Unde  Ennius — ■ 

vestro  sine  momine,  venti. 
Cp.  Vergil.,  Aen.,  I,  133 :  meo  sine  numine,  venti. 

563 

Servius,  ad  Georg.,  Ill,  76  (Pecus  generosi  puUus  in  arvis  | 
altius  ingreditur  et  mollia  crura  reponit).  '  Altius  ingredi- 
tur,'  cum  exultatione  quadam  incedit.  '  Mollia  crura  re- 
ponit ' :  Ennius  de  gruibus — 

perque  fabam  repunt  et  mollia  crura  reponunt. 

564 

Charisius,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  18,  17  K  :  '  Aulai  medio '  Vergilius 
{Aen.,  Ill,  354)  ;— 

terrai  frugiferai 
Ennius  in  Annalibus. 

Cp.  Martial.,  XI,  90,  5;  Mar.  Plot.  Sac,  ap.  G.L.,  VI,  449, 
2  K ;  etc. 


""  addend,  fortasse  <solis  equi> 
212 


ANNALS 

560 

Servius  on  Virgil's  :  '  And  from  uplifted  nostrils  they  send 
out  breaths  of  light '  :  This  is  a  line  of  Ennius  with  a  change 
in  the  order  of  words.     For  that  poet  says — 

And  they  pour  out  a  flood  of  light  from  nostrils 
uplifted. 

561 

Servius,  on  Virgil's  '  a  place  teeming  with  furious  Souther- 
lies  '  :  '  Southerlies.'  This  is  a  figure  of  speech,  namely,  the 
particular  for  the  general,  which  is  frequent  in  Virgil.  He  had 
read  in  Ennius — 

with  raging  winds 

562 

Osbem  :  '  Hoc  momen,'  gen.  '  mominis,'  for  '  momcntom.' 
Whence  Ennius — 

\\-ithout  impulse  of  yours,  o  you  winds. 

563 

Servius,  on  Virgil's  '  A  foal  of  high-bred  stud  lifts  a  high 
pace  in  the  fields  and  places  a  pliant  leg  '  :  '  lifts  a  high  pace,' 
advances  with  a  kind  of  prancing.  '  Places  a  pliant  1^ ' : 
Ennius  on  cranes — 

and  they  creep  through  the   beanfield,  placing   a 
pliant  leg. 

564 

Charisius  :  Virgil  has  '  aulai  medio,'  "  and  Ennios  in  the 
Annals  has — 

of  the  fruite-bearing  earthe 

"  Virgil,  Aen.,  Ill,  354.  Priscianus  says  both  genitive  and 
dative  singular  could  have  this  ending. 


ENNIUS 


565 


Gellius,  XIII,  21,  13  :  Ennius  autem  '  rectos  cupressos ' 
dixit  contra  receptum  vocabuli  genus  hoc  versu — 

Capitibus  nutantes  pinos  rectosque  cupressos 

Cp.  Non.,  195,  23. 

**5  capitibus  Gell.,  Non.,  prdb.  V  captibus  Schneider 
prob.  Valmaggi  cautibus  Stowasser  capite  {vers.  Sotad.) 
Mr.  vertice  Onions  comptibus  Damste  nutantis  Gdl. 
(nutantibus  Voss.  min,  1)  nutantibus  Non.  capitibus 
nutantibus  ]  ibi  p.  r.  c.  olim  V 


214 


ANNALS 
565 

Gellias  :  Ennius  too  wrote  '  rectos  cupressos  '  against  the 
accepted  gender  of  the  word,  in  this  line — 

pines  with  nodding  heads,"  and  straight  cypresses 

*  Whether  aipitibus  can  be  right  is  doubtful.  Cf.  St.,  p. 
210,  and  the  critical  note  given  here  on  the  Latin  text.  Did 
Greliius  write  vertice  which  was  ousted  by  a  gloss  capitibus 
before  Nonius  copied  Gellius  ?  For  other  examples  of  hexa- 
meters beginning  with  ^  ^,  see  Annals,  339,  and  Hedypha- 
getica,  3  and  9. 


215 


PLAYS : 
TRAGEDIES 


FABULAE : 
TRAGOEDIAE 

ACHILLES 

SIVE 

ACHILLES  ARISTARCHI 

There  seems  to  be  no  need  to  believe,  as  some  do  (R.  118), 
that  Ennius  wrote  two  plays  in  which  Achilles  played  the 
leading  part.  It  is  more  probable  that  our  authorities  cite 
two  different  titles  of  the  same  play  (V.  CCI),  as  they  do  also 
in,  e.g.,  the  case  of  Andromache  (see  pp.  244  ff.).  As  in  The 
Bansom  of  Hector  (pp.  272  ff.),  the  material  for  Achilles  was 

1-3 

Horn.,/?.,  IX,  10—11 :  (^oiVa  KrjpvKeaai  Xiyv<f)06yyoiai  KeXevaw  \ 
kAtjStjv  els  dyoprjv  kikXtjok^iv  dvSpa  eKaarov. 

Plautus,  Poen.,  prol.  1-2,  11,  3-4: 

1.  Achillem  Aristarchi  mihi  commentari  lubet; 

2.  inde  mi  principium  capiam  ex  ea  tragoedia — 

Agamemno 
11.  Exsurge,  praeco;   fac  populo  audientiam. 

"  We  must  change  the  order  of  the  dialogue  as  used  by 
Plautus.     Jahn,  H.,  Ill,  191,  arguing  that  the  play  included 

2l8 


PLAYS : 
TRAGEDIES 

ACHILLES 

OR 

ACHILLES  AFTER  ARISTARCHUS 

drawn  from  Homer,  bat  here  Ennius'  model  was  Aristarchus 
of  Tcgea,  who  wrote  tragedies  at  Athens  in  the  time  of 
Euripides  (Suidas,  s.v.  'ApCarapxc^,  Euseb.,  Chron.).  The 
play  deals  chiefly  if  not  wholly  with  the  rrpea^fia  irpos  'A^iAAeo. 
{Iliad,  IX.)  At  the  head  of  the  text  of  each  Latin  item  I  have 
put  the  probable  Homeric  source  of  the  fragment. 

A.  Place  of  assembly  in  the  Greek  camp. 

1-3 

Agamemnon  caUs  a  meeting  of  the  army  : 

Plautus  :  I  want  to  imitate  Achilles  after  Aristarchus;  so  I 
will  take  my  beginning  from  that  tragedy  " — 

Agamemnon 
Up,  herald ;  get  you  a  hearing  for  the  troops. 

Thersites'  death,  gives  the  words  silete  e.  q.  s.  to  Achilles 
calming  the  excited  soldiery;  the  passage  of  Plautus  rules 
this  theory  out. 

219 


ENNIUS 

Praeco 

3.  Sileteque  et  tacete  atque  animum  adveitite; 

4.  Audire  iubet  vos  imperator 

histricus. 

4-5 
II.,  IX,  31 5.? 

Nonius,  147,  18 :  '  Obvarare,'  pervertere,  depravare,  dictum 
a  varis.     Ennius  Achille — 

nam  consiliis  obvarant  quibus 
iam  concedit  hie  ordo. 

6 

//.,   IX,    250—1  :    dAAa    ttoAu   irpiv  \  <f)pat,cv    ottcos    Aavaolaiv 
dXe^rjaeis  kokov  ■^fiap. 

Cp.  Aesch.,  Myrmid.,  132  N  (60  Smyth). 

Nonius,  277,  24:    'Defendere'  .  .  .  depellere  ...  — 

Serva  cives,  defende  hostes,  cum  potes  defendere. 

7-9 

II.,  IX,  313  ;  OS  X   ^'T^pov  fikv  KevOrj  evl  <f>peai.v,  dXXo  Be  e'Trrj. 

Gellius,  XIX,  8,  6  :     '  Inimicitiam  '  autem  Q.  Ennius  in 
illo  memoratissimo  libro  ...  — 

Achilles 

eo  ego  ingenio  natus  sum  ; 
amicitiam  atque  inimicitiam  in  frontem  gero 
promptam. 

^  iam  Ribb.        tam  cdd. 

'-»  senar.  constit.  W        peviametr.  troch.  Y,   120,  139-40 
promptam  gero  Gell. 


TRAGEDIES 

Herald 

Oyez !     Be  still,  and  turn  your  minds  to  me. 
Silence  !     This  is  the  order  of  your  general 

of  stage-players. 

4-5 

Agamemnon  advised  a  retreat  from  Troy  ;  then  Diomedes  • 
sharply  rebuked  him  : 

Nonius  :  '  Obvarare,'  to  turn  crooked,  to  make  corrupt,  a 
term  derived  from  '  varus  '  (awr\').     Ennius  in  Achilles — 

For  such  men  cross  us  by  advice  to  which 
This  gathering  of  rank  already  yields. 

B.  Achilles'  tent. 

6 

On  Nestor's  advice.  Phoenix,  Ajax,  Ulysses  and  Eurybates  go 
to  appeal  to  Achilles.     From  Ulysses'  speech  to  him  7  : 

Nonius  :   '  Defendere '  ...  to  push  back  ...  — 
Save  you  your  men  and  drive  you  back  the  foe, 
While  drive  them  back  you  can. 

7-9 
From  Achilles'  answer  :  * 

Gellius  :  Furthermore,  Quintus  Ennius,  in  that  most  famous 
book  of  his,  used  the  term  '  inimicitia  '  .  .  .  — 

Achilles 

Here  is  the  nature  which  is  mine  from  birth — 
Friendliness  and  unfriendliness  alike 
Do  I  bear  plain  to  see  upon  my  brow.*^ 

«  So  I  take  the  passage;  of.  Iliad,  IX,  29  ff.  R.,  116 
suggests  that  the  speaker  is  Helenus,  or  some  deity  who 
disapproves  of  resistance  on  the  Trojans'  part  to  Patroclus' 
deeds.     Hie  ordo,  Le.  hie  conventus  principum  (V.,  118). 

"  II.,  IX,  307  fF. 

'  v.,  120  takes  promptam  with  frontem. 

221 


ENNIUS 
10-12 

II.,  IX,  604—5 :  et.  8e  k'  arep  Sci>pu)v  noXefiov  <f)9ia-qvopa  Sfijs  | 
ovKed'  6p,<x)S  TifiTJis  eaeai,  TroXefiov  nep  aXaXKCov, 

Isidorus,   de  Diff.    Verb.,   218,   p.    29   A :     '  Gloria '  .  .  . 
virtutum  est,  fama  vero  vitiorum  ...  — 

Phoenix 

Summam  tu  tibi  pro  mala 
Vita  famam  extolles  et  pro  bona  paratam  gloriam. 
Male  volentes  famam  tollunt,  bene  volentes  gloriam. 


13 

Nonius,  472,  26  :   '  Proeliant '  .  .  %  — 

.  .  .  ita  moi'tales  inter  sese  pugnant  proeliant. 

Aesch.  Myrmid.,  131  (59  Smyth)  ? :  raSe  /xev  Xevaaeis,  <f>aihip.^ 
*k\iXX€v  I  hopiXvixavTovs  Aavacov  pLO^fiovs  \  ovs  rtpoTmrajKiis  etao) 
KXiaias  (ddaaeis). 

U-15 

II.,  IX,  624  s.  sitaserat  Aias  hoc  modo  :  Bioyeves  AaepridSr) 
TToXvp.-qxo-*'^  'OSvaaev,  |  'o[i€V  ov  yap  /lot  8oKeei  p,v6oio  reXevr'q  | 
Tjjhe  y'  68a>  Kpaveeadai. 

Nonius,  166,  20  :    '  Regredere,'  revocare.  ...  — 

Ulixes 

Quo  nunc  incerta  re  atque  inorata  gradum 
regredere  conare  ? 

*^  male  volentes  enim  Isid. 

1*  ita  Harl.  Par.  7667  Escor.  inta  rell.  interea 
Klussmann  cum  L  prob.  V 


TRAGEDIES 
10-12 

Achilles  was  not  persuaded  ;  then  Phoenix  tries  his  powers. 
The  following  comes  perhaps  from  his  speech  : 

Isidore  :  '  Gloria  '  is  iised  of  virtues,  but  '  fama  '  is  used  of 
vices  ...  — • 

Phoenix 

For  a  coward's  life  you  will  raise  up  unto  yourself 
the  direst  bad  name,  for  a  brave  life,  a  ready  store  of 
glory  ;  when  men  are  evil  wishers,  they  do  raise  up  a 
bad  name  ;  but  men  who  are  well-wishers,  they 
raise  up  glory. 

13 

Perhaps  th^  following  are  also  words  of  Phoenix  : 
Nonius  :   '  Proeliant '  .  .  .  — 

In  such  wise  are  mortal  men  justling  and  tussling 
one  with  another. 

14-15 

Achilles  would  not  be  moved  ;  Ajax  advised  Ulysses  that  they 
should  give  up  and  go  ;  "  the  following  words  are  probably  spoken 
by  Ulysses  in  reply  to  Ajax  : 

Nonius  :   '  Regredere,'  to  retrace.  ...  — 


Ulysses 

WTierefore  now  try  you  to  restep  your  steps, 
Our  cause  yet  undecided  and  unpleaded  ? 

"  11,  IX,  622  flF.    R.  113  (he  suggests  Ulysses  op  Phoenix. 
But  Ajax's  advice  was  addressed  to  Ulysses). 

223 


ENNIUS 

16-17 

Gellius,  IV,  17,  13  :  Ennius  in  tragoedia  quae  Achilles 
inscribitur  '  subices '  pro  aere  alto  ponit  qui  caelo  subiectus 
est  ...  — 

per  ego  deum  sublimas  subices  umidas, 
unde  oritur  imber  sonitu  saevo  et  spiiitu, 

Cp.  Fest.,  436,  23  ;  Non.,  169,  2. 

18 

II.,  IX,  6—7  :  afivSis  Se  re  Kvfxa  KeXaivov  \  Kopdverai. 

Cicero,  in  Verr.,  Act.  II,  Lib.  I,  18,  46 :  Turn  subito 
tempestates  coortae  sunt  maximae,  iudices,  ut  non  modo 
profieisci  cum  cuperet  DoUabella  non  posset,  sed  vix  in 
oppido  consisteret — 

ita  magni  fluctus  eiciebantur. 

Schol.  Gronov.,  p.  403,  7,  Or.,  ad  loc.  :  Enniano  hemistichio 
usus  est  ex  ea  tragoedia  quae  Achilles  inscribitur. 

19 
11,  VII,  224. 
Festus,  314,  22:— 

prolato  acre  astitit 

Ennius  in  Achille  Aristarchi  cum  ait  significat  clipeo  ante 
Be  protento. 

Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  315,  11  (4). 


i«-i'  sublimas  subiices  |  u.  L 
1'  spiritu  Fest.  strepitu  Gell. 


224 


TRAGEDIES 

16-17 

Possibly  words  of  Achilles  in  final "  refusal  : 

Gellius :   Ennius,  in  the  tragedy  which  is  entitled  Achilles, 

f)ut8  '  subices  '  {'  underlayers  ')  for  the  upper  air  which  '  under- 
iea  '  the  sky — 

By  heaven's  god-haunted  underlayers  *  on  high, 
Whence  springs  the  storm  with  savage  shriek  and 
swirl, 

18 
from  a  simile  ?  : 

Cicero  :  Then  suddenly,  gentlemen  of  the  jury,  great  storms 
gathered,  so  that  Dolabella  was  not  only  unable  to  set  out 
when  he  wished,  but  could  hardly  stay  in  the  town — 

Such    mighty    billows    were    tossed    and    tossed 
again. 

A  scholiast  on  this  passage  :  He  made  use  of  a  half-line  of 
Ennius,  taken  from  the  tragedy  which  is  entitled  Achilles. 


19 

from  a  battle-scene  : 

Festus  :  WTien  Ennius,  in  Achilles  after  Aristarchus,  says — 
Stood  by  with  bronze  held  forward 
he  means  '  with  hia  shield  spread  in  front  of  himself.' 


"  II.,  IX,  652  ff.,  where,  however,  there  is  nothing  at  all 
like  Ennius'  words. 

"  Festus,  436,  23  says  Ennius  means  clouds. 

225 


ENNIUS 


MAX 

The  four  extant  lines  from  Ennius'  Ajax  do  not  allow  us  to 
say  with  certainty  whether  his  model  was  Sophocles'  Alas  or 
not.     It  is  probable  that  the  action  covered  the  events  from 

20 

Nonius,  393,  7  :  '  Statim  '  producta  prima  syllaba  a  stando 
perseveranter  et  aequaliter  significat.  .  .  .  Ennius  Aiace — 

.  .  .  qui  rem  cum  Achivis  gesserunt  statim. 

21 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  76  : 

Aiax 

Aliquod  lumen — iubame  ? — ^in  caelo  cemo 

'  lubar '  dicitur  stella  Lucifer  .  .  .  Huius  ortus  significat 
circiter  esse  extremam  noctem. 

Cp.  Varro,  L.L.,  VI,  6.  .  .  .  Ennianus  Aiax  '  lumen  e.  q.  s. ; 
ib.,  VI,  81. 

22 

Festus,  484,  10  :  Salmacis  nomine  nympha  Caeli  et  Terrae 
filia  fertur  causa  fontis  Halicarnasi  aquae  appellandae  fuisse 
Salmacidis,  quam  qui  bibisset  vitio  inpudicitiae  mollesceret. 
.  .  .  Ennius — 

Salmacida  spolia  sine  sudore  et  sanguine 

Cp.  Cic,  de  Off.,  I,  18,  61. 

Soph.,  Ai.,  1411-1413  :  en  yap  dep^al  \  avpiyyes  dvco  <f>vaa)ai 
fxeXav  I  fiivos.  vel  oratio  Tecmessae  918-19  :  <f>vaa>vT'  avoi  irpos 
plvas  €K  re  (f>oi,vlas  \  TrXrjyrjs  [leXavdev  aifx'  an'  oiVeiaj  o(f>aYfjs. 
Cp.  898. 


0  v.,  CCI;  R.,  132. 

*  Nonius  is  wrong  here. 


226 


TRAGEDIES 


AJAX 


the  rivalry  of  Ajax  and  Ulyssea  over  the  arms  of  Achilles  to 
the  death  of  Ajax  by  his  own  hand." 


20 

from  the  'prologue  ?  : 

Nonius :  '  Statim,'  when  the  first  sj  liable  is  pronounced 
long,*  as  derived  from  '  stare '  means  perseveringly  and  uni- 
formly. .  .  .  Ennius  in  Ajax — 

who  warred  -with  the  Achaeans  steadfastly. 

21 
Vano '  :— 

Ajax 

Some  glow — the  star-light  ? — in  the  heavens  I  see 

By  '  iubar '  is  meant  the  star  ( Venvs)  which  is  called 
'  Light -bringer.'  Its  rise  indicates  that  the  end  of  the  night 
is  near. 

22 

Outburst  of  Ajax  in  which  he  gneers  at  the  spoils  won  by 
Ulysses  f  .'* 

Festus  :  A  nymph  named  Salmacis,  a  daughter  of  Sky  and 
Earth,  is  said  to  be  the  origin  of  the  name  '  Salmacis  '  given  to 
the  water  of  a  spring  at  HaUcamassus ;  he  who  had  drunk  this 
water  became  unmatmed  in  the  vice  of  lewdness.     Ennius — 

Spoils  of  Salmacis,  gained  without  sweat  and  spilt 
blood. 

'  In  L.L.,  VT,  6,  Varro  shows  that  the  words  are  spoken  by 
Ajax  in  Ennius'  plav  of  that  name.  Cf.  V.,  121-2;  id., 
Enn.,  prooem.,  1880,  p.  14;  R.,  132,  n.;  144.  The  light  seen 
by  Ajax  may  have  been  Athena,  who  came  to  show  him  to 
Liysses  (Soph.,  Aj.,  73  flF.). 

''  R.,  132.     His  attribution  is  not  certain. 

227 

q2 


ENNIUS 

23 

Festus,  530  fin.  :  '  Tullios '  alii  dixenint  esse  silanos,  alii 
rivos,  alii  vehementes  proiectiones  sanguinis  arcuatim  fluentis, 
quales  sunt  Tiburi  in  Aniene  ...  — 

Teucer? 
.  .  .  misso  sanguine  tepido  tuUii  efflantes  volant. 
Cp.  Paulus,  ex  F.,  533. 

ALCMEO 

All  the  fragments  of  this  play  are  words  from  the  latter 
part  of  it  spoken  by  Alcmaeon;  they,  together  with  Cic, 
Ac,  Pr.,  II,  28,  29,  '  cum  virginis  fidem  implorat '  (see  p.  223), 
make  it  fairly  certain  that  the  action  corresponded  with  the 
plot  given  by  Hyginus,  73,  which  we  can  expand  a  little  from 
Apollodorus'    '  Library.*     Passages   from    both    sources    are 

Hyginus,  Fab.,  73  :  Amphiaraus  Oeelei  et  Hypermnestrae 
Thestii  fihae  filius  augur  qui  sciret  si  ad  Thebas  oppugnatum 
isset  se  inde  non  rediturum,  itaque  celavit  se  conscia  Eriphyle 
coniuge  sua  Talai  filia.  Adrastus  autem  ut  eum  investigaret 
monile  aureum  ex  gemmis  fecit  et  muneri  dedit  sorori  suae 
Eriphyiae,  quae  doni  cupida  coniugem  prodidit.  Amphiaraus 
Alcmeoni  fiHo  suo  praecepit  ut  post  suam  mortem  poenas  a 
matre  exsequeretur.  Qui  postquam  apud  Thebas  terra  est 
devoratus,  Alcmeon  memor  patris  praecepti  Eriphylen  matrem 
suam  interfecit;   quem  postea  furiae  exagitarunt. 

Apollodorus,  Bibl.,  Ill,  7,  5 :  xprjoavros  'ATrdAAojvo?  ourw  tt}v 
firjTepa  aTreKreivev  .  .  .  'AXKiiaicuva  Se  fi€TrjXdiv  ipivvs  tov  (jlti- 
rposfv  j>6vov  KoX  (lefirjvajs  Trparrov  fiev  els  'ApKaSlav  rrpos  'Ot/cAea 
■napaynverai,  exeWev  Be  els  '"Fto^rSa  npos  ^rjyea. 

2^  Ennius  in  Aiace  Aiax  misso  Fest.  Jortasse  recte 

"  So  in  Soph.,  Aj.,  1411-13.  But  the  words  may  be  from 
the  speech  of  a  messenger  describing  Ajax  lying  in  his  blood 
(R.,  131);  or  the  model  may  be  Tecmessa's  words  in  Soph., 
Aj.,  918-19. 

228 


I 


TRAGEDIES 

23 

Teucer  <•  is  about  to  carry  away  self-slain  Ajax  : 

Festus  :  Some  have  said  that  '  tullii '  are  jets,  others  that 
they  are  streams,  others  that  they  are  strong  spurts  of  blood 
gushing  in  an  arc,  like  the  spurts  in  the  waters  of  the  Anio 
at  Tibur  ...  — 

Teucer ? 

with  gush  of  warm  blood  fly  the  spouting  jets. 

ALCMAEON 

included  here.  In  at  least  one  other  case  {Alexander,  see 
pp.  234  ff.)  Hyginus  can  be  shown  to  have  gone  to  Ennius  for  his 
plot.*  The  original  may  have  been  Theodectes'  'AXxfialcov, 
but  more  probably  it  was  Euripides'  'AXK/xaicov  Std  Vci)(f>iSos 
(not  his  *A.  8ia  Kopivdov).' 


Hyginus  :  Amphiaraus  the  seer,  son  of  Oecleus  and  Hvperm- 
nestra,  a  daughter  of  Thestius,  because  he  knew  that  if  he 
joined  in  the  attack  on  Thebes  he  was  destined  not  to  return 
thence,  went  accordingly  into  hiding,  his  accomplice  being  his 
wife,  Eriphyle,  a  daughter  of  Talaus.  But  Adrastus,  that  he 
might  track  him  down,  offered  a  golden  necklace  set  with 
gems  as  a  present  to  Eriphyle,  who  was  his  sister;  and  she, 
eager  for  the  gift,  betrayed  her  husband.  Amphiaraus  bade 
his  son  Alcmaeon  exact  retribution  from  his  mother  after  his 
father's  death.  After  the  latter  was  engulfed  by  the  earth  ■* 
at  Thebes,  Alcmaeon,  mindful  of  his  father's  bidding,  slew 
Eriphyle  his  mother.     Afterwards  the  Furies  harassed  him. 

Apollodorus  :  ApoUo  spoke  an  oracle  to  him,  and  he  slew 
his  mother.  .  .  .  And  Alcmaeon  was  pursued  by  the  Fury  of 
his  mother's  murder,  and  seized  with  madness  he  came  first 
to  Oecleus  in  Arcadia,  and  thence  to  Phegeus  in  Psophis. 

'  It  must  be  noted,  however,  that  in  Hyginus  the  title 
of  this  plot  is  Amphiaraus  Eriphyle  el  Alcmeon. 
"  v.,  CCI-CCH;  R.,  197ff. 
''  Zeus  opened  a  chasm  to  save  him  from  death  in  battle. 

229 


ENNIUS 

24 

Nonius,  127,  13 :  '  lam  diu '  pro  olim.  .  .  .  Ennius 
Alcmeone — 

Alcmeo 
Factum  est  iam  diu. 

25-9 

Cicero,  de  Oral.,  Ill,  58,  218  :  Aliud  vocis  genus  iracundia 
sibi  sumat  .  .  .  aliud  metus,  demissum  et  haeeitans  et 
abiectum — 

Multis  sum  modis  circumventus,  morbo  exilio  atque 

inopia ; 
tum    pavor    sapientiam     omnem      mi      exanimato 

expectorat ; 
mater  terribilem  minatur  vitae  cruciatum  et  necem, 
quae  nemo  est  tam  firmo  ingenio  et  tsinta  confidentia 
quin  refugiat  timido  sanguen  atque  exalbescat  metu. 

Cp.  id.,  de  Fill.,  IV,  23,  62  (.  .  .  ut  enim  Alcmeo  .  .  .); 
V,  11,  31;   etal. 

30-36 

Cicero,  Ac.  Pr.,  II,  28,  89 :  Quid  ipse  Alcmeo  tuus,  qui 
negat  '  cor  sibi  cum  oculis  consentire '  (fr.  37)  nonne  ibidem 
incitato  furore — 

^'  mater  Ribb.  ultor  ami.  V        alter  cdd. 


°  I  take  quae  an  '  accusative  in  apposition.'  Cic,  de  Fin., 
IV,  23,  62  shows  that  the  fragment  comes  from  Ennius' 
Alcmaeon.  If  mater  is  the  right  reading  in  line  27,  then  I 
take  it  that  what  is  meant  is  ipivvs  firjTptyov  <f>6vov  as 
Apollodorus  has  it  (see  above). 

230 


TRAGEDIES 

24 

Scene:  Paaj^is  in  Arcadia  where  Phegetu^was  king.  Alcmaeon 
looks  back  on  his  deed  : 

Nonius :  '  lam  diu '  for  once  upon  a  time.  .  .  .  Ennius 
in  Alcmaeon — 

Alanaeon 

.  .  .  'Tis  long  since  it  was  done. 

25-9 

He  is  haunted  by  the  horrors  of  his  deed  and  fate  : 

Cicero  :  Let  wrath  claim  one  kind  of  voice  .  .  .  fear  claim 
another, — lowered,  broken,  and  downcast — 

Beset  am  I  in  sundry  ways — by  sickness,  banish- 
ment and  want ;  yes,  and  dread  disheartens  me  wholly 
out  of  my  wits,  even  to  death  ;  mother  threatens  my 
life  with  butchery  and  torture  terrible,  horrors  at 
which  "  there  is  none  so  steadfast  in  spirit,  none 
endowed  with  such  firm  trust  that  his  blood  would  not 
flee  him  in  his  fright  and  turn  white  with  fear. 


30-36 

Madness  corner  upon  him  :  ^ 

Cicero :  Once  more,  your  Alcmaeon  himself,  who  denies 
that  his  mind  sees  alike  with  his  eyes — (fr.  37)  does  he  not 
shout  at  the  very  moment  when  his  raving  is  quickened — 


*  From  Cic,  Ac,  Pr.,  II,  27,  88  we  can  be  sure  that  Cicero 
quotes  from  Ennius'  Alcmeieon. 

231 


ENNIUS 

Alcmeo 
Unde  haec  flamma  oritur  ? 
et  ilia  deinceps — 

Incede,  incede,  adsunt,  me  expetunt. 
Quid  cum  virginis  fidem  implorat — 

Fer  mi  auxilium,  pestem  abige  a  me,  flammiferam 

hanc  vim  quae  me  excrueiat. 
Caerulea  incinctae  angui  incedunt,  circumstant  cum 

ardentibus  taedis. 

Num  dubitas  quin  sibi  haec  videre  videatur?    itemque 
cetera — 

Intendit  crinitus  Apollo 
arcum  auratum  laeva  innixus  ; 
Diana  facem  iacit  a  luna. 

37 

Cicero,  Ac.  Pr.,  II,  17,  52  :    Quod  idem  contigit  insanis 
ut  .  .  .  cum  relaxentur  sentiant  atque  ilia  dicant  Alcmeonis — 

sed  mihi  ne  utiquam   cor  consentit  cum  oculorum 
aspectu. 

Apollodor.,  Bibl.,  Ill,  7,  5  :    KaOapOels  8e  in'  avrov  (<l>7;ye'ws) 
'Apaivdrpi  yafiel  rijv  rovrov  dvyaTepa. 


3*~*  laeva  .  .  .  luna,  Anon,  ap.  Reid,  Acad.   Cic,  p.  285 
luna  .  .  .  laeva  Cic. 


"  He  sees  first   one,   then  several  fiery   Furies.     Cf.   V., 
prooem.,  1887-8,  p.  7. 

*  Sc.  Arsinoe's.     She  is  also  called  Alphesiboea. 

232 


TRAGEDIES 

Alcmaeon 

\Mience  rises  this  flame  ? 

and  then  comes  the  famous  outcrj' — 

Come  on,  come  on  I  Ah!  They're  here.  'Tis  I 
they  seek !  " 

And  again,  when  he  implores  a  maiden's  *  protection — 

Help  me  !  Thrust  away  this  plague  from  me,  this 
flaming  blast  which  racks  me  to  death  !  They  come 
on,  girdled  with  snakes  of  colour  blue,  they  stand 
around  me  with  blazing  brands. 

Surely  you  do  not  doubt  that  he  thinks  he  sees  all  this? 
Now  for  the  rest — 

Apollo  never-shorn  straining  with  his  left  hand 
bends  his  gilded  bow ;  Diana  shoots  her  brand  from 
the  moon.*^ 

37 

His  madness  begins  to  abate  : 

Cicero  :  The  same  thing  happens  to  people  who  are  mad, 
80  that  .  .  .  when  the  madness  in  them  slackens,  they  feel 
and  say,  in  the  famous  words  of  Alcmaeon — 

but  in  no  wise  sees  my  mind  alike  with  the  sight 
of  my  eyes. 

His  marriage  with  Arsinoe  ?  : 

Apollodorus :  Purified  by  him  (Phegeus)  he  married  that 
same  king's  daughter. "* 

'  I  assume  that  in  the  Latin  laeva  and  luna  have  changed 
places.  Of  course  such  a  transposition  might  be  intentional, 
to  express  the  madness  of  Alcmaeon. 

*  That  this  marriage  was  included  in  Ennius'  play  is 
probable  (R.  199). 

.       233 


ENNIUS 


ALEXANDER 


We  can  be  certain  that  the '  fabula  '  with  the  title '  Alexander 
Paris '  in  Hyginus  is  an  outline  made  directly  from  Ennius' 
play  (see  notes  on  lines  39,  52),  which,  as  Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  82 


Hyginus,  Fah.,  91  :  Priamus  Laomedontis  filius,  cum  com- 
plures  liberos  ex  concubitu  Hecubae,  Cissei  sive  Dymantis 
fihae,  uxor  eius  praegnans  in  quiete  vidit  se  facem  ardentem 
parere  ex  qua  serpentes  plurimos  exisse.  Id  visum  omnibus 
coniectoribus  cum  narratum  esset,  imperant  quidquid  pareret 
necaret  ne  id  patriae  exitio  foret. 


38-49 

Cicero,  de  Div.,  I,  21,  42  :  Haec  etiam  si  ficta  sunt  a  poeta 
non  absunt  tamen  a  consuetudine  somniorum.  Sit  sane 
etiam  illud  commenticium  quo  Priamus  est  conturbatus, 
quia — 

Cassaiidra 

Mater  gravida  parere  se  ardentem  facem 
visa  est  in  somnis  Hecuba,  quo  facto  pater 
rex  ipse  Priamus  somnio  mentis  metu  40 

perculsus,  curls  sumptus  suspirantibus 
exsacrificabat  hostiis  balantibus. 
Tum  coniecturam  postulat  pacem  petens 
ut  se  edoceret  obsecrans  Apollinem 
quo  sese  vertant  tantae  sortes  somnium.  45 

Ibi  ex  oraclo  voce  divina  edidit 
Apollo  puerum  primus  Priamo  qui  foret 
postilla  natus  temperaret  tollere  ; 
eum  esse  exitium  Troiae,  pestem  Pergamo. 

'*  quia  mater  Cic.  fortasse  add.  mea  Irib.  Enn.  Alex. 

Hartung 

234 


TRAGEDIES 


ALEXANDER 

shows,  was  based  on  Euripides'  'AAe'^avSpos.  Thus  we  can 
give  not  only  fragments,  but  also  the  plot  of  Ennius' 
tragedy. 

Prologue  sjpoken  by  Cassandra  : 

Hyginus :  Priam,  son  of  Laomedon,  had  several  children 
in  wedlock  with  Hecuba,  daughter  of  Cisseus  or  Dymas; 
she,  his  queen,  being  with  child,  saw  herself  in  sleep  giving 
birth  to  a  burning  firebrand,  out  of  which  came  many  snakes. 
When  this  vision  was  told  to  all  the  interpreters,  they  enjoined 
that,  whatever  she  gave  birth  to,  she  should  slaughter  it, 
so  that  it  should  not  mean  mischief  to  the  country. 

38-49 

Cicero :  Even  if  all  this  is  fiction  on  the  pofet's  part,  still 
it  is  not  different  from  the  usual  manner  of  (L-eams.  I  grant 
you  by  all  means  that  the  following  also  was  some  make- 
believe,  by  which  Priamus  was  harassed,  because 

Cassandra 

My  mother  Hecuba,  heavy  with  child,  in  a  dream 
thought  she  gave  birth  to  a  burning  brand  "  ;  on  this 
my  father  king  Priam  himself,  daunted  with  fear  of 
mind  at  the  dream,  gripped  by  sighing  cares,  made 
atoning  sacrifice  with  bleating  victims.  Then  in 
search  of  peace  he  begged  from  Apollo  an  interpre- 
tation, beseeching  him  to  teach  him  truly  whither 
dreams  of  such  mighty  omen  would  turn.  Then  from 
his  oracle  Apollo  with  foretelling  voice  gave  forth 
that  Priam  should  forbear  to  take  up  the  first  boy 
who  should  be  born  to  him  after  that ;  that  the  boy 
would  be  a  ruin  to  Troy,  a  plague  to  Pergamum. 

"  The  correspondence  of  Hyginus'  words  (quoted  above)  is 
close,  so  that  the  attribution  of  this  fr.  to  Ennius'  Alexander 
need  not  be  doubted.  V.,  125;  R.  82-3  (he  suggests  Venus 
as  the  speaker). 


ENNIUS 

Hyginus,  Fab.,  91  :  Postquam  Hecuba  peperit  Alexandrum 
datur  interficiendus,  quem  satellites  misericordia  exposuerunt. 
Eum  pastores  pro  suo  filio  repertum  expositum  educanint 
eumque  Parim  nominaverunt.  Is  cum  ad  puberem  aetatem 
pervenisset,  habuit  taurum  in  deliciis. 

50-51 

Varro,  L.L.,  6,  83  :  '  Aures  '  ab  '  aveo  '  quod  his  avemua 
discere  semper,  quod  Ennius  videtur  ervfiov  ostendere  velle 
in  Alexandre  ...  — 

Priamus 

lamdudum  ab  ludis  animus  atque  aures  avent 
avide  exspectantes  nuntium. 

52 

Hyginus,  Fab.,  91  :  Quo  cum  satellites  missi  a  Priamo 
ut  taurum  aliquis  adduceret  venissent  qui  in  athlo  funebri 
quod  ei  fiebat  poneretur,  coeperunt  Paridis  taurum  abducere. 
Qui  persecutus  est  eos  et  inquisivit  quo  eum  ducerent :  ilU 
indicant  se  eum  ad  Priamum  adducere  qui  vicisset  ludis 
funebribus  Alexandri. 

Festus,  460,  12  :    '  Stolidus,'  stultus  .  ,  .  — 

Nuntius 

Hominem  appellat :   '  Quid  lascivis,  stolide  ?  '     Non 
intellegit. 

**  intellegit  cdd.        intellegis  V 


«  R.,  84. 

*  The  nature  of  the  next  fragment  of  Ennius   (line  52) 
seems  to  me  to  suggest  that  Hyginus  used  a  long  speech  of  a 

236 


TRAGEDIES 

Hyginus  :  After  Hecuba  had  given  birth  to  Alexander,  he 
was  given  up  to  be  killed;  but  the  servants  in  pity  exposed 
him.  Some  shepherds  found  him  exposed  and  brought  him  up 
as  a  son  of  their  own,  and  named  him  Paris.  When  he  reached 
the  years  of  manhood,  he  had  a  bull  as  a  pet. 

50-51 

Meanwhile  Priam  had  established  yearly  games  in  honour  of 
Alexander,  whom  he  thought  to  be  dead.  He  awaits  news  of  the 
games  ? : " 

Varro  :  '  Aures  '  is  a  term  derived  from  '  aveo,'  for  with 
these  we  are  on  all  occasions  '  avid  '  to  learn.  Ennius,  it 
seems,  wishes  to  show  in  this  a  true  root  of  speech  in  Alexander 

Priamus 

For  long  now  my  mind  and  my  ears  have  been 
waiting  eager  with  eagerness  to  hear  the  messenger 
from  the  games. 

52 

The  messenger  tells  his  strange  story  :  * 

Hyginus  :  When  servants,  sent  by  Priam  in  order  that  one 
of  them  might  bring  along  a  bull  to  be  put  up  as  a  prize  in  the 
graveside  sports  which  were  held  according  to  custom  in 
his  honour,  came  to  his  haunts,  they  began  to  lead  away 
Paris'  buU.  He  followed  them  up,  and  inquired  whither  they 
were  leading  it.  They  made  known  to  him  that  they  were 
leading  it  to  Priam  for  the  man  who  might  be  the  winner  at 
the  graveside  sports  in  honour  of  Alexander. 

Paris  protests  against  the  seizure  of  his  bull : 

Festos  :  '  Stolidus  '  silly  ...  — 

Messenger 

He  calls  to  the  fellow,  '  What's  this  frolic, 
blockhead  ?  ' 

He  understands  not. 

messenger  in  Ennius'  play  for  that  part  of  his  fabula  which 
I  give  here  and  below. 

237 


ENNIUS 

53 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  1,  61  :  '  Multi  praeterea  quos  fama 
obscura  recondit '  {Aen.,  V,  302).     Ennius  in  Alexandro — 

Nuniius 

Multi  alii  adventant,  paupertas   quorum   obscurat 
nomina. 

Hyginus,  Fab.,  91  :  lUe  amore  incensus  tauri  sui  descendit 
in  certamen,  et  omnia  vicit,  fratres  quoque  suos  superavit. 
Indignans  Deiphobus  gladium  ad  eum  strinxit;  at  ille  in 
aram  lovis  Hercei  insiluit. 


Cp.  Hygin.,  Fab.,  273. 


54 


Festus,  548,  19 :  '  Taenias '  Graecam  vocem  sic  inter- 
pretatur  Verrius  ut  dicat  omamentum  esse  laneum  capitis 
honorati  ...  — 

Nuniius  ? 
volans  de  caelo  cum  corona  et  taeniis 

55 

Paulas,  561,  21  (12):  '  Vitulans,'  laetans  gaudio,  ut 
pastu  vitulus.     Ennius — 

Nuntius  ? 
'  is  habet  coronam  vitulans  victoria.' 

64-7 s  ^yj5  Enn.  Alex.  Colonna 
^^  irib.  Alex.  Hartung 

»  of  Zeus  epKelos,  the  most  sacred  spot  in  a  house. 

*  R.,  86  suggests  Eros  coming  near  the  end  of  the  play  to 
settle  all  disagreements;  V.,  126  saj'S  either  Victoria  or  Venus 
is  meant  (Varro,  L.L.,  V.,  62).  But  the  next  fragment  (if 
it  is  rightly  placed)  suggests  that  here  also  it  is  Victoria  who 
appears.  I 

238 


I 


TRAGEDIES 

53 

TJie  messenger  tells  Priam  about  the  spectators  at  the  games  : 

Macrobius,  on  '  Many  besides  whose  obscure  fame  hides 
away  '  in  Virgil :    Ennius  in  Alexander — 

Messenger 

And  many  others  came,  whose  poverty 
Rendered  their  names  unknoAvn. 

Hyginus  :  He  (Paris)  inflamed  with  fondness  for  his  boll, 
went  down  into  the  lists  and  won  all  the  bquts ;  among  those 
whom  he  worsted  were  his  brothers.  Deiphobus  in  high 
dudgeon  unsheathed  his  sword  against  him;  but  he  leapt 
to  the  altar  of  Jupiter  "  of  the  Courtyard. 

54 

The  messenger  tells  of  Paris'  victories  : 

Festns :  Verrius  interprets  the  Greek  word  '  taenia '  by 
saying  that  it  is  a  woollen  ornament  for  the  bead  of  a  person 
of  rank  ...  — 

Messenger  ? 

With  garlands  and  ^vith  ribbons  wTeathed,  from 

heaven 
As  she  *  flew  do>vn, 

55 

he  reports  comments  of  the  losers,  possibly  of  Deiphobus," 
a  brother  of  Paris  : 

Paulus  :  '  Vitulans,' ''  rejoicing  in  gladness,  like  a  '  vitulns,' 
(calf)  at  pasture.     Ennius — 

Messenger  ? 
'  He  has  the  garland,  trippling  there  in  trimnph.' 

«  Or  of  Hector— Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  V,  370. 
''  '  vitulans,'  as  a  pun  on  vltulus,  would  be  a  very  suitable 
term  to  apply  to  the  strange  cowman  (cp.  lascivis  in  line  52). 

239 


ENNIUS 

56 
Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  82  :   Apud  Ennium  .  ,  .  — 

Nuniius 

quapropter  Parim  pastores  nunc  Alexandrura  vocant. 

Imitari  dum  voluit  Euripidem  et  ponere  irvfiov  est  lapsus, 
nam  Euripides  quod  Graeca  posuit  Iru/xa  sunt  aperta.  .  .  . 

Hyginus,  Fab.,,  91  :  Quod  cum  Cassandra  vaticinaretur 
eum  fratrem  esse  Priamus  eum  agnovit  regiaque  recepit. 

57-72 

Cicero,  de  Div.,  I,  31,  66  :  Inest  igitur  in  amimis  praesagitio 
extrinsecus  iniecta  atque  inclusa  divinitus.  Ea  si  exarsit 
acrius,  furor  appellatur,  cum  a  corpore  animus  abstractus 
divino  instinctu  concitatur — 

Hecuba 

Sed  quid  oculis  rapere  visa  est  derepente  ardentibus  ; 
aut  ubi  ilia  paullo  ante  sapiens  virginali  modestia  ? 

Cassandra 

Mater  optumarum  multo  mulier  melior  mulierum,     ' 
missa  sum  superstitiosis  hariolationibus,  60 

neque  me  Apollo  fatis  fandis  dementem  invitam  ciet. 
Virgines  vereor  aequalis,  patris  mei  meum  factum 
pudet 

*'  rabere  .  .  .  es  Muret  fortasse  recte  {non  prob.  V) 
"  <aut>  L 

**  optumarum  Porson  optuma  tu  V  optuma  turn 
vel  sim  aid. 

240 


I 


TRAGEDIES 

56 
He  teUs  how  the  strange  victor  is  called  Alexander  : 
Varro :  In  a  passage  Ennius  we  have  ...  — 

Messenger 
Wherefore    the    shepherds    now    call    this    Paris 
'  Alexander.' " 

While  wishing  to  copy  Euripides  and  gi%-e  an  example  of  true 
roots  of  speech,  Ennius  made  a  sHp,  for,  because  Euripides 
wrot«  Greek  true  roots  of  speech,  his  are  obvious. 

Hyginus  :  But  when  Cassandra  prophesied  that  he  was 
her  brother,  Priam  recognised  him  and  gave  him  a  place  in 
his  palace. 

57-72 

Cassandra,  filled  with  prophetic  frenzy,  foresees  the  evil  that 
Alexander  will  bring  upon  Troy : 

Cicero  :  There  is  therefore  in  souls  a  power  of  boding  put 
in  from  outside  and  shut  in  by  divine  communication.  If 
it  bums  up  very  strongly,  it  is  called  raving,  when  the  mind 
withdrawn  from  the  body  is  stirred  up  by  divine  inspiration — 

Hecuba 

But  what  did  she  seem  on  a  sudden  to  catch  sight 
of  with  burning  eyes  ?  Yes,  and  where  is  she  who 
not  long  back  was  in  her  right  mind,  she  of  maidenly 
modesty  ? 

Cassandra 

Mother,  woman  wiser  far  than  the  best  of  women, 
driven  was  I  by  superstitious  soothsayings,  and 
Apollo  by  foretellings  told  stirs  me  to  madness — not 
against  my  wish.  Yet  I  shrink  from  maidens  of  my 
own  age,  and  my  father,  best  of  men,  is  ashamed  of 

"  This  was  because  he  had  kept  off  robbers  from  the  cattle 
and  had  been  an  averter  (aXf^rjaas  Apollod.)  for  the  herds  and 
BO  came  to  be  called  '  Alexander '  or  '  Averter  of  men.' — 
ApoUod.,  Bibl,  III,  130  (12,  5,  5). 

241 

VOL.  I.  R 


ENNIUS 

optumi  \ari.     Mea  mater,  tui  me  miseret,  mei  piget. 
Optumam  progeniem  Priamo  peperisti  extra  me  ;  hoe 

dolet. 
Med  obesse,illos  prodesse,me  obstare,illos  obsequi ! 
Hecuba  hoc  dolet  pudet  piget !       66 

O  poema  tenerum  et   moratum  atque   molle.     Sed   hoc 
minus  ad  rem  ...  — 

Adest  adest  fax  obvoluta  sanguine  atque  incendio ; 
multos  annos  latuit.  Gives,  ferte  opem  et  restinguite  ! 

Deus  inclusus  corpore  humano,  lam   non   Cassandra   lo- 
quitur.— 

lamque  marl  magno  classis  cita 

texitur,  exitium  examen  rapit ;  70 

adveniet  fera  velivolantibus 

navibus  complebit  manus  litora. 

Tragoedias  loqui  videor  et  fabulas. 

Cp.  Cic,  de  Oral.,  46,  155;   de  Div.,  II,  115,  112;   ad  Alt., 
VIII,  11,  3;   Non.,  112,  22;   328,  28. 

73-5 

Cicero,  de  Div.,  I,  50,  114:    Furibunda  mens  videt  ante 
multo  quae  sint  f utura ;   quo  de  genere  iUa  sunt — 

Cassandra 
Eheu  videte ; 

iudicavit  inclitum  indicium  inter  deas  tres  allquis, 
quo    iudicio    Lacedaemonia    mulier    furiarura     una 
adveniet. 

«6  Hecuba  h.  d.  p.  p.  add.  ex  Quintil.,  IX,  3,  77,  trib.  Enn. 
Alex.  R 

«^  involuta  A'cm.,  112,  328 

242 


TRAGEDIES 

what  I  do.  Mother  mine,  I  pity  you,  I  grieve  for 
me ;  to  Priam  you  have  born  blessed  bairns — apart 
from  me.  That  's  painful.  Ah !  That  I  should  be 
a  hindrance,  those  brothers  a  help  I  That  I  should 
stand  against  you,  they  stand  with  you!  .  .  . 
Hecuba,"  That  's  painful,  pitiful,  sorrowful  I 

What  gentle  soft  poetry,  fitting  the  characters  !  yet  this  is 
but  little  to  the  point  ...  — 

'Tis  here,  the  brand  wreathed  in  blood  and  fire. 
Many  a  year  hath  it  lain  hidden.  Citizens !  Bring  ye 
help  and  quench  it  I 

By  now  not  Cassandra,  but  a  god,  shut  up  in  a  human 
body,  is  speaking. — 

And  now  upon  the  mighty  main  a  fast  fleet  is 
built ;  it  carries  a  crowd  of  deaths  ;  a  wild  horde  will 
come  and  cover  the  shores  \nth  sail-fluttering  ships. 

It  seems  my  talk  is  all  tragedies  and  tales. 

73-5 

Cicero  :  The  raving  mind  sees  long  beforehand  things  that 
are  to  come;  to  this  kind  belongs  the  famous  passage — 

Cassandra 

Ha !  See  ye !  Someone  hath  judged  a  judg- 
ment widely  known  between  three  goddesses ;  and 
out  of  this  judgment  \vi\\  come  to  us  a  woman  of 
Lacedaemon,  one  of  the  Furies. 

"  Added  from  QuintiUan,  IX,  3,  77 :  '  o/iotoreAcwrov,  when 
two  or  more  sentences  have  the  same  ending  ...  it  comes 
about  even  with  single  words — Hecuba  .  .  .'  (V.,  128; 
R.,  90-91 ;  Incert.  Fab.,  X).  The  attribution  is  conjectural 
but  probable. 

243 


ENNIUS 

76-9 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  2,  18  :  '0  lux  Dardaniae,  spes  o  fidissima 
Teucrum,' et  reliqua.     (^en.,  H,  281).     Ennius  in  Alexandro — 

O  lux  Troiae,  germane  Hector, 
quid  ita  cum  tuo  lacerato  corpore 
miser  es  aut  qui  te  sic  respectantibus 
tractavere  nobis  ? 

80-81 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  2,  25  :  '  Cum  fatQis  equus  c.  q.  s.  (Aen. 
VI,  515).'     Ennius  in  Alexandro — 

Nam  maximo  saltu  superavit  gravidus  armatis  equus 
qui  suo  partu  ardua  perdat  Pergama. 

Cp.  id.,  S.,  Ill,  13,  13. 

82 

Festus,    270,    16:      <'Putum  .  .  .  pro     puro     dixisso 
antiques  <.  .  .  Ennius> — in  Alexandro  ...  — 

a  medio  purus  putus 

Cp.  Gell.,  VII,  5,  10  ('  purum  putum.'  .  .  .  Ennii  tragoedia 
quae  inscribitur  Alexander). 


ANDROMACHA  sive  ANDROMACHA 
AECHMALOTIS 

One  thing  certain  about  the  plot  *  of  this  play  is,  that 
although  its  origin  was  Euripides  (Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  82), 
it  was  not  taken  from  that  poet's  'AvSpofidx-q,  since  the  action 
falls  sooner  after  the  capture  of  Troy.  Some  of  the  material 
is  to  be  found  in  his  'EKd^-q  and  in  his  TpwdSes-     The  model 

"-8  cum  .  .  .  es  v.,  Rh.  Mus.,  XIV,  567;  H.,  XII,  400, 
XV,  262  s.         miser  aut  Macrob. 

*••  superavit  cdd.         superabit  Voss  prdb.  V 
*-  a  medio  W         *  *  amidio  cd. 

244 


TRAGEDIES 


76-9 


Macrobius,  on  '  0  light  of  Dardania,  O  surest  hope  of  the 
Trojans  '  in  Virgil :  And  so  on.     Ennius  in  Alexander— 

O  my  own  brother,  Hector,  you  light  of  Troy,  how 
is  it  you  are  thus  made  pitiful  vsith  your  torn  body  ? 
And  who  are  they  who  have  thus  dragged  you  before 
our  verj^  eyes  ? 

80-81 

Macrobius,  on  '  when  the  fatal  horse '  elc.  ...  in  Virgil : 
Ennios  in  Alexander — 

For  with  mighty  leap  the  horse  heavy  with  armed 
men  has  passed  over,  that  he  may  by  his  brood  bring 
bane  to  high-builded  Pergama. 


82 
Unplaced  fragment : 

Festns    says  :      '  Putus  '    for  '  porus  ' :  .  .  .  Ennios  "  in 
Alexander — 

pure  and  clean  from  the  middle 


ANDROMACHE  or  ANDROMACHE 
CAPTR-E 

may  have  been  a  play  unknown  to  us  (V.,  CXiJIII  title  :  — 'AvSp. 
(ujf/iaAorros  or  ai;^/xaAajTiV) ;  or  Ennius  may  have  '  contamin- 
ated '  several  plays.  Quotations  are  given  under  two  titles, 
but  come  from  the  same  play. 


Ennius  as  in  Alexander,  as  GelL,  VII,  10  shows, 
v.,  (XU-CCni;   R.,  135  flF. 

243 


ENNIUS 
83-4 

Eur.,  Troad.,  19  s.,  /xeVoucri  Se  |  Trpvuv-qdev  ovpov,  <hs  Se/ca- 
arropoi  xpovio  \  aXoxovs  re  Kal  reKv^  elaiScoaiv  .  .  .  Cp.  1263- 
1264. 

Nonius,  401,  37  :  '  Summum,'  gloriosum,  laudabile.  .  •  . 
Ennius  Andromache  Aechmaloto — 

Neptunus  ? 

annos  raultos  longinque  ab  domo 
bellum  gerentes  summum  summa  industria. 

85 

Eur.,  Troad.,  7.5  s.;  Iphig.  Taur.,  1379,  1394? 

Macrobius,  <S.,  VI,  6,  10 :  '  despiciens  mare  velivolum ' 
(Aen.,  I,  224) ;   Ennius  ...  in  Andromache — 

Chorus  ? 
Rapit  ex  alto  naves  velivolas 

86-7 
NoniuB,  615,  24 :  '  Rarenter  '  .  .  .  — 

Nuntius  ? 

sed  quasi  aut  ferrum  aut  lapis 
durat,  rarenter  gemitum  conatu  trahens, 

'•  aut  f.  a.  [ai.  al.,  i.  a.  G. 

*'  conatu  trahens  Lips,  Fruter  conatur  trabem  cdd. 

pentametrum  trochaicum  constit.  V 

246 


TRAGEDIES 

83-4 
The  Greeks  prepare  to  return  from  Troy  : 

Nonius :     '  Summmn,'  glorious,  praiseworthy.  .  .  .  Ennius 
in  Andromache  Captive — 

Neptune  ?  « 

Fighting  for  many  a  year  and  far  from  home 
With  glorious  labour  in  a  gloi-ious  war. 

85 
A  storm  keeps  them  back  : 

Macrobius,   on   '  looking  down  on  the  sail-fluttering  sea ' 
in  Virgil :   Ennius  ...  in  Andromache — 

Chorus ?  » 
From  the  high  sea  it  sweeps  sail-fluttering  ships 

86-7 

Grief  of   Hecuba  (?)  •  when  baby  Astyanax  is  washed  for 
burial : 

Xonius  :  '  Rarenter '  .  .  .  — 

Messenger  ? 

But  like  unto  stiff  strength  of  iron  or  stone 
She  strained  to  draw  sobs  fitfully, 

•  Cf.  Eur.,  Tr.,  19  (Poseidon  speaks).     Contrast  R.,  139. 

'>  Perhaps  of  sailors  or  warriors  ?     Or  the  speaker  may  be 
Cassandra.     R.,  140. 

<=  v.,  134  and  CCIII  thinks  the  fr.  describes  Andromache; 
but  she  was  not  present. 

247 


ENNIUS 

88-9 
Eur.,  Troad.,  1133  s.,  1156  s.,  1193,  1220-1223,  1228  s. 
Nonius,  504,  18  :  '  Lavere '  etiam  inde  manavit  ...  — 

Nuntius  ? 

nam    ubi    introducta    est    puerumque    ut    laverent 

locant 
in  clipeo, 

90 
Nonius,  292,  7  :   '  Exanclare '  etiam  significat  perpeti ...  — 

Andromacha 
Quantis  cum  aerumnis  ilium  exanclavi  diem ! 

91-2 

Eur.,  Androm.,  399—400 :  ijtis  a^ayas  fxev  'EKTopos  TpoxrjXd- 
Tovs  I  xareiSov.     Cp.  107-108,  8-9. 

Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp.,  1,  44,  105  :    Hie  ulciscitur,  ut  quidem 
sibi  videtur ;  at  ilia  sicut  acerbissimam  rem  maeret — 

Vidi  videre  quod  me  passa  aegerrume 
Hectorem  curru  quadriiugo  raptarier. 

Quem  Hectorem,   aut   quam   diu   ille   erit   Hector  ?     Melius 
Accius.  .  .  . 

93 

Eur.,    Androm.,    9—10 :     iaeiBov,    TraiSa    0'   Svtiktw  Troaei  | 
pi<f>devTa  TTVpyoiv  .   .   . 

Varro,  L.  L.,  V.,  70  :  Dicebant  ut  quaestorem  praetorem  sic 
Hectorem  Nestorem.     Ennius  ait — 

Hectoris  natum  de  moero  iactarier 

**  de  moero  iactarier  S        e  L        de  Troiano  muro  iactari 
cdd. 

'  Hector's  shield.     V.,  131  rightly  I  think  takes  the  fr. 
as  referring  to  Hecuba;   but  cf.  R.,  138. 

248 


TRAGEDIES 

88-9 

Nonius :  '  Lavere '  is  another  form  derived  from  this 
verb  ...  — 

Messenger  ? 

for  when  she  was  led  in,  and  they  put  the  boy  into 
the  shield  "  that  they  might  wash  him, 

90 

Andromache  begins  to  tell  of  her  grief  and  loneliness  : 
Nonius :   '  Exanclare  '  means  also  to  bear  to  the  end  ...  — 

Andromache 

In  what  dread  hardships  did  I  on  that  day 
Sene  a  full  term ! 

91-2 

Cicero  :  Achilles  avenges  himself,  or  so  he  thinks  at  least. 
But  she  grieves  as  it  were  over  a  most  bitter  woe — 

I  saw  what  I  could  hardly  bear  to  see — 
Hector  by  four-horsed  chariot  dragged  along. 

Hector  Indeed  !     Or  how  long  will  he  be  Hector  ?     Accixis  is 
better.  .  .  . 

93 

Varro :  People  used  to  pronounce  '  Hectorem '  and 
'  Nestorem '  like  '  quaestorem '  and  '  praetorem.'  Thus 
Ennius  writes — 

.  .  .  Hector's  child  hurled  from  the  wall  * 

»  I  foUow  Scaliger;  V.  (130-1  and  CCIU,  n.)  thinks  some- 
one describes  the  intention  of  the  Achaeans  to  hurl  Astyanax 
down ;  he  cites  Eur.,  Tr.,  725,  pujtcu  Se  TTvpywv  8eiv  a<f>€  TpojtKciv 
aiTo  (told  by  Talthybius),  and  compares  Serv.  auct.,  in  Aen.. 
Ill,  489. 

^249 


ENNIUS 

94-100 

Eur.,  Tr.,  587,  590  (cp.  Androm.,  523-5) :  fioXois  t5  noais  fiot 
.  .   .  ads  Sd/jLapTOS  dA/cap. 

Cicero,  Tiisc.  Disp.,  Ill,  19,  44  :  Quaerendum  igitur  quern 
ad  modum  aegritudine  privemus  eum  qui  ita  dicat  (ThijesL, 
363-5).  .  .  .  Ecce  tibi  ex  altera  parte  ab  eodem  poeta — 

ex  opibus  summis  opis  egens  Hector  tuae 

Huic  subvenire  debemus;   quaerit  enim  auxilium — 

Quid  petam  praesidi  aut  exequar,  quove  nunc 
auxilio  exili  aut  fuga  freta  sim .'' 

arce  et  urbe  orba  sum.     Quo  accidam,  quo  applicem, 
cui  nee  arae  patriae  domi  stant,  fractae  et  disiectae 

iacent, 
fana  flamma  deflagrata,  tosti  alti  stant  parietes 
deformati  atque  abiete  crispa.  .  .  . 

101-8 

Eur.,  Androm.,  394 :  tS  raAaiv'  ifirj  iraTpis  -  ■  •  400  .  .  . 
KarelSov,  oiKTpws  t'  'lAiov  TTvpovfievov. 

Cicero,  I.e. :  Scitis  quae  sequantur,  et  ilia  in  primis — 

O  pater  o  patria  o  Priami  domus ! 

saeptum  altisono  cardine  templum ; 

vidi  ego  te,  adstante  ope  barbarica,  J, 

tectis  caelatis  laqueatis  jj 

auro  ebore  instructam  regifice.  105 

O  poetam  egregium,  quamquam  ab  his  cantoribus  Euphor-  I 
ionis  contemnitur.  Sentit  omnia  repentina  et  necopinata  ] 
esse  graviora.  Exaggeratis  igitur  regiis  opibue  quae  vide-  j 
bantur  sempitemae  fore,  quid  adiungit  ? — 

i"^  adstante  Cic,  Tusc.  Disp.,  I.,  35,  85  adstantem 
Tusc.  Disp.,  Ill,  19,  44,  prob.  V 

250 


I 


TRAGEDIES 

94-100 

Cicero :  We  must  inquire  therefore  in  what  manner  we  are 
to  free  from  his  distress  him  who  thus  speaks  (see  Thyest., 
363-5).  .  .  .  Here  you  have  something  on  the  other  side  from 
the  same  poet — 

Once  mighty  in  resources,  now  resource 

Needing  from  you,  my  Hector 

Her  we  ought  to  go  and  help,  for  she  seeks  our  aid — 

\Miat  succour  should  I  seek  and  follow?  \Vhat 
help  in  retreat  or  what  escape  could  I  rely  on  now? 
Bereft  am  I  of  citadel  and  city ;  where  can  I  kneel, 
where  can  I  appeal — I  for  whom  at  home  no 
country's  altars  stand — they  Ue  broken,  torn  apart; 
the  holy  places  are  burnt  down  by  fire,  the  high 
walls  stand  scorched  and  misshapen,  and  with  fir- 
wood  crinkled  up  .  .  . 

101-8 

Cicero  continues  :  You  all  know  what  follows,  and  especially 
these  famous  lines — 

O  father,  O  fatherland,  O  house  of  Priam,  you 
temple  close-fixed  by  high-creaking  hinge,  I  have 
seen  you,  vith  barbaric  throng  "  at  hand,  furnished 
in  kingly  fashion  ^^■ith  gold  and  ivorj-,  with  ceilings 
chiselled  and  fretted. 

Truly  an  excellent  poet,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  he  is 
despised  by  your  warblers  of  Euphorion's  *  melodies.  He 
feels  that  all  that  is  sudden  and  imlooked  for  comes  the 
heavier.  Well  then,  following  on  that  heightened  account  of 
royal  riches  which  seemed  to  be  everlasting,  what  does  he 
say? — 

'  Cp.  Virgil,  Aen.,  \TH,  685 :  ope  harharica  in  this  sense. 
*  A  grammarian  and  poet  of  Chalcis  in  Euboea,  bom  about 
275  B.C. 


ENNIUS 

Haec  omnia  vidi  inflammari, 
Priamo  vi  vitam  evitari, 
lovis  aram  sanguine  turpari. 

Praeclarum  carmen;    est  enim  et  rebua  et  verbis  et  modis 
lugubre. 

Cp.  Cic,  de  Oral.,  Ill,  26,  102;  47,  183;  Rufin.,  ap.  G.L., 
VI,  569,  13  K;  Cic,  de  Oral.,  27,  93  (.  .  .  dixit  Ennius  '  arce 
e.  q.  8.');  Ill,  58,  217;  26,  102;  pro  Ses.,  57,  121;  Serv.,  ad 
Aen.,  II,  241  (101  versus  Ennianus)  al. 

109 

Eur.,  Tr.,  658  s.  ?  (663,  667-8);   cp.  38. 
Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  82 :  Apud  Ennium — 

Andromachae  nomen  qui  indidit  recte  ei  indidit.  .  .  . 

.  .  .  Ille  ait  ideo  nomen  additum  Andromachae  quod 
dvSpi  fidxeTat.  Hoc  Euni  quis  potest  intell^ere  versum 
significare  .  .  .  ? 

110 

Eur.,  Hec.,  116  if.  :    TroXXrjs  8'  epiSoj  avvenatae  kXvScjv  .  .  . 

Nonius,  76,  1  :   '  Augificat,'  auget  ...  — 

Quid    fit.''     Seditio    tabetne    an    numeros    augificat 
suos  ? 

Ill 

Festus,  424,  27 :  '  Summussi '  dicebantur  <mur- 
muratore3>  ...  — 

di<^cere summussi  .  .   .   .) 


«  This  is  Vahlen's  interpretation ;  cf .  V.,  CCIII,  134.    Ennius 
followed  Euripides,  but  there  is  no  extant  parallel  in  Greek. 

252 


TRAGEDIES 

All  this  I  saw  with  flame  devoured,  Priam's  liWng 
force  by  force  unhfed,  Jupiter's  altar  with  blood 
befouled. 

A  glorious  monody  indeed;   mournful  it  is  in  subject,  words, 
and  rhythms. 

109 

Someone  refers  to  Andromache's  refusal  to  think  of  marrying 
again  after  the  death  of  Hector  :  " 

Varro  :  ■  In  a  passage  of  Ennius  we  have — 

He  who  *  Man-fighter  '  named  her,  named  her  well. 

.  .  .  Euripides  says  that  Andromache  was  given  this  name 
because  avSpl  /taj^erat  (she  fights  against  man).  Who  can 
be  aware  that  this  is  what  is  meant  by  Ennius'  line.  .  .  ? 


110 

Discord  caused  by  the  demand  made  by  the  shade  of  Achillea 
for  Polyxend'a  blood  ?  : 

Nonius  :    '  Augificat,'  increases  ...  — 

What's   happening?       Wanes   riot,  or   swells  its 
numbers  ?  ^ 

111 
Festus  :  '  Summnssi,'  a  term  once  used  for  murmurers  ...  — 
the  raumblers  .   .   .  say  .  .  ."^ 

*  R.,  139.  He  suggests  that  Xeoptolemus  or  Nestor 
inquires  from  Ulysses  or  a  herald  how  goes  the  voting  in  the 
camp. 

'  The  passage  in  Festus  is  mutilated,  but  summussi  (cp. 
mussare)  implies  discontent.  Therefore  I  have  put  the 
fragment  here. 

253 


ENNIUS 
112 

Eur.,  Hec.,  299-300  :  OA.  'EKdpr)  SiSdoKov,  firjSe  rco  9vfiov- 
fievai  I  rov  ev  XeyovTa  Svanevij  voiov  <f>pevi. 

Nonius,  505,  H  :   '  Sonunt '  etiam  inde  manavit  .  .  . — 
nam    neque    irati    neque    blandi    quicquam    sincere 
sonunt. 

113-16 

Eur.,  Hec,  367-8,  435  (Polyx.  loqu.),  414;  Androm.,  414, 
603  (Androm.  loqu.). 

Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp.,  I,  21,  48  :  Quae  est  anus  tam  delira 
quae  timeat  ista  quae  vos  videlicet  si  physica  non  didicissetis, 
timeretis  ? — 

Acherusia  templa  alta  Orci 
salvete  infera 
pallida  let!  nubila  tenebris 
loca  ! 


ANDROMEDA 

Model :  Euripides'  play  of  the  same  name.  The  following 
summary  is  based  on  Hygin.,  Fab.,  64,  with  ApoUodor.,  Bibl., 
II,  4,  3. 

Because  Cassiope  (Cassiepeia),  wife  of  King  Cepheus  of 
Ethiopia,  claimed  that  her  beauty  (or  that  of  her  daughter 

117-18 

Aristoph.,  Thesm.,  1065  s.  (ex  Eurip.) :  tS  vvi  iepa  ws  iJ-anpov 
iTrTTevfia  SiwKeis  darepoeiSea  vcbra  8i<f>pevova'  alOepos  ipds  rov 
oefivoTaTov  Si'  'OXviinov  (Eur.,  Andromeda,  fr.  114  N.) 

Varro,  L.L.,  5,  19  :  Omnino  magis  puto  a  chao  choum  et 
hinc  caelum  .  .  .  itaque  Andromeda  nocti — 

^"  salvete  infera  add.  ex  Varr.,  L.L.,  VII,  6 

»  R.,  139.     But   v.,    134,   CCIII   makes  Andromache  the 

speaker. 

254 


TRAGEDIES 

112 

Ulysses  addresses  Andromache  ?  : 

Nonios :  '  Sonunt '  is  another  form  derived  from  this 
word  ...  — 

for  neither  the  angry  nor  the  courteous  utter  any- 
thing without  guile." 

113-16 

Poiyxena  *  is  about  to  die  : 

Cicero  :  What  old  crone  is  there  so  crazy  as  to  fear  what 
you,  I  would  have  you  know,  would  fear  if  you  had  not 
learnt  nature's  laws  ? — 

Hail,  you  tall  temples  of  Orcus  and  Acheron  below, 
you  wan  places  of  death,  clouded  in  everlasting 
ebon  darkness ! 


ANDROMEDA 

Andromeda  ?)  was  greater  than  the  beauty  of  Xereus' 
daughters,  Neptune  sent  floods  and  a  sea-monster  to  plague 
the  land.  Relief  could  come  only  if  Andromeda  were  given 
to  the  beast  to  be  devoured.  So  she  was  chained  to  a  seaside 
rock. 

117-18 
Opening  of  the  play.     At  the  mercy  of  the  monster,  Andromeda 
longs  for  daybreak  : 

Varro :  I  am  altogether  more  of  the  beUef  that  from 
'chaos'  comes  'chous' '  and  from  this  comes  'caelum'  .  .  . 
and  thus  Andromeda  says  to  the  night — 

*  R.,  139 :  or  Andromache,  when  death  threatens  her 
together  with  Molotttis  (her  son  by  Neoptolemus) — V.,  135 
'  salvete  infera '  are  supplied  from  Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  6,  who 
shows  that  the  words  come  from  this  play  of  Ennius. 

'  On  this  word  see  line  557  of  the  Anrtals. 

255 


ENNIUS 

Andromeda 

•(Sacra  nox)  quae  cava  caeli 
signitenentibus  conficis  bigis, 

Cp.  Gael.  Aurel.,  Marh.  Chron.,  I,  4,  50  (.  .  .  velut  tragicus 
poeta  sacram  noctem,  h.  e.  magnam  appellavit). 

119 

Festus,  570,  28  :  '  Urvat '  Ennius  in  Andromeda  significat 
circumdat,  ab  eo  sulco  qui  fit  in  urbe  condenda  urvo 
aratri  ...  — 

Nuntius 

Circum  sese  urvat  ad  pedes  a  terra  quadringentos 
caput, 

120 
Nonius,  189,  25  :   '  Scabrea '  pro  '  Bcabra  es  '  .  .  .  — 
scrupeo    investita    saxo,     atque     ostreis     squamae 
scabrent. 
Cp.  Feat.  494,  13. 

121 

Nonius,  20,  18 :  '  Corporare '  est  interficere  et  quasi 
corpus  solum  sine  anima  relinquere  ...  — 

Corpus  contemplatur  unde  corporaret  vulnere. 

11'  Sacra  nox  mippl.  Buecheler 

11*  &dfortasse  secludendum 

1*0  si  suppleas  fera,  fortasse  coniungendum  est  hoc  fr.  cum 
119  squamae  scabrent  Mercier  squamis  s.  Onions 

quam  excrabrent  odd. 

256 


TRAGEDIES 

Andromeda 

O  hallowed  night,  you  who  pass  over  all  the  hollow 
of  the  heaven  with  your  star-spangled  chariot  and 
team  of  two, 

119 

Perseus  fights  the  beast  ;  it  turris  its  head  : 

Festus :  '  Urvat.'  By  this,  Ennius  in  Andromeda  means 
draws  round;  it  is  derived  from  the  making  of  a  furrow  with 
the  '  urvum '  (ploughtaO)  when  a  city  is  being  founded  ...  — 

Messenger 

Ploughs  "  the  head  around  itself 
A  line  well  nigh  four  hundred  feet  from  earth, 

120 

The  monster'' s  skin  : 

Nonius:    '  Scabres  '  for  '  scabra  es.'  .  .  . — 

Enwrapped   ■v^ith   scragg\'   stones ;     its   scales    were 

scurfed 
With  mussels.'' 

121 
Perseus  seeks  a  vital  spot : 

Nonius  :  '  Corporare  '  means  to  kill,  and  as  it  were  to  leave 
the  body  only,  without  life  ...  — 

He  scanned  the  carcass  seeking  whence  he  might 
Make  it  indeed  a  carcass  with  a  wound. 

"  This  seems  to  me  to  be  the  meaning;  V.,  137  thioks  the 
killing  of  the  beast  is  described. 

*  Possibly  this  line  describes  the  beast  when  turned  to 
stone  by  Perseus,  and  so  should  be  put  later.  Nonius  gives 
this  Ennian  example  with  scabrent  before  his  example  from 
Pacuvius  with  scabres. 


ENNIUS 

122 

Nonius,  165,  8  :   '  Reciproca  '  .  .  .  — 

.  .  .  rursus  prorsus  reciprocat  fluctus  feram. 

Cp.  Non.,  385,  1. 

123-4 

Nonius,  183,  17  :   '  Visceratim '  .  .  .  — 

alia  fluctus  difFert  dissupat 
visceratim  membra,  maria  salsa  spumant  sanguine. 

125 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  293,  10  s.  :  '  His  natabus  filiabus. 
.  .  . '     Et '  filiifl  '  tamen  in  eodem  genere  dictum  est  .  .  .  — 

Andromeda 
Filiis  propter  te  obiecta  sum  innocens  Nerei. 

126 

Festus,  346,  14 :  '  Quaesere '  ponitur  ab  antiquis  pro 
quaerere  ...  — 

Andromeda 

liberum  quaesendum  causa  familiae  matrem  tuae. 

Cp.  Paulus,  347,  3. 

Eur.,  Andromeda,  133  N :  ayov  Se  ^'  <L  ^eiv'  e're  TrpooTToXov 
deXeis  etr   dXoxov  eire  SfiwtSa. 

***  fluctus  feram  cdd.  385  fructus  feram  cdd.  165 

fluctus  fera  Bergk  fluctus,  feram  .  .  .  coni.  V 

^*'  fortasse  scribend.  alio 
^2*  fortasse  -  w  -  ^  filiis  e.  q.  a.  \  Nerei 

"  Or  according  to  the  interpretation  of  R.,  168-9  (he  reads 
fera,  after  Bergk) — '  in  and  out  the  beast  belched  the  billows.' 
But  Nonius  has  feram — in  two  passages ;  yet  the  copy  used 
by  him  may  have  had  feram  wrongly.  V.,  136  takes  reciprocat 
as  intransitive  and  feram  as  dependent  on  a  verb  not  quoted 
by  Non.  or  Varro. 

258 


TRAGEDIES 

122 

The  beast  is  harassed  by  wounds  and  waves  : 

Nonius :  '  Reciproca '  .  .  .  — 

A  wave  drove  back  the  beast  and  back  again." 

125-4 
Nonius  :    '  Visceratiin '  .  .  .  — 
A  wave  shattered  and  scattered  other  limbs 
Piecemeal ;    the  salt  seas  spewed  a  bloody  spray. 

125 

Andromeda  wiU  go  with  Perseus  to  Argos  *;  she  addresses  her 
mother  : 

Priscianus :  Dat.  and  abl. :  '  natabus  filiabus ' :  .  .  .  But 
in  the  same  gender  the  form  '  filiis  '  was  also  used  ...  — 

Andromeda 

For  your  sake  was  I,  who  had  done  no  hurt. 
Cast  out,''  for  Nereus'  daughters. 

126 

Andromeda  declares''  to  Perseus  her  wiUtJigness  to  be  the 
mother  of  children  by  him  : 

Festus  :  '  Quaesere  '  is  used  by  archaic  writers  for '  quaerere ' 

Andromeda 

Mother  of  thy  household,  for  the  sake 
Of  getting  children. 

*  Hygin.,  Fab.,  64,  Eratosth.,  Catast.,  17,  p.  118  R. 

'  Either  Ennius  joined  obiecia  with  filiis,  by  implication  from 
the  fact  that  A.  was  obiecta  ferae,  or  ehe  filiis  is  '  to  satisfy  the 
daughters,'  obiecia  going  with  ferae  not  quoted  (V.,  138). 

**  Or,  wishes  Perseus  to  confirm  his  own  desire  to  have 
children  by  her — V.,  137. 

259 

s2 


ENNIUS 

127 
Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  16 :  Ennius— 

Perseus 
Ut  tibi  Titanis  Trivia  dederit  stirpem  liberum. 
Titanis  Trivia  Diana  est.  .  .  . 


ATHAMAS 

Athamas,  a  Thessalian  king,  in  the  belief  that  his  wife  Ino 
was  dead,  married  Themisto,  only  to  learn  that  Ino  was  still 
alive  on  Parnassus,  whither  she  had  come  on  account  of  the 
Bacchic  celebrations  there.  He  took  her  back  without  telling 
her  or  Themisto  who  Ino  was;  but  Themisto,  knowing  that 
Ino  was  alive  somewhere,  planned  to  murder  Ino's  two  sons, 
unknowingly  choosing  Ino  herself  to  help  her.     Ino  was  to 

128-32 

Charisius,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  241,  3  ff.  K  :  '  euhoe '  Maro  "VTI. 
.  .  .  Ennius  in  Athamante — 

Nuntius  ? 

His  erat  in  ore  Bromius,  his  Bacchus  pater ; 
ilUs  Lyaeus  vitis  inventor  sacrae. 
Turn  pariter  Euhan  euhoe  euhoe  Euhium 
ignotus  iuvenum  coetus  alterna  vice 
inibat  alacris  Bacchico  insultans  modo. 

1^"  <euhoe  euhoe>  J'abricius 


«  v.,  137-8.     But   some  (R.,  156)   would   add    this  fr.   to 
Ennius'  Medea. 

260 


TRAGEDIES 

127 

Perseus  assures  her  that  she  shall  have  her  wish  : 

Varro  :   Ennius  has — 

Perseus 

As  Trivia,  Titan's  daughter,  will  grant  you  off 
spring  of  children." 

Titan's  daxighter  Trivia  is  Diana.  .  .  . 

ATHAMAS 

dress  her  sons  in  black,  and  Themisto's  two  children  in  white ; 
but  she  did  the  reverse,  and  Themisto  having  killed  her  own 
children  by  mistake,  killed  herself  also.  Ennins'  model  is 
not  known,  but  it  may  have  been  Euripides'  'Ivoi  (R.,  204-5; 
Hygin.,  Fab.,  4).  In  the  single  surviving  fragment  it  seems 
that  a  messenger  tells  of  the  Bacchic  crowd  in  which  Ino  was 
apparently  foimd. 

128-32 

Charisius :     Maro   in   Book   VII   (389)   has   '  euhoe '  .  .  . 

Ennius  in  Athamas — 

Messenger  ? 

Some  '  God  of  Noise  '  were  mouthing,  others  '  Father 
Bacchus,'  others  again  '  The  Loosener, 
Discoverer  of  the  all-hallowed  \ine  ' ! 
Then  group  by  group  the  gathering  of  girls, 
Beyond  our  ken,*  in  concert  striking  up. 
Sang  '  Euhan  euhoe  euhoe  Euhium,' 
Upleaping  in  a  brisk  and  Bacchic  measure. 

*  v.,  139  seeing  no  sense  in  ignotus,  suggests  unosus,  ie. 
universus  (cf.  V.,  H.,  XII,  399  ff.).  But  might  not  ignotus 
be  right  and  mean  '  distant,'  as  it  does  in  Tib.,  I,  3,  3  ?  We 
might  even  take  the  word  as  meaning  '  having  no  knowledge,' 
sc.  iuvenum,  of  young  men. 

261 


ENNIUS 

GRESPHONTES 

The  original  of  this  play  is  unknown,  but  the  only  other 
play  of  this  name  is  the  lost  Kprja(f>6vT-qg  of  Euripides  (V.,  CCIV 
and  prooem.  1888-9,  17  ff.,  from  whom  I  differ  materially; 
R.,  186  ff.  is  not  convincing).  Polyphontes  of  Messenia  slew 
Cresphontes  (who  in  the  division  of  the  Peloponnese  by  the 
Heracleidae  had  gained  Messenia  by  a  trick),  took  his  kingdom 
and  married  his  widow  Merope ;  a  surviving  son  of  Cresphontes 

133 

Nonius,  471,  2  :  '  Sortirent '  pro  sortirentur.  .  .  .  Ennius 
Cresphonte — 

...  an  inter  sese  sortiunt  urbem  atque  agros  ? 

134-5 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  2,  21  :  '  Nee  te  tua  funera  mater  | 
produxi  pressive  oculos  aut  vulnera  lavi '  (Aen.,  IX,  484). 
Eimius  in  Cresphonte — 

Merope 

Neque   terram   iniicere,   neque   cruenta   convestire 

corpora 
mihi   licuit,   neque   miserae  lavere  lacrimae  salsum 

sanguinem. 

136 
Festus,  346,  1  :   '  Quaesere  "...  pro  quaerere  ...  — 
Ducit  me  uxorem  liberorum  sibi  quaesendum  gratia, 

^"  sese  Voss.         se  cdd. 

134-5  corpora  mihi  Bothe        mihi  corpora  Macrd). 

262 


TRAGEDIES 

CRESPHONTES 

with  the  same  name  Cresphontes  (thus  Euripides ;  Telephontes 
or  Aegyptus  in  other  versions)  was  brought  up  in  Aetolia; 
and  wishing  to  avenge  his  father's  death,  came  to  Poly- 
phontes'  court,  told  him  that  he  had  killed  the  survivor, 
and  demanded  the  blood-money  promised  by  Polvphontes. 
Cresphontes  killed  Poh"phontes  at  a  sacrifice  and  became 
master  of  the  kingdom. 

133 

Someone  questions  Merope  about  her  father's  history  ?  : 

Nonius :  '  Sortirent '  for  '  sortirentur.'  .  .  .  Enniua  in 
Cresphontes — 

Or  did  they  share  among  themselves  by  lot 
The  city  and  its  territory'  ? 

134-5 

Merope  betoails  the  fate  of  Cresphontes  and  his  sons  : 

Macrobius,  on  Virgil's  '  Nor  did  I  your  mother  lead  you, 
yes,  your  dead  body,  to  burial,  or  close  your  eyes,  or  cleanse 
yours  woxmds  '  :   Ennius  in  Cresphonte 


Merope 

Nor  did  they  let  me  shroud  their  blood-stained  bodies. 
Nor  throw  earth  over  them ;  nor  could  a  tear 
Of  grief  bathe  salt  their  blood. 

136 

Merope  describes  her  forced  marriage  with  Poiyphontes  ' : 

Festus  :   '  Quaesere  '  .  .  .  for  '  quaerere  '  .  .  .  — 

He  took  me  to  ^\^fe  for  to  get  children  of  his  own. 

"  Or  perhaps  she  alludes  to  her  earlier  marriage  with  the 
now  dead  Cresphontes. — R.,  189. 

263 


ENNIUS 

137 

Festus,  370,  21  :   '  Redhostirc,'  referre  gratiam  .  .  . 
Audi  atque  auditis  hostimentum  adiungito. 

138 
Gellius,  VII,  16,  10:  .  .  .  Ennius  in  Cresphonte — 
Ego  meae  quom  vitae  parcam  letum  inimico  deprecer  ? 

139 
Nonius,  144, 12 :  '  Nitidant,'  abluunt,  dictum  a  nitore  ...  — 
I  opie  "f    Earn    secum    advocant,    eunt   ad   fontem, 
nitidant  corpora. 


ERECHTHEUS 

LycurguSj  Kara  AecoKparovs,  98-99 :  (f>aal  yap  EvuoXttov  rov 
TloadSaJvos  Kai  XiovtjS  fiera  @paKuJv  eXdeiv  rrjs  x'^P'^^  ravrr^s 
aii.<f)io p-qrovvTa,  tvx^^v  8e  xar'  eVctVou?  roily  xP^^ovs  ^aaiXevovra 
'Epexdea  ywaiKa  exovra  Tlpa^iOeav  Tr/v  Kr)(f>i,aov  dvyarepa. 
MeyaAou  8c  arpaTOTtthov  fieXXovTos  avrots  elapdXXeiv  els  r^v 
X'jopav,  ets  AeA^ovs  itui'  ripcdra  tov  6e6v,  ti  ttoiwv  av  viK-qv  Xd^oi 
irapa  twv  iroXifxicov.  Xprjoavros  8e  avrw  tov  deov  rrjv  dvyarepa 
el  dvaeie  irpo  rov  avftPdXXeiv  to*  arparoireSu)  Kparrjaeiv  ratv 
TToXefiiMv,  6  Se  rw  dew  ■neidop.evo?  rovr'  enpa^e  /cat  rovs  eiriarpa- 
revofievovs  eK  rijs  x^P^^  i^e^aXe. 

^*'  audi  S  audis  cd. 

1^*  cum  meae  Gell. 

^"  opie  earn  cdd.  opie  corrupt,  ex  Meropen  quasi  gloss,  seclud. 
W  Meropam  secum  abducunt  Mr.  Pelopiae  earn  s.  avocant 
coni.  Linds. 

264 


TRAGEDIES 

137 

Polyphonies  entertained  the  younger  Cresphontes  (?  Tele- 
phontes)  until  his  story  might  be  proved  true  : 

Festus  :   '  Redhostire,'  to  render  thanks  ...  — 

Hear  and  make  requital  follow  on  what  you  hear. 

138 
Cresphontes  {?)  the  younger  is  determine  to  kill  Polyphonies  : 
Gelling  on  '  deprecor ' :    .  .  .  Ennins  in  Cresphontes — 
WTiat,  though  I  be  merciful  to  my  own  life,  must 
I  forbear  death  to  a  foe  ? 

139 

The  sacrifice  at  which  Cresphontes  (?)  killed  Pdyphontes  : 

Nonius :  '  Nitidant,'  they  wash  clean,  a  term  derived  from 
'  nitor.'  ...  — 

They  call  to  her  °  to  come  with  them,  they  go  to 
the  spring ;  and  they  cleanse  their  bodies. 

ERECHTHEUS 

Therecanhe  no  doubt  that  Ennius  followed  Euripides^  ^Epex^evs, 
of  which  Lycurgus  gives  us  the  plot  as  follows  : 

Lycurgus  :  For  they  say  that  Eumolpus,  a  son  of  Poseidon 
and  Chione,  came  with  a  body  of  Thracians  to  lay  claim  to 
this  land  of  Attica,  and  that  the  king  at  that  time  happened 
to  be  Erechtheus,  who  had  Praxithea,  Cephisus'  daughter, 
as  his  wife.  He,  when  the  great  army  was  about  to  make  an 
invasion  into  their  land,  went  to  Delphi,  and  asked  the  god 
what  he  should  do  to  gain  the  victory  over  his  foes.  When 
the  god  had  answered  him  that  he  woiild  get  the  mastery  over 
his  foes  if  he  were  to  sacrifice  his  daughter  before  the  two 
armies  came  to  blows,  he  obediently  did  this,  and  expelled 
the  attacking  host  from  the  land. 

"  I  take  it  that  cypie  in  Non.  is  a  corruption  of  a  gloss  on 
earn  sc.  Meropen. 

265 


ENNIUS 
140-41 

Eur.,  Erechth.,  362,  14-15  N :  Iweiro  reKva  tov8'  Ikoti  tikto- 
(i€v  I  cos  Oecov  Te  /Sw/ious  TrarplSa  re  pvwficda. 

Servius  auctus,  ad  Aen.,  II,  62  :  '  Occumbere  morti '  novae 
locutionis  figura  et  penitus  remota.     Ennius — 

ut  nos  nostri  liberi 
defendant  pro  nostra  vita  morti  occumbant  obviam. 

142-3 
Nonias,  290,  15  :  '  Deprecor '  .  .  .  propulso  ...  — 

Praxiihea 

cui  nunc  aerumna  mea  libertatem  paro, 
quibus  servitutem  mea  miseria  deprecor. 

Cp.  GeUius,  VII,  16,  9. 

Cf.  Eur.,  Ereckth,  362,  50-3  N  :  XPV''^'  '^  woAirai  toIs  e'/xois 
Xoxevjiaaiv  \  ac^^taOe,  viKoir',  avrl  yap  4'^XVS  /^'cis  |  ovk  ead'  oncos 
vvv  ttJvS'  iyu>  ov  awaco  ttoXiv. 

144 
Festus,  160,   3:    <'Nemini8'  .  .  .  Enm>u8  Erechtheo — 
Lapideo  sunt  corde  multi  quos  non  miseret  neminis. 
Cp.  Paul.,  ex  Fast.,  161,  fin. 

145-6 

Macrob.,  8.,  VI,  4,  6  :  '  Turn  ferreus  hast  is  |  horret  ager  ' 
(^en.,  XI,  601).  '  Horret '  mire  se  habet ;  sed  et  Ennius  .  .  . 
in  Erechtheo — 

arma  arrigunt, 

horrescunt  tela. 

140-1  nos  nostri  .  .  .  nostra  Ribb.  vosvestri  .  .  .  vostra 
cdd.  (vos  nostri  cd.  Cass.) 

1*2  cui  cdd.  Non.  qui  cdd.  Gdl.  fortasse  rede         quis  Mercier 

266 


TRAGEDIES 

140-41 

Erechtheus  and  Praxithea  debate  as  to  whether  they  shall 
sacrifice  their  daughter : 

Servius  (supplement€d),  on  '  occumbere  morti '  in  Virgil : 
This  is  a  figure  of  speech  of  a  strange  kind  and  quite  out 
of  the  way.     Ennius — 

.  .  .  that  our  children  shield  us, 
And  fall  in  death's  way  for  our  own  lives'  sake.* 

142-3 
Nonius  :   '  Deprecor,'  ...  I  thrust  away  ...  — 

Praxithea 

For  which  *  I  now  through  my  distress  do  win 
Freedom,  for  whom  I  pray  God  to  forbear 
Slavery  through  my  woe. 

144 

Festus  :  '  Neminis '  .  .  .  Ennius  in  Erechtheus — 

Stony-hearted  are  there  many. 
Who  have  no  pity,  no,  for  nobody. 

145-^ 

Th^  batik  : 

Macrobius,  quoting  Virgil :  '  Then  the  steely  earth  bristled 
with  spears.'  '  Bristles '  is  here  a  strange  erpression.  But 
Ennius  also  ...  in  Erechtheus — 

Weapons  they  raised ;  then  bristled  up  the  spears. 

"  R.,  185. 

*  CM  I  would  refer  to  patria,  understood,  quibus  to  cites. 
But  if  we  read  qui  (GelL),  the  speaker  most  he  Erechtheus. 

267 


ENNIUS 


EUMENIDES 

Aesch.,  Eumen.,  276-9  :  OP.  iy^  ht.haxdi.is  iv  KaKols  iniaTa- 
fiai  1  TToXXovs  Kadapnovs,  xal  Xeyeiv  ottov  hiKr]  \  aiydv  9'  o/ioicuy. 
iv  he  Toihe  Trpdyfiarc  |  <j>(ovelv  irdxdrjv  npoa  ao<f>ov  hihaoKaXov. 

147-8 

Nonius,  474,  34 :  '  Opino '  pro  opinor.  .  .  .  Ennius 
Eumenld  ibu8 — 

Orestes 

Tacere  opino  esse  optumum  et  pro  viribus 
sapere  atque  fabulari  tute  noveris. 

U9 

Aeech.,  Eumen.,  463-467  :  [OP.]  fKrewa  tt)v  renovaav,  ovk 
dpvrjoofiai,,  |  o-vtiktovols  TTOivaiai  ifuXrarov  narpos.  |  koI  raivhe 
Koivrj  Ao^ias  inaiTios,  |  dXy-q  TTpo<f>ciivd)v  dvTLKevTpa  Kaphla  |  et  /xt; 
Tt  Twvh'  ep^aifii  Tovs  iiTaniovs' 

Nonius,  292,  18  :   '  Exanclare,'  efiFundere  ...  — 

Orestes 
nisi  patrem  materno  sanguine  exanclando  ulciscerem. 

150-53 

Aesch.,  JS'Mmew.,  614-618  :  '.Ml.  Xe^oj  nposv fids  rovh^  Ad-qvalas 
fjieyav  |  deofiov  hiKaiws,  ndvris  tor  8'  ov  ilievaofiai.  |  ov  TrwTroT* 
eiTTOV  fiavTiKoiaiv  iv  dpovois  \  ovk  dvhpos  ov  yvvaiKos  ov  Tro'Aecos 
Tripi  I  o  fiTj  KeXevaai  Zevj  'OXvp.m(x)v  nar^qp. 

Cicero,  de  Oral.,  1,  45,  199  :  Quid  est  enim  praeclarius  quam 
honoribus  et  rei  publicae  muneribus  perfunctum  senem  posse 
suo  iure  dicere  idem  quod  apud  Ennium  dicat  ille  Pythius 
Apollo,  se  esse  eum— 

^**  noveris  corruptum  ?  fortasse  ut  noveris 
268 


TRAGEDIES 
EUMENIDES 

This  play  was  modelled,  if  freely,  upon  EvfieviSes  of 
Aeschylus,  and  thus  the  order  of  the  fragments  is  in  most 
cases  certain. 

U7-8 
Orestes  before  the  temple  of  Athene  Polias  at  Athens  replies  to 
the  attack  of  pursuers  : 

Nonius  :  '  Opino  '  for '  opinor.'  .  .  .  Ennius  in  Eumenides 

Orestes 

Best  silence  keep,  I  think ;  and  you  will  know 
How  to  be  \\ise  with  all  your  powers,  how  talk 
When  talking  's  safe." 

149 
Orestes  tells  his  case  to  Minerva  : 
Nonius :  '  Exanclare,'  to  pour  out  ...  — 

Orestes 

Unless  by  spilling  out  my  mother's  blood 
My  father  I  avenged. 

150-53 

Apollo  defends  Orestes  *  at  the  Areopagus  : 

Cicero  :  For  what  is  more  honourable  than  that  an  old  man 
who  has  discharged  offices  and  duties  of  state  should  be  able  to 
say,  with  justice  on  his  side,  what  your  Pythian  Apollo  says 
in  Ennius,  that  he  is  the  one — 

"  noveris  may  be  corrupt. 

'  If  v.,  142  is  right  in  comparing  Aesch.,  Eumen.,  177  S., 
then  Ennius  described  the  oracle  at  greater  length  than 
Aeschylus  did.  But  R.,  147-8  would  compare  the  fr.  with 
Aesch.,  Eumen.,  64  S.  where  Apollo  is  giving  evidence. 

K  269 

I 


ENNIUS 

Apollo 

unde  sibi  populi  et  reges  consilium  expetunt 
suarum  rerum  incerti  quos  ego  ope  mea 
ex  incertis  certos  compotesque  consili 
dimitto,  ut  ne  res  temere  tractent  turbidas. 

Eat  enim  sine  dubio  domus  iuris  consulti  totius  oraculum 
civitatis. 

154 

Aesch.,  Eumen.,  657  :  All.  kuI  tovto  Xi^oi  koX  fidd'  oiy  6pdu>s 
epw. 

NoniuB,  505,  16  :   '  Expedibo  '  pro  expediam  ...  — 

Apollo 

-  u  id   ego   aecum   ac   ius   fecisse    expedibo    atque 
eloquar. 

155 

Aesch.,  Eumen.,  742-3  :    A0.  dvrjp  o8'   eK-ne^evyev  a'fiaTos 
SiKrjV  I  taov  yap  iari  Tdpldfirj/xa  twv  iraAwf. 

Nonius,  306,  26  :   '  Facessere  '  significat  recedere  ...  — 

Minerva 
Edico  viclsse  Oresten — Vos  ab  hoc  facessite. 

1*°  expetant  Cic.        trib.  Eumen.  S 
^**  ius  atque  aecum  V 

^**  edico  Mr.  ego  dico  Auratus         dico  ego  S  dico 

cdd. 

"  Ennius  has  altered  the  sense  of  the  Greek. 
270 


TRAGEDIES 

Apollo 

from  whom  for  themselves  peoples  and  kings  seek 
counsel  when  they  are  unsure  about  their  affairs, 
whom  I  in  my  helpfulness  send  away  partakers  of 
my  counsel  and  sure  instead  of  unsure  so  that  they 
may  not  treat  rashly  things  that  are  troublous. 

For  withoat  doubt  the  lawyer's  house  is  the  whole  city's 
oracle. 


154 

Apollo  expounds  the  precedence  of  a  father^s  rights  over  a 
mother' 8 : 

Nonius  :  '  Expedibo  '  for  expediam  ...  — 

Apollo 

That  he  was  fair  and  just  in  doing  it 
I  will  unfold  and  tell." 


155 
Acquittal  of  Orestes  :  ' 

Xonius  :    '  Facessere  '  means  to  withdraw  ...  — 

Minerva 

I  proclaim  Orestes  has  prevailed — 
Get  you  away  from  there. 

^  Ennius  has  made  the  scene  more  vivid  by  making  Minerva 
interrupt  her  announcement  with  an  order  to  '  stand  back.' 
If  in  line  156  we  read  quid  d.  ?  quam  p.  i  these  words  are 
spoken  by  Orestes — ^Aesch.,  Eutn.,  744  :  jrcDs  aycjv  Kpid^jaeTcu; 

271 


ENNIUS 

156 
Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  19  :  Enni— 
-  o  -  Areopagitae  quia  dedere  aequam  pilam. 
Areopagitae  ab  Areopago  :  is  locus  Athenis. 

157-61 

Aesch.,  Eumen.,  902  s. :  XO.  ti  ovv  ft  avcayas  tvS'  e<f>vfivrj- 
aai  x^ovi ;  \  A.&.  onoia  viKrjS  M"?  KaKrjg  (.iriaKoira,  \  koL  ravra 
yrjdev  €k  re  irovTias  hpoaov  \  i^  ovpavov  t€  /cdve'/xcov  dijfiara  | 
evrjXicos  TTveovr'  e7riffTei;^eiv  p^^dva'  |  Kap-nov  re  yaias  xal  poroiv 
eTrippvrov  \  darolaiv  evdevovvra  fir/  Kafiveiv  )(p6v<i),  |  Kal  rcHv 
ppoTeicov  anepfidTOJv  aaiT-qpiav.     Cp.  938  8. 

Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp.,  I,  28,  69 :  Hie  autem  ubi  habitamus 
non  intermittit  suo  tempore — 

Minerva 

Caelum  nitescere,  arbores  frondescere, 
vites  laetificae  pampinis  pubescere, 
rami  bacarum  ubertate  incurvescere, 
segetes  largiri  fruges,  florere  omnia, 
fontes  scatere,  herbis  prata  convestirier. 
Cp.  Cic,  de  Oral.,  38,  154;  Non.,  122,  17. 

HECTORIS   LYTRA 

This  play  offers  several  problems  which  cannot  be  discussed 
here  (R.,  188  ff.,  V.,  CCV-CCVII),  but  the  following  points 
have  a  degree  of  probability  which  justifies  their  mention  :  — 
(o)  that  Hyginus,  in  Plot  106,  entitled  The  Ransom  of  Hector, 
carelessly  sketched  Ennius'  play,  so  that  we  may  assume  that 
Ennius  covered  events  from  the  sulking  of  Achilles  (and  its 
cause,  told  in  a  prologue  ?)  to  the  delivery  of  the  dead  Hector 
to  Priam  and  the  burial  of  Hector;    (b)  that  Aeschylus  wrote 

1**  quia  Ribb.  quid  cdd.  (qui  Vind.)  aequam  Ribb. 

quam  cdd.        pilam   Ribb.        palam  (parum)   L        tubam 
coni.  V        pudam  cdd.  trib.  Eumen.  S 

272 


TRAGEDIES 

156 

Varro  :  Of  Enoius  we  have — 

Because  the  judges  of  the  hill  of  Ares 
Have  cast  an  equal  ballot. 

'  Areopagitae '  is  from  Areopagus ;  this  is  a  place  at  Athens. 

157-61 

Minerva  enjoins  the  Furies  to  bless  Attica  : 

Cicero  :    But  here  where  we  dwell  there  cease  not  each  in 
its  season — 

Minerva 

The  sky  to  shine,  the  trees  to  put  forth  leaves, 
Joy-niaking  \ines  to  sprout  with  fresh  young  shoots. 
Their  branches  to  bend  down  with  grapes  abundant, 
The  growing  cornfields  to  bestow  their  harvests, 
All  things  to  bloom,  the  springs  to  bubble,  meads 
To  be  o'erclothed  with  grasses. 


THE  RANSOM   OF   HECTOR 

a  trilogy  ('  The  Myrmidons,'  '  The  Daughters  of  Nereus,^ 
'  The  Phrygians  '  or  '  The  Ransom  of  Hector  ')  which  extended 
from  the  sending  out  of  Patroclus  by  Achilles  to  the  delivery 
of  the  dead  Hector ;  (c)  that  Ennius  pressed  these  three  plays 
into  one,  shaped  it  to  fit  the  Homeric  story,  added  further 
details  from  Homer,  and  gave  it  the  title  of  "the  third  play  of 
the  trilogy.  (R.,  124,  12&-7;  V.,  I.e.);  (d)  that  the  main 
action  begins  with  the  events  of  the  Iliad,  Bk.  XI. 

15'  <sao   non    intermittat    tempore >    caelum    Hermann 
qui  trib.  Enn.  Eumenid. 

273 
VOL.  I.  T 


ENNIUS 

Hyginus,  Fab.,  106  :  Agamemnon  Briseidam,  Brisei  sacer- 
dotis  filiam  ex  Mysia  captivam,  propter  formae  dignitatem 
quam  Achilles  ceperat,  ab  Aehille  abduxit  eo  tempore  quo 
Chryseida  Chiysi  sacerdoti  Apollinis  Zminthei  reddidit.  .  .  . 
Quam  ob  iram  Achilles  in  proelium  non  prodibat  sed  cithara 
in  tabemaculo  se  exercebat.  Quod  cum  Argivi  ab  Hectore 
fugarentur,  .  .  . 

II,  I,  182  s.,  IX,  185  s. 

162 

Nonius,  489,  29  :   '  Tumulti.'     Ennius  Hectoris  Ljrtris — 

Agamemno 

Quid  hoc  hie  clamoris,  quid  tumulti  est  ?   nomen  qui 
usurpat  meum  ? 

163 

Jl,  XI,  1  5. ;   10  8.  ? 

Nonius,  490,  6  :  '  Strepiti '  pro  strepitus  ...  — 
Quid  in  castris  strepitist  ? 

164-5 
XI,  56  s. 

Nonius,  355,  4  :   '  Occupare  '  est  propria  praevenire  ...  — 

Nuntius 

Hector  vei  summa  armatos  educit  foras 
castrisque  castra  ultro  iam  conferre  occupat. 

^*2  numeros  constii.  Bothe 

i«*  haectoreicdd.  (-iiiM  1)  vi  Mercier 

1*^  conferre  Voss.         inferre  Mercier  alii  alia 

274 


TRAGEDIES 

Hyginus :  Agamemnon,  at  the  time  when  he  gave  back 
Chryseis  to  Chiyses  the  priest  of  Apollo  Zmintheus,  took  away 
from  Achilles  Briseis  daughter  of  the  priest  Briseits,  whom 
Achilles  had  brought  from  Mysia  on  account  of  her  comely 
beauty.  .  .  .  Through  this  wrath  of  his,  Achilles  would  not 
go  out  to  battle,  but  sat  in  his  tent  amusing  himself  with  a 
lute."  And  when  the  Argives  were  in  full  flight  under  Hector's 
attacks.  .  .  . 

162 

Agamemnon  *  Ji^ars  an  uproar  as  he  prepares  for  battle  : 

Nonius  :   '  TumnltL'     EnniuB  in  The  Hansom  of  Hector 

Agamemnon 

\^Tiat   is   this    shouting   here  ?     WTiat    means    this 

hubbub  ? 
Who  is  it  makes  free  with  my  name  ? 

163 

Nonius  :    '  Strepiti '  for  '  strepitus  '  .  .  .  — 
What  means  this  clatter  in  the  camp  ? 

164-5 
He  is  told  of  an  attack  made  by  Hector  and  Polydamas  : 
Nonius  :    '  Occupare  '  means  properly  to  outstrip  ...  — 

Messenger 

Hector  leads  out  his  armed  men  in  full  force, 

And  pitting  camp  'gainst  camp  e'en  now  outstrips  us. 

"  The  words  Agamemnon  .  .  .  reddidit  may  be  a  summary  of 
a  prologue;  while  the  imperfects  prodibat,  exercebat  suggest 
to  me  a  scene  where  Achilles  is  in  his  tent ;  possibly,  therefore, 
the  play  began  with  a  prologue  spoken  by  AchlUes.  After 
reddidit  something  was  dropped  out  luiless  we  alter  iram.  to 
rem. 

*  So  v.,  144. 

275 
t2 


ENNIUS 
166 


XI,  459  8. 


Diomedes,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  387,  10  K. :  '  Nomus '  pro  eo  quod  est 
novimus  .  .  .  Ennius  in  Lustris — 


Menelaus 
Nos  quiescere  aequum  est  ?   Nomus  ambo  Ulixem. 

167 

XI,  658  s.  (Nestor  loqu.);   cp.  825-6;   XVI,  23  s. 

Schol.  Gronov.,  ad  Cic,  pro  Eosc.  Amer.,  32,  89  ('  quia  ibi 
non  est  vulneratus  ferro  Brugio  ') :  '  Ferro  Brugio.'  In  Ennio 
haec  fabula  inducitur  Achilles  quo  tempore  propter  Briseidara 
cum  Graecis  pugnare  noluit,  quo  etiam  tempore  Hector 
classem  eorum  incendit.  In  hac  pugna  Ulixes  vulneratus 
inducitur  et  fugiens  ad  Achillem  venit.  Cum  interrogaretur 
ab  Aiace  cur  fugisset,  iUe  ut  celaret  dedecus  ...  — 

Ulixes 
Quis  ibi  non  est  vulneratus  ferro  Brugio  ? 

168 

Servius  auctus,  ad  Aen.,  Ill,  241  :  '  Foedare,'  cruentare. 
Ennius — 

ferro  foedati  iacent. 

i««  Ulixem  cdd.  Ulixeum  Buecheler,  Fleckeisen  qui 
constit.  senar. 

"'  trib  Hect.  Lytr.  Ribb. ;  Achill.  Bergk 


"  At  least  he  is  the  speaker  in  the  parallel  passage  in  the 
Iliad. 


276 


TRAGEDIES 

166 

Ulysses,  hard  pressed  by  the  Trojans,  shouted  thrice  for  help ; 
Menelaus  "  hears  and  addresses  Ajax  : 

Diomedes    the    grammarian :      '  Nomus '    for    the    form 
'  novimus  '  .  .  .  Emiius  in  The  Ransom — 


Menelaus 

Is  it  right  for  us  to  be  sluggards  ?  ^ye  both  know 
Ulysses'  voice. 

167 
Ulysses  wounded  talks  with  Ajax  : 

A  scholiast,  on  '  \Mio  was  not  wounded,  etc'  {see  below)  in 
Cicero :  This  incident  is  staged  in  Ennius  at  the  time 
when  Achilles,*  on  account  of  Briseis,  chose  not  to  join  with 
the  Greeks  in  fighting;  representing  the  time  too  when 
Hector  set  fire  to  their  fleet.  In  this  fight  Ulysses  is  brought 
on  to  the  stage  wounded,  and  in  the  course  of  his  flight  he 
comes  to  Achilles.  When  he  is  asked '  by  Ajax  why  he  has 
fled,  he,  in  order  to  cloak  his  dishonour,  says — 

Ulysses 
Who  was  not  wounded  there  by  Brugian  '^  blade  ? 

168 

Servius  (supplemented),  on  '  foedare  '  in  VirgU  :  To  stain 
with  blood.     Ennius — ' 

From  sword-thrusts  fouled  with  blood  they  lie. 

*  The  reading  is  not  certain;  if  Achillis  is  right,  then 
the  fr.  might  belong  to  Ennius'  Achilles.     But  cf.  V.,  147. 

«  Possibly  before  he  met  Achilles. 

■*  On  '  Brugian  '  for  '  Phrygian  '  see  fr.  183. 

'  Attribution  to  this  play  is  admittedly  uncertain,  but  it 
fits  well  with  //.,  XI,  658-9. 

277 


ENNIUS 

169-81 

XI,  581  5.,  XVI,  27-8 ;  XI,  842  s. 

Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp.,  II,  16,  38  :  Quin  etiara  videmus  ex 
acie  efferri  saepe  saucios  et  quidem  rudem  ilium  et  inexer- 
citatum  quamvis  levi  ictu  ploratus  turpissimos  edere.  At 
vero  ille  exercitatus  et  vetus  ob  eamque  rem  fortior  medieum 
modo  requirens  a  quo  obligetur — 

Eurypylus 

O  Patricoles,  ad  vos  adveniens  auxilium  et  vestras 

manus 
peto  priusquam   oppeto  malam   pestera  mandatam 

hostili  manu — 
neque  sanguis  ullo    potis   est  pacto  profluens   con- 

sistere — 
si  qui  sapientia  magis  vestra  mors  devitari  potest ; 
namque  Aesculapi  liberorum  saueii  opplent  porticus, 
non  potest  accedi. 


Patricoles 

Certe  Eurypylus  hie  quidem  est ;  hominem  exercitum! 

Ubi  tantum  luctus  continuatur,  vide  quam  non  flebiliter 
respondeat,  rationem  etiam  adferat  cur  aequo  animo  sibi 
ferendum  sit — 

Eurypylus 

qui  alteri  exitium  parat,     76 
eum  scire  oportet  sibi  paratum  pestem  ut  participet 
parem. 

^**  Patricoles  inquit  Cic. 

!«»-"  trib.  Hect.  Lytr.  Ribb.;   AcUlL  Bergk  {et  dim  Ribb.) 

278 


TRAGEDIES 

169-81 

Eurypylu.s  ivounded  by  Alexander  goes  for  help  to  Patroclus,, 
and  tells  him  news  of  the  fighting  :  " 

Cicero :  Why,  we  even  see  many  a  time  wounded 
soldiers  carried  away  from  the  battle-line,  and  moreover  your 
raw  and  untrained  recruit  groaning  most  shamefully  even 
at  a  ven,'  light  thrust;  but  your  seasoned  veteran,  and  all 
the  braver  for  being  that,  asking  for  a  surgeon  merely,  and  no 
more,  to  bind  him  up,  says  he — 

Euri/pylus 

O  Patroclus,  I  come  to  all  of  you,  and  ask  to  meet 
help  of  your  hands  before  I  meet  death  and  destruc- 
tion bestowed  by  the  hand  of  an  enemy — ah  no ! 
the  flowing  blood  can  in  no  wise  be  staunched — to 
see  if  death  can  be  evaded  by  your  wisdom  above 
others' ;  for  the  colonnades  of  Aesculapius'  sons 
are  filled  full  with  wounded — none  can  go  near  ...  — 

Patroclus 

Surely  it  is  Eurypylus,  no  other.  A  troubled 
toiler  he ! 

While  this  great  distress  goes  on  continuoasly,*  see  how  he 
makes  reply  without  weeping,  and  even  tells  why  and  where- 
fore it  must  be  borne  with  a  calm  mind — 

Eurypylus 

He  who  plans  death  for  his  foe  should  know  well 
that  a  like  death  is  planned  for  himself  to  share  in. 

"  The  attribution  to  this  play  is  not  certain,  but  it  is 
most  probable.  As  will  be  seen  on  reference  to  the  relevant 
passages  of  the  Iliad,  Ennius  dealt  freely  with  his  original, 
as  he  often  did ;  the  order  of  the  dialogue  is  changed ;  this 
may  be  due  to  Aeschylus.  After  exercitum  (line  175)  Cicero 
omits  several  lines  which  Ennius  gave  to  Patroclus. 

'  Here  probably  Cicero  skips  a  few  lines. 

279 


ENNIUS 

Abducet  Patricoles  credo  ut  conlocet  in  cubili  ut  vulnus 
obliget ;  si  quidem  homo  esset,  sed  nihil  vidi  minus.  Quaerit 
enim  quid  actum  sit — 

Patricoles 
Eloquere  eloqucre,  res  Argivum  proelio  ut  se  sustinet. 

Eurypylus 

Non    potest    ecfari    tantum    dictis    quantum    factis 
suppetit. 

Patricoles 
Laberis ;  quiesce 

Eurypylus 
Et  volnus  alliga.  180 

Etiam  si  Eurypylus  posset,  non  posset  Aesopus — 

Eurypylus 

Ubi   fortuna   Hectoris   nostram   acrem   aciem   incli- 

natam<(dedit), 
et  cetera  explicat  in  dolore. 
Cp.  Cic,  de  Oral.,  46,  155. 

182 

XII,  49  s. ;  XIII,  123  {Neft.  loqu.) ;  XII,  35  s. ;    127  s.  al. 

Festus,  234,  19  :  '  Obsidionem  '  potius  dicendum  esse  quam 
obsidium  adiuvat  nos  testimonio  suo  Ennius  .  .  .  item  alio 
loco — 

Hector  qui  baud  cessat  obsidionem  obducere, 

^*''  laberis  Bentley         laboris  cdd.  prob.  V  laberis  .  .  . 

adiiga  trib.  Enn.  Bentley         quiesce  igitur  Cic. 
^*^  <dedit>  suppl.  Ribb.  prob.  V 

"  As  he  does  in  Homer ;   not  so  in  Ennius. 
280 


TRAGEDIES 

Patroclus  will  lead  him  away,  I  suppose,  that  he  may  lay  him 
down  on  a  bed  and  bind  up  his  wound  " — at  least  he  would 
if  he  were  a  man.  But  I  never  saw  anything  less  like  one. 
For  he  asks  what  has  happened — 

Patroclus 

Speak  out,  speak  out — 
Gime,  tell  me  how  the  fortune  of  the  Arglves 
Maintains  itself  in  battle. 

Eurypylus 

I  cannot  tell  you  of  it  all  in  words 
To  fit  the  deeds  that  have  been  done. 

Patroclus 

You  sink ; 
Lie  quiet. 

Eurypylus 

And  tightly  bind  the  wound. 
Even  if  Eorypylua  could  do  this,  Aesopus  *  could  not — 

Eurypylus 

WTien  Hector's  fortune 
Made  our  brave  battle-line  give  way, 
and  while  "  still  in  pain  he  recoimts  the  rest. 

182 

Further  neves  of  Hector's  attack  on  the  ramparts  : 

Festus :  In  thinking  that  the  term  '  obsidio '  should  be 
used  rather  than  obsidium,  we  are  supported  by  the  testimony 
of  Ennius  .  .  .  and  in  another  place —  •* 

Hector  who  's  not  slow  in  drawing  round  a  blockade, 

*  Who  clearly  act€d  the  part  of  Eurypylus  in  Cicero's 
time.     He  could  not  have  borne  real  pain  as  Eurypylus  did. 

*  i.e.  he  does  not  wait  to  be  bound  up  first. 

"*  The  attribution  to  this  play  is  probably  right. 

281 


ENNIUS 
183 

XII,  445  5.;   XIII,  90  s.;   123-4  {Nept.  loqu.). ' 

Cicero,  de  Oral.,  48,  160  :  '  Burrum  '  semper  Ennius,  num- 
quam  '  Pyrrhum  ' — 

vi  patefecerunt  Bruges  .  .  . 
non  '  Phryges  ' ;  ipsius  antiqui  declarant  libri. 

XII-XIII;   XVI,  40  s.,  276  s.,  490-4. 

Hyginus,  Fab.  106  :  Quod  cum  Argivi  ab  Hectore  fuga- 
rentur,  Achilles  obiurgatus  a  Patroclo  arma  sua  ei  tradidit 
quibus  ille  Troianos  fugavit  aestimantes  Achillem  esse, 
Sarpedonemque  lovis  et  Europae  filium  occidit. 


XVI,  145  s. 


184-6 


Nonius,  407,  24 :  '  Tenacia  '  est  perseverantia  et 
duritia  ...  — 

Patricoles 

.  .  .  due  et  quadrupedum  iugo ;  invitum  doma 
infrena  et  iunge  valida  <(equorum  .  .  .  robora) 
quorum  tenacia  infrenari  minis, 

187-8 
XVI,  233  5. 
Nonius,  111,  7  :   '  Fuam,'  sim  vel  fiam  ...  — 

Achilles  ? 

at  ego  omnipotens 
ted  exposco  ut  hoc  consilium  Achivis  auxilio  fuat. 

Non.  407  Hectoris  Lystris 

1**  fortasse  Xanthum  et  Balium  duces  (//.  XVI,  149) 

185-6  valida  quorum  tenacia  infrenari  minis  Non.  ;  locus 
desperatus ;  cf.  Linds.,  ed.  Non.  <  equorum  .  .  .  robora  > 
supplevi  etfragm.  septenar.  constituo 

1*'  ego  o.  <  luppiter  Ribb. 

^**  auxilio  Voss.  auxilii  odd. 

282 


TRAGEDIES 

183 
Sews  that  Hector  has  broken  open  the  gales  : 

Cicero  :  '  Bturus '  is  the  form  always  used  by  Ennins, 
never  '  Pyrrhus  ' — 

The  Brugians  by  force  have  broken  open  .  .  . 

Not  '  Phrygians.'    The  old  nianuscripts  of  the  author  himself 
make  this  quite  clear. 

Hyginus :  And  when  the  Argives  were  in  full  flight  under 
Hector's  attacks,  Achilles,  scolded  by  Patroclus,  gave  up  to 
him  his  weapons,  with  which  Patroclus  put  to  flight  the 
Trojans,  who  believed  him  to  be  Achilles,  and  slew  Sarpedon 
son  of  Jupiter  and  Europa. 

184-6 
Patroclus  orders  Automedon  to  harness  the  horses  Xanthos 
and  Balios  for  battle  : 

Nonius :  '  Tenacia '  means  perseverance  and  sturdi- 
ness  ...  — 

Patrochis 

And  lead  them  in  a  gallopers'  collar;  break, 
bridle,  and  harness  the  horses'  braAvny  strength 
though  they  wish  it  not;  .  .  .  whose  stubbornness 
...  to  be  bridled  -vWth  threats," 

187-^ 
Achilles  is  about  to  send  Patroclus  {in  Achilles^  annour)  into 
battle: 

Nonius  :   '  Fuam,'  the  same  as  '  sim  '  or  '  fiam  '  .  .  .  — 
Achilles  ? 

But  yet  I  beg  of  thee,  almighty  god, 
That  this  plan  be  of  help  to  the  Achi\-i.'' 

•  This  fr.  is  corrupt.  I  suggest  that  valida  equorum  .  .  . 
quorum  caused  a  copyist  to  omit  all  between  valida  and 
quorum. 

*  v.,  CCVL  thinks  Patroclus  speaks  after  the  pravers  of 
AchiUes  in  II.,  XVI,  233  ff. 

283 


ENNIUS 

Hyginus,  Fab.,  106 :  Postea  ipse  Patroclus  ab  Hectore 
interficitur  armaque  ei  sunt  detracta. 

189 
XVI,  818  s. 

?  XVI,  777 ;   cp.  XVII,  685  s. ;   XVIII,  2. 

Diomedes,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  345,  3  K :  '  Halare  '  et  '  halitare.' 
Ennius  in  Lytris — 

Antilochiis 

sublime  itei*  quadrupedantes  flammam  halitantes 

190 
XVI,  856  (vel  XXIII,  74;   vel  XXII,  482). 
Nonius,  222,  25  :   '  Specus  '  genere  masculino  ...  — 

inferum  vastos  specus 
XVIII,  112  s.;  XIX,  35,  65, 140  s. ;  245-265 ;  XVIII,  614  s. 

Hyginus,  Fab.,  106  :  Patroclo  omisso  Achilles  cum  Agamem- 
none  redit  in  gratiam  Briseidamque  ei  reddidit.  Turn  contra 
Hectorem  cum  inermis  prodisset,  Thetis  mater  a  Vulcano 
arma  ei  impetravit  quae  Nereides  per  mare  attulerunt. 

191 

XVIII,  188,  192;   Aesch.,  Myrmid.,  fr.  140. 

Nonius,  469,  25  :    '  Cunctant '  pro  '  cunctantur  '  .  .  .  — 

Achilles 
qui  cupiant  dare  arma  Achilli  ut  ipsei  cunctent 

"1  ipsei  Linds.         ipse  cdd. 

"  The  context  cannot  be  fixed  with  certainty.  R.,  126 
refers  this  to  Achilles'  horses,  but  probably  the  sun  is  meant. 
I  take  it  that  the  speaker  is  Antilochus,  who  describes  its 
rising  on  the  day  on  which  Patroclus  was  killed. 

284 


TRAGEDIES 

Hyginus  :  Later  on  Patroclus  himself  was  killed  by  Hector, 
and  the  weapons  were  taken  from  his  corpse. 

189 

the  sun : 

Diomedes  the  grammarian  :  '  Halare  '  and  '  halitare.' 
Ennius  in  The  Ransom — 

Antilochus 

Gallopers  puffing  ^fire  .  .  .  their  lofty  course  on 
high  " 

190 
Antilochus  ?  tells  Achilles  of  the  death  of  Patroclus  ?  : 
Nonius  :   '  Specus  '  in  the  masculine  gender  ...  — 
Wide  roomy  caverns  of  the  realms  below 

Hyginus :  After  Patroclus  was  lost,  Achilles  was  recon- 
ciled to  Agamemnon  and  gave  Briseis  back  to  him.  Then 
when  he  had  gone  forth  against  Hector  unarmed,  Thetis 
his  mother  obtained  weapons  for  him  from  Vulcan,  and  these 
the  Nereids  brought  to  him  across  the  sea.* 

191 

AchUles  wonders  where  he  can  get  new  weapons  : 
Nonius  :   '  Cunctant '  for  '  cunctantur '  .  .  .  — 

Achilles 

Who  might  desire  their  weapons  to  surrender 
To  Achilles  so  that  they  themselves  become 
As  dawdlers  * 

*  In  this  Ennius  followed  Aeschylus,  not  Homer. 

'  v.,  prooem.,  1888-9,  5  ff.  R.,  123  thinks  the  speaker  is  one 
of  the  MjTmidons  who  dare  not  give  up  their  arms  and  so 
seem  to  be  cowardly;  if  this  is  right,  then  the  model  here 
was  Aeschylus,  not  Homer. 

285 


ENNIUS 

192 

XIX,  364  s. ;  372,  387. 

Festus,  370,  21  :   '  Redhostire  '  referre  gratiam  ...  — 

Achilles 

Quae  mea  comminus  machaera  atque  hasta  hostibitis 
manuj 

193 
XXII,  1315.;  395  5. 

Hyginus,  Fab.,  106  :  Quibus  armis  ille  Hectorem  occidit 
astrictumque  ad  currum  traxit  circa  inuros  Troianorum. 

Nonius,  510,  32  :    '  Saeviter  '  pro  saeve  ,  .  .  (511,  11) — 

Nuntius 
Saeviter  fortunam  ferro  cernunt  de  victoria, 

194-5 

XX,  441  s.,  al. 

Nonius,  518,  3  :   '  Derepente  "...  — 

Nuntius 

Ecce  autem  caligo  oborta  est,  omnem  prospectum 

abstulit ; 
derepente  eontuUt  sese  in  pedes. 

^'^  hostibitis   manu  V  hostibit    (hostivit)    e    manu    S 

hostibis  coni.  Linds.         hospius  manu  cd. 

1*^  fortunam  Ribb.         fortuna  cdd. 

194-5  pQgi  abstulit  lacun.  stat.  Ribb.  abstulit.  <Con- 
stitit :  tum>  derepente  coni.  V 

°  Thus  R.,  125  (V.,  148  prefers  to  make  Achilles  speak  these 
words  when  giving  his  old  weapons  to  Patroclus). 

286 


TRAGEDIES 

192 

Achilles,  possessed  of  new  armour  "  through  Thetis,  addresses 
his  sword  and  his  spear  : 

Festus  :   '  Redhostire,'  to  return  a  favour  ...  — 
Achilles 

O  you  my  sword  and  you  my  spear — you  weapons 
Who  in  close  fight  some  favours  ^  will  return 
From  my  own  hand, 

193 

A  messenger  tells  of  the  exploits  of  Achilles  : 

Hyginus  :  With  these  weapons  Achilles  slew  Hector  and 
then  dragged  him,  tied  to  a  chariot,  round  the  walls  of  Troy. 

Nonius  :   '  Saeviter  '  for  '  saeve  '  .  .  .  — 
Messenger 

Right  savagely  they  settle  with  the  sword 
Their  chance  of  victory. 

194-5 
Nonius  :   '  Derepente  '  .  .  .  — 

Messenger 

But  see,  a  mist  rose  over  him,  and  hid  him  from 
all  view ;  on  a  sudden  he  gathered  himself  upon  his 
feet.*^ 

*  There  may  be  a  pun  :  hostire,  '  to  requite,'  hostire,  '  to 
strike  '  (Paul.,  ex  Fest.,  102);   as  it  were  '  bury  the  hatchet.' 

'  This  may  refer  to  the  death  of  Patroclus  (11.,  XVI,  790  S.), 
but  it  more  probably  tells  of  Achilles'  attack  on  Hector 
(//.,  XX,  441);  less  probably  of  Ajax  (X\^I,  644)  or  of 
Achilles'  fight  with  Aeneas  {XX,  321,  341). 

287 


ENNIUS 

196 

XX,  455  s.,  493  s. 

Nonius,  504,  30  :   '  Sonit '  pro  sonat  ...  — 

Nuntius 
Aes  sonit  franguntur  hastae  terra  sudat  sanguine. 

197 

XXI,  15-16;  218-220,234*. 

Nonius,  467,  31  :   '  Vagas  '  pro  vagaris  ...  — 

Ntmtius 
Constitit  credo  Scamander,  arbores  vento  vacant. 

XXII,  416  s. ;   XXIV,  136  «.,  440  s. 

Hyginus,  Fab.,  106  :  Quern  sepeliendum  cum  patri  nollet 
dare,  Priamus  lovis  iussu  duce  Mercurio  in  castra  Danaorum 
venit. 

198 
XXIV,  488  ff.  (486  Achill.  aUoqu.),  503,  680. 
Nonius,  472,  21  :   '  Commiserescimus  '  .  .  .  — 

Priamus 

Per  vos  et  vostrum  imperium  et  fidem,  Myrmidonum 
vigiles,  conmiserescite ! 

199 
XXIV,  483;  518. 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  12  :  '  Tueri '  duo  significat,  unurn  ab 
aspectu  .  .  .  unde  est  Enni  illud — 

i«7  cemo  Mr.         vacant  Colonna  jn-ob.  V        vagant  cdd. 
288 


TRAGEDIES 

196 

Nonius  :  '  Sonit '  for  '  sonat '  .  .  .  — 

Messenger 

Bronze  clatters,  spears  are  snapped,  Earth  sweats 
with  blood. 

197 

Nonius :  '  Vagas  '  for  '  vagaris  '  .  .  .  — 

Messenger 

Stood  still,  it  seems,  Scamander,  and  the  trees 
Of  wind  were  emptied." 

Hyginus :  When  Achilles  was  not  willing  to  give  Hector 
to  his  father  to  be  buried,  Priam  at  the  command  of  Jupiter 
entered,  under  Mercury's  guidance,  the  camp  of  the  DanaL 

198 

Priam  imfiores  the  pity  of  the  Myrmidons  who  are  keeping 
toatch  at  Achilles^  tent : 

Nonius  :    '  Commiserescimus  '  .  .  .  — 

Priam 

You  watchmen  Myrmidons,  I  pray  you  all 
Have  pity,  by  your  sacred  trust  and  duties ! 

199 

Varro :  '  Tueor '  has  two  meanings,  one  from  the  act  of 
looking.  .  .  .  Whence  comes  that  phrase  of  Ennius — 

•  vacant  is  right;  Nonius  has  blundered.  In  any  case, 
Ennius  adds  a  detail  not  in  Homer.  Cp.  p.  394.  Whether 
credo  is  right  I  am  not  sure. 

289 
VOL.  I.  XJ 


ENNIUS 

Achilles 

tueor  te  senex  ?     Pro  luppiter ! 

Cp.  Donat.,  in  Ter.,  Addph.,  I,  2,  31. 

Hyginus,    Fab.,    106  :     (Priamus)  .  .  .  filii    corpus    auro 
repensum  accepit ;  quern  sepulturae  tradidit. 

200-1 
XXIV,  596  s.,  786  s. 
Nonius,  399,  8  :  '  Spemere  '  rursum  segregare  ...  — 

Priamus 

Melius  est  virtute  ius,  nam  saepe  virtutem  mali 
nanciscuntur ;   ius  atque  aecum  se  a  malis  spernit 
procul. 


Cf.  Aesch.,  fr.  a»^.       T^^dT    mJ 


C.'J 


HECUBA 


Enrip.,  Hec.,  3 :  IIoAuScupo?  'E/cajSijs  vrais  yeycuj  rrfs  Kiacretoj. 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  VII,  320 :  Cisseis.  Regina  Hecuba 
secundum  Euripidem  quem  Ennius  Pacuvius  et  Vergilius 
sequuntur. 

202 

Hec,  26-27  :  koX  Kravwv  e?  o'S/x'  aAoj  |  fieTrjx'  'v'  avros 
Xpvaov  iv  So'/xoi?  exj]  \  (vel  28  dXXor'  iv  ttovtov  adXw,  cp.  701 
TTOvrov  viv  e^^veyKe  TreAayto?  kXvScov). 

Nonius,  223,  24  :  '  Salum  '  neutri  generis  .  .  .  Masculini 
Ennius  Hecuba — 

Polydori  Umbra 

undantem  salum 

^'^  <in>  u.  s.  <demisit>  coni,  V 

"  R.,  129-13fr;  v.,  151.     Perhaps  Ennius  follows  Aeschylus 
closely  here,  as  R.  thinks. 
290 


TRAGEDIES 

Achilles 
Is  it  you  I  see,  O  aged  man  ?     Ah,  heavens ! 

Hyginus :  Priam  toot  back  the  dead  body  of  his  son  for  a 
ransom  of  gold,  and  committed  him  to  biirial. 

200-1 

Priam,  with  Polyxena,  Andromache  and  others  discussed  long 
with  Achilles  ;  the  following  words  are  spoken  jtrdbably  by 
Priam : ' 

Noniiis  :   '  Spemere  '  again  means  to  set  apart  ...  — 
Priam 

A  better  thing  than  bravery  is  justice  ; 

For  bravery  the  >vicked  oft  attain ; 

But  justice  and  the  fair  deed  thrust  themselves 

Far  from  the  wicked. 

HECUBA 

Model :  Euripides^  'EKa^-q. 

The  ghost  of  Polydorus  speaks  the  prologue  : 

Servius,  on  Cisseis  (daughter  of  Cisseus)  in  Virgil:  Queen 
Hecuba,  according  to  Euripides,  who  is  followed  by  Ennius, 
PsMJUvius,  and  Viigil. 

202 

He  tells  of  the  misdeed  of  Polymestor  : 

Nonius :  '  SiJnm '  is  of  the  neuter  gender.  .  .  .  Ennius  has  it 
in  the  masculine  in  Hecuba — 

Ghost  of  Polydorus 

the  surging  sea  * 

Or,  '  billowing  brine ' :   but  solum  or  solus  {adXos),  '  open 
sea,'  is  apparently  not  connected  with  sal. 

291 
u2 


ENNIUS 
203 

Hec.,  68  :   a>  aTepoira  Aio;,  c3  OKorla  vv^. 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  6 :  In  caelo  templum  dicitur  ut  in 
Hecuba — 

Hecuba 

O  magna  templa  caelitum  conmixta  stellis  splendidis, 
204-5 

Hec,  166-169 :  ai  ko-k'  eveyKovaai  \  TpcodSes,  tS  kolk^  evf/Kov- 
aai  I  it^fMar'  dnoXeaar'  ciAeaaT'*  ovKeri  (loi  ^los  |  dyaarog  ev 
^dei. 

Nonius,  474,  32  :  '  Miserete  '  .  •  .  — 

Hecuba 

Miserete  anuis 
date  ferrum  qui  me  anima  privem. 

206-8 

Gellius,  XI,  4,  1  :  Euripidis  versus  sunt  in  Hecuba  (293-5), 
verbis  sententia  brevitate  insignes  inlustresque.  Hecuba  est 
ad  Ulixen  dicens. 

ToS'  d^ioifia  Kav  KaKoJs  Ae'yr^?  to  oov 
ireiaer  Aoyoj  yap  e/c  t'  aSo$ovvT(ov  twv 
KdK  Tcoy  SoKovvTCDV  avTOs  ov  ravTov  adevei. 
Hos  versus  Quintus  Ennius  cum  earn  tragoediam  verteret 
non  sane  incommode  aeraulatus  est.     Versus  totidem  Enniani 
hi  sunt — 

Hecuba 

Haec  tu  etsi  perverse  dices  facile  Achivos  flexeris, 
namque    opulenti    quom    loquuntur    pariter    atque 

ignobiles, 
eadem  dicta  eademque  oratio  aequa  non  aeque  valet. 

*"*  anuis  S        manu  Mr.        manus  cdd.  prob.  V 

GelL,  XI,  4 :  kukos  Gell.  KaKU)s  cdd.  Eur.  vikS.  Gell. 

neiOei  vel  -neian  cdd.  Eur. 

*"'  namque  opulenti  cum  S        nam  opulenti  cum  cdd. 

292 


TRAGEDIES 

203 
Hecuba  is  about  to  tell  her  dream  : 

Varro :  Men  speak  of  a  '  templum '  in  the  sky,  as  in 
Hecuba — 

Hecuba 

You  mighty  precincts  of  all  those  who  dwell 
In  heaven,  commingled  with  the  shining  stars, 

204-5 
Hecuba  has  heard  news  that  Poiyxena  is  to  be  dain  : 
Nonios  :  '  Miserete  '  .  .  .  — 

Hecuba 

Pity  me  an  aged  woman ;  give  me  a  sword  that  I 
may  reave  me  of  life. 

20e-8 

Hecuba  tries  to  persuade  Ulysses  to  make  the  Achivi  change 
their  minds  : 

Gellius  :  There  are  lines  of  Euripides  in  Hecuba  remarkable 
and  famous  for  their  diction,  thought  and  terseness.  Hecuba 
is  in  the  course  of  a  speech  addressed  to  Ulysses."  '  But 
your  influence,  though  you  speak  on  the  wrong  side,  will 
prevail.  For  speech  issuing  from  those  held  in  no  repute, 
though  it  be  the  same  as  speech  from  the  reputable,  has  not 
the  same  power.'  These  lines  Quintus  Ennius,  when  he  was 
translating  that  tragedy,  rivalled  in  no  imsmtable  way,  I 
can  assure  you.  The  lines  of  Ennius  are  the  same  in  number, 
as  follows — 

Hecuba 

Although  this  message  you  will  give  is  crooked, 
An  easy  task  you'll  find  to  sway  the  Achi\i  ; 
For  when  the  well-to-do  and  lowly  born 
Speak  in  like  purport,  yet  their  words  and  speech, 
Though  equal  and  alike,  have  not  like  weight. 

»  I  give  the  quotation  as  our  texts  of  Euripides  have  it. 
See  opposite. 


ENNIUS 
209 

Hec,  438 :  ?  ol  'yco-  TrpoAciVw  Auerot  Se  {lov  fieXr).  |  a) 
Ovyarep,  di/taL  firjrpos,  ejcreivov  x«pai  |  8os'  /^i?  AiTTTyj  ^'  ctTraiS'* 
airwXofirjV,  ^t'Aai. 

Nonius,  224,  6  :  '  Sanguis  masculino  genere  .  .  .  neutro 
Ennius  Hecuba — 

Hecuba 
Heu  me  miseram  interii ;    pergunt  lavere  sanguen 
sanguine  ! 
Cp.  Non.,  466,  27 ;   504,  6. 

210-11 
Hec,  497-8 : 

^ev  ^ev  yepwv  fiiv  etfi',  oficos  8e  /xot  davelv  \ 

€17)  Trpiv  ataxpS.  ■mpnrf.aetv  TV)('f]  rivi  \ 
Troad.,  415 ;  koI  irevrjs  /xeV  etfi'  iyco. 
Nonius,  494,  3  :   '  Pauperies  '  pro  paupertate  ...  — 

Talthyhitis 
Senex  sum;    utinam  mortem  obpetam  prius  quam 

evenat 
quod  in  pauperie  mea  senex  graviter  gemam. 
Cp.  Non.,  507,  18. 

212 

Hec,  627-8  :  Keivos  oX^iwraros  \  otco  /car'  ■^fiap  Tvyxoivei 
firjBev  KaKov. 

Cicero,  de  Fin.,  II,  13,  41  :  Non  ...  si  malum  est  dolor, 
carere  eo  male  satis  est  ad  bene  vivendum.  Hoc  dixerit 
potius  Ennius — 

Hecuba 

Nimium  boni  est  <(huic)>  cui  nihil  est  mali  <(in  diem). 

Nos  beatam  vitam  non  depulsione  mali  sed  adeptione  boni 
iudicemus. 

^^*  <liuic>  suppl.  W        nimium  boni  est  cui  nil  mali  est 
Muret  alii  alia         <in  diem>  add.  ex  Eur.,  Hec,  628        trib. 
Hec.  Muret 
294 


TRAGEDIES 

209 
Hecuba  despairs  of  saving  Polyxena  : 

Nonius  :  '  Sanguis '  ...  in  the  masculine  gender  .  .  . 
Ennius  in  Hecuba  has  it  in  the  neuter — 

Hecuba 
Ah !     Woe  is  me !     I  am  undone ;    on  they  go, 
to  bathe  blood  in  blood  I  <* 

210-11 
Talthybius  has  fcmnd  Hecuba  lying  in  a  swoon  : 
Nonius  :  '  Pauperies  '  for  '  paupertas  '  .  .  .  — 

Talthyhius 

I  am  an  old  man  ;  would  that  I  could  meet 
My  death  before  a  thing  should  come  to  pass 
Which  in  my  poverty  *  and  age  I  should 
Loudly  bewail. 

212 

From  Hecuba's  speech  after  she  has  heard  of  the  death  of 
Polyxena  : 

Cicero  :  Even  if  pain  is  an  evil,  to  be  without  that  evil 
is  not  enough  to  make  a'good  life.  Let  Ennius,  if  he  prefers, 
say  that  — 

Hecuba 

A  passing  good  thing  has  the  man  who  suffers 
No  ill  for  one  day. 

But  let  us  reckon  a  happy  life  not  by  the  repulse  of  evil  but 
by  the  attainment  of  good. 

"  There  is  no  close  parallel  in  Euripides. 

*  It  is  curious  to  note  that  '  in  pauperie  mea '  are  words 
suggested  by  a  speech  of  Talthybius  in  Euripides'  TpcuaSey 
(415). 

295 


ENNIUS 
213 

Hec.,  760  :  opas  veKpov  t6v8'  ov  KaTaaral,o}  haKpv; 
Nonius,  155,  28  :  '  Guttatim  '  .  .  .  — 

Hecuba 
Vide  hunc  meae  in  quem  lacrumae  guttatim  cadunt. 

214 

Hec,  826  s.  :  irpos  aolai  TrXivpots  irais  ip-ri  koi iil^er ai.  .  .  . 

Nonius,  342,  24  :  '  Modicum  '  veteres  moderatum  et  com- 
modum  dici  volunt  ...  — 

Hecuba 

quae  tibi  in  concubio  verecunde  et  modice  morem 
gerit. 

215 

Hec,  836-7  :  e'  not,  yivoiro  <l>96yyos  iv  ppaxioai  \  Kal  x^P^''- 
Kai  KOfiaiat  Kal  ttoScjv  pdaei.   .   .   . 

Cicero,  Oral.,  45,  153 :  Sine  vocalibus  saepe  brevitatis 
causa  contrahebant  ut  ita  dicerent  '  multi  modis '  '  et  vaa 
argenteis ' — 

Hecuba 

palm  et  crinibus 
'  tecti  fractis.' 

216 

Hec,  1226—7  :    iv  rots  KaKoTs  yap  ayaOol  aa<f>iaTaToi  |  ^IXoi. 

Cicero,  de  Amicit.,  17,  64  :  Quam  graves  quam  difficiles 
plerisque  videntur  calamitatum  societates;  ad  quas  non  est 
facile  inventu  qui  descendat ;   quamquam  Ennius  recte — 

^1*  trih.  Hec  Hartung 
296 


TRAGEDIES 

213 
Hecuba  shows  Agamemnon  the  corpse  oj  Polydorus  : 
Nonius  :   '  Guttatim  '  .  ,  .  — 

Hecuha 
See  him  on  whom  my  tears  fall  drop  by  drop. 

214 

Hecuba  implores  Agamemnon  in  the  name  of  Cassandra,  icho 
shares  his  bed,  to  help  her  to  avenge  her  son  : 

Nonius  :  '  Modicum  '  is  a  term  which  the  old  writers  would 
use  for  moderated  and  fitting  ...  — 

Hecuba 

A  woman  who  as  bed-mate  grants  yoiu*  wishes 
With  shyness  and  restraint. 

215 

Hecuba  wishes  thai  her  very  body  could  speak  : 

Cicero  :  They  often  used  to  contract  for  brevity's  sake, 
quite  apart  from  vowels,  so  as  to  use  expressions  like  '  multi 
modis,'  '  et  vas  argenteis,'  '  palm  et  crinibus  ' — 

Hecuha 

with  hand  and  hair 

'  tecti  fractis.' " 

216 
Hecuba  on  true  friendship  : 

Cicero  :  How  heavy  and  hard  do  most  people  find  it  to  be 
someone's  companion  in  disasters  !  It  is  not  easy  to  find 
anyone  who  could  condescend  to  such  fellowships.  Yet 
Ennius  is  right  when  he  says — 

»  R.,  145  :  v.,  154.  The  attribution  to  Ennius  is  doubtful; 
Leo,  Quaest.  Plant.,  299;  Birt,  Rh.  Mus.,  LI,  248. 

297 


ENNIUS 

Hecuba 
Amicus  certus  in  re  incerta  cernitur. 

217-18 

Hec,  1247-8 :  rax   oiv  nap'  vfilv  pdSiov  ^evoKroveiv  \  ij/xiv  8e 
y'  alaxpov  Tolaiv  "EXXriaiv  rdSe  (cp.  803-4). 

Nonius,  153,  22  :   '  Perbitere,'  perire  .  .  . — 

Agamemno 

Set  numquam  scripstis  qui  parentem  aut  hospitem 
necasset  quo  quis  cruciatu  perbiteret. 

219 
Hec.,  1258  :    ov  yap  /x.e  ;^atpetv  xP"^  f^  TiiMoypovfievTjv ; 
Nonius,  116,  31  :   '  Gratulari,'  gratias  agere  .  .  . — 

Hecuba 
luppiter  tibi  summe  tandem  male  re  gesta  gratulor. 

IPHIGENIA 

Eurip.,  Iph.  A.,  1-3  : 

AT.  *X1  TTpla^v  Boficuv  Tu>v8e  irdpoidev 

areixe.      TIP.  arelxo}.  ti  Se  Koivoupycis 
' Ayifiefivov  ava^. 

AT.  nevaei. 

nP.  OTrevSw. 

138-9.  dAA'  r^'  epeuacov  gov  woSa  y^pa 


298 


^'  scripstis  Vossius  scripsistis  cdd. 


TRAGEDIES 

Hecuba 
A  friend  in  need  is  a  friend  indeed.* 

217-18 

Agamemnon  tells  Polymestor  of  his  disapproval  of  Polymestor^s 
crime  : 

Nonius  :   '  Perbitere,'  to  perish  ...  — 

Agamemnon 

But  you  have  never  made  a  wTitten  law 
Establishing  the  pains  whereby  should  perish 
The  murderer  of  parent  or  of  guest . 


219 

Hecuba  gives  thanks  for  the  success  of  her  vengeance  on  Poly- 
mestor  : 

Nonius  :   '  Gratulari,'  to  give  thanks  ...  — 

Hecuba 

All-Highest  Jupiter,  the  ill  deed  done, 
To  thee  I  render  thanks  at  last. 


IPHIGENIA 

That  Ennius  followed  Euripides'  'I^tyeVeta  17  eV  AuAt'St 
is  certain ;  but  instead  of  a  chorus  of  maidens,  Ennius  most 
fittingly  makes  his  chorus  of  warriors.  This  like  certain 
other  divergences  may  have  been  based  on  a  Sophoclean 
version  (R.,  494  fiE.). 

"  Hartung's  attribution  to  this  play  is  very  likely  right. 

^^^  quo  quiB  cruciatu  lun.  qaos  quis  cruciator  cdd. 

cruciatus  ilr.         is  quo  Pontanus 

299 


ENNIUS 

220-1 

Festus,  324,  24  :  '  Pedum  '  est  quidem  baculum  incurvum 
quo  pastores  utuntur  ad  comprehendendas  oves  aut  capras, 
a  pedibus;  cuius  meminit  etiam  Vergilius  in  Bucolicis  (V., 
88).  .  .  .  Sed  in  eo  versu  qui  est  in  Iphigenia  Enni — 

Agamemno 

Procede,  gradum  proferre  pedum 
nitere,  cessas  o  fide 

id  ipsum  baculum   significari  cum  ait  Verrius  mirari  satis 
non  possum,  cum  sit  .  .  .  significatio  aperta. 

Cp.  Schol.  Veron.,  ad  Verg.,  EcL,  V.,  88. 
222-5 

Iph.  A.,  6-10  : 

Ar.  Ti's  ttot'  ap'  darrjp  o8e  nopdfievei ;  \  XVP.  2eipioj  eyyu? 
T-ffS  (.TTTatTopov  I  nAeiaSos  aaaiov  in  neaa'qprjs  |  AF.  ovkovv 
^Ooyyos  y'  ovr'  opviduiv  |  ovre  OaXdaayjs- 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  73  :— 

Agamemno 

Quid  noctis  videtur  in  altisono 
caeli  clipeo  ? 

Senex 

Tenio  superat 
Stellas  sublime  agitans  etiam  atque 
etiam  noctis  iter. 

Hie  multam  noctem  ostendere  volt  a  temonis  motu. 

Cp.  id.,  V,  19;  Fest.,  504,  9  (.  .  .  Ennius  superat  .  .  .). 
Apulei.,  de  deo  Socr.,  2,  6  (mundi  .  .  .  clipeo). 

2"  o  fide   add.   ex  Schol.    Veron.  ad    Verg.,   Ed.,    V.,  88 
o  fide  <  senex  >  Bergk 
222-8  trib.  Iph.  Colonna 

22*  agitans  V        agens  Varro         sublimen  Buecheler 
225-6  fij-fQ  coniungenda  ;  sed  desunt  nonnulla  post  ite 

300 


TRAGEDIES 

220-1 
Opening  of  the  play  : 

Agamemnon  bids  an  old  servaTU  hurry  to  him  to  take  a  letter 
for  Clytaemneslra  : 

Festus  :  '  Pedum '  (sheep-hook)  is  a  curved  staff  which 
shepherds  use  for  catching  hold  of  ewes  or  she-goats;  it  is 
derived  from  '  pedes.'  Virgil  among  others  makes  mention 
of  it  in  the  Bucolics  (V.,  88).  .  .  .  But  I  cannot  wonder 
enough  when  Verrius  says  that  in  that  line  which  occurs  in 
Iphigenia  of  Ennius — 

Agamemnon 

Come  hither,  strive  to  put  forward  the  support  of 
your  steps — you  loiter,  O  trusty  one 

a  sheep-hook  is  actually  meant,  because  .  .  .  the  real 
meaning  is  plain  to  see." 

222-5 
Progress  of  the  night : 

Varro : — 

Agamemnon 

What  is  it  I  see  upon  heaven's  high-sounding  shield 
of  night  ? 

Old  Servant  * 

The  Wain,  driving  on  and  on  through  night's  lofty 
course,  surmounts  the  stars. 

He  wishes  to  indicate,  from  the  movement  of  the  Wain, 
a  late  hour  of  the  night. 

"  Festus  says  the  sense  is  :  gradum  proferre  pedum  cessas ; 
nitere.  Scaliger  thought  this  fir.  was  taken  from  Eur.,  Iph.  A., 
138-39;  but  cf.  V.,  prooem.,  1888-9,  13  ff.  Why  should  we 
not  take  '  gradum  pedum  '  as  '  the  steps  of  the  feet '  ?  Com- 
parison with  Eiu-ip.,  1-3  suggests  that  Ennius  read  or  misread 
(for  irevafi)  OTrevBe  or  anevaov  or  anevaeis- 

*  This  division  is  suggested  by  the  corresponding  passage 
in  Euripides,  with  which  Ennius  has  certainly  dealt  freely. 
v.,  156  and  prooem.,  1888-9,  14  ff.  gives  the  whole  quotation 
to  Agamemnon. 

301 


ENNIUS 

226-8 

Cicero,  de  Div.,  II,  26,  57  :  Democritus  optimis  verbis 
causam  explicat  cur  ante  lucem  galli  canant  .  .  .  silentio 
noctis  ut  ait  Ennius — 

Agamemno 

Favent  faucibus  russis 
<galli)  cantu,  plausuque  premunt 
alas. 

229-30 
Iph.A.,Z\l  s.;  cp.327. 

Ar.  ...  at  deoL  w^s  avaia)(yvTov  (f)pev6s 

Cic,  Tiisc.  Disp.,  IV,  36,  77  :  Ira  vero  .  .  .  cuius  impulsu 
existit  etiam  inter  fratres  tale  iurgium — 

Agamemno 

Quis     homo     te     exsuperavit     usquam     gentium 
impudentia  ? 

Menelaus 

Quis  autem  malitia  te  ? 

Nosti  quae  sequuntur ;  alternis  enim  versibus  intorquentur 
inter  fratres  gravissimae  contumeliae  ut  facile  appareat 
Atrei  filios  esse.  .  .  . 

231 

Iph.  A.,  329,  331. 

Ar.  Ti  Se  ae  ra/id  Set  (f)vXdaaeLV ;  ovk  dvaia^WTOv  roSe;  | 
oup^i  Seiva  ;  tov  ifiov  oIksIv  oIkov  ovk  idaofiai.  ; 

Rufinianus,  ap.  R.L.M.,  41,  28  H :  'KyavaKTfiai.^  indignatio, 
quae  fit  maxime  pronuntiatione.    Ennius  in  Iphigenia — 

^"  galli    suppl.    W,    missis    V  Jortasse    <gallique> 

favent  • 

302 


TRAGEDIES 

226-8 

Cicero  :  Democritus  with  very  good  argument  explains  the 
reasons  why  cockerels  crow  before  dawn  ...  in  the  silence 
of  the  night,  in  the  words  of  Ennius — 

Agamemnon 

The  cockerels  indulge  their  ruddy-wattled  throats 
in  crowing  and  with  a  clap  beat  their  wings.* 


229-30 

Quarrd  between  Agamemnon  and  Menelaus  : 

Cicero :  Next  wrath  .  .  .  under  whose  impulse  there 
starts  even  among  brothers  a  brawl  like  this — 

Agamemnon 

What  man  in  all  the  world  has  surpassed  you  in 
shamelessness  ? 

Menelaus 
Or  who  you  in  spite  ? 

You  know  what  follows;  for  the  brothers  hurl  the  most 
crushing  taxmts  at  each  other,  line  for  line,  so  that  you  can 
easily  see  that  they  are  Atreus'  sons.  .  ,  . 

231 

Rufinianus :  *Ayam»cTij<7t?  is  indignation,  which  comes 
about  chiefly  by  tone  of  voice.    Enoius  in  Iphigenia — 

«  v.,  156-7  and  prooem.,  1888-9,  10  ff.  I  have  supplied 
galli  after  russis ;  Cicero  naturally  omits  it  since  he  has  just 
said  :  galli  .  .  .  qui  quidem  sileniio  jiociis,  ut  ait  Ennius.  .  .  . 

3<^3 


ENNIUS 

Agamemno 
Menelaus    me    obiurgat;     id    meis    rebus    regimen 
restitat. 

232-4 

Iph.  A.,  384,  388-390,  396  s. :  AF.  .  .  .  eV  iyw  Sc'attjp  8a, 
auiv  KaKuiv  6  fir]  cr^aAetj ;  .   .   . 

Tafia  8'  OVK  a-rroKTevC)  'yco  reKva'  kov  to  aov  fikv  ev  \  napa 
BiKTjv  iarai  KaKiorrfS  €vvi8os  rifioypiq,.  Cp.  id.,  482  £f.  {Menel. 
loqu.), 

Rufinianus,  ap.  R.L.M.,  47,  16  H  :  ^xjyKpiois  sive  avrideais 
comparatio  rerum  atque  personarum  inter  se  contrariarum, 
ut — ■ 

Agamemno 

Ego  proiector  quod  tu  peccas?     Tu  delinquis,  ego 

arguor  ? 
Pro  malefactis  Helena  redeat,  virgo  pereat  innocens  ? 
Tua  reconcilietur  uxor,  mea  necetur  filia? 

235-6 

Iph.  A.,  446-49  :  17  8vayevei,a  8'  ti?  ex"  ri  xPl^'^H-^^-  I  '^f'- 
yap  8aKpvaai  paSt'cos  avrols  e^^t  |  a-rravTa  r'  etneiv  rat  Be  yevvato) 
<f>vaiv  I  dvoXpa  ravra. 

meTonjmns,Epi8t.,60,Epit.Nepot.,U:  .  .  .  Prudenterque 
Ennius  .  .  .  ait— - 

Agamemno 

Plebes  in  hoc  regi  antistat  loco  :  licet 
lacrumare  plebi,  regi  honeste  non  licet. 

231  restitat  Bentley         restat  cdd. 

232  proiector  cdd.  ut  ego  plectar  Bentley  proh 
plector  coni.  Halm 

304 


TRAGEDIES 

Agamemnon 

Menelaus  brawls  at  me ;  it  is  that  domination  of 
his  which  stands  an  obstacle  to  my  affairs. 

232-4 

Rufinianua  :  ^vyKpiats  or  avrldeais  is  to  put  side  by  side 
things  or  persons  contrary  to  each  other,  for  example — 

Agamemnon 

Am  I  taunted  because  you  do  AVTong?  Because 
you  go  astray,  am  I  brought  to  task?  For  her 
misdeeds  should  Helen  come  back,  in  her  guiltless- 
ness should  a  maiden  perish  ?  Should  your  wife  be 
brought  back  to  favour,  my  daughter  be  butchered  ?  * 

235-6 

Agamemnon  laments  because  he  sees  that  the  sacrifice  of 
Iphigenia  will  be  unavoidable  : 

Jerome  :  And  wisely  does  Ennius  write — 

Agamemnon 

The  commoners  stand  better  than  their  king 
In  this — the  commoners  may  weep,  the  king 
May  not,  \^ith  honour.'' 

"  Comparison  with  Euripides,  Iph.  A.,  317  ff.,  given  opposite 
shows  how  freely  Ennius  has  dealt  with  his  original. 
0  Cf.  v.,  prooem..  1880,  5. 


***-•  trib.  Enn.  Iph.  Ck)lonna 
"^«  trib.  Iph.  Colonna 


305 


ENNIUS 
237-8 

Iph.  A.,  631-2  :  tS  ae^as  efiol  fieyiarov  'Ayafiifivoyv  a>'a|, 
•^KOfiev  itf>€Tfj,als  ovk  aTnarovaai  aedev. 

Cicero,  ad  Att.,  XIII,  47,  1  :— 

Clytaemnestra 

Postquam  abs  te,  Agamemno,  ut  venirem  tetigit 

aures  nuntius, 
extemplo  .  .  . 

instituta  omisi,  ea  quae  in  manibus  habebam  abieci,  quod 
iusseras  edolavi. 

239 

Iph.  A.,  708-9: 

KA.  ©ens  S'  eOpei/tev  t]  Trarrip  'A;^iAAea  ; 

Ar.  Xeipcov,  iv'  tJOt)  fir]  fiddot.  KaKwv  ^porcbv. 
Vel  701.      Ar.  .  .   .  d  Tl-qXevs  8'  ^^xe  Nij/aetj?  KoprjV. 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  87:  '  Lymphata '  dicta  a  lympha; 
lympha  a  nympha,  ut  quod  apud  Graecos  ©eVi?  apud  Ennium — 

Thelis  illi  mater. 

240 

Iph.  A.,  735-7  :  Ar.  ov  KaXov  iv  ox^u)  a'  e^ofiiXelodai  arpaTov. 
KA.  KaXov  TCKOvaav  rafid  fi'  eVSowat  reKva. 
Ar.  Koi  ras  y'  iv  oiKto  firj  fiovas  elvai  Kopas. 

Servius  auctus,  ad  Aen.,  I,  52  :  Sane  '  vasto  '  pro  desolato 
veteres  ponebant  ...  — 

Agamemno 
Quae  nunc  abs  te  viduae  et  vastae  virgines  sunt. 

237-8  jjQn  '  ut  venirem '  (nam  id  quoque  fecissem  nisi 
Torquatus  esset)  sed  ut  scriberem  '  tetigit '  e.  q.  s.  Cic. 
trib.  Enn.  Iph.  Ladewig 

2**  extemplo  fortasse  non  Ennio  tribuend.,  sed  cp.  Non., 
263,5 

239  trib.  Iph.  V 

306 


TRAGEDIES 

237-8 

Clytaemnestra,  complying  with  a  deceitful  message,  has  come 
ivith  her  daughter  and  greets  her  husband  : 

Cicero  : — 

Clytaemnestra 

So  soon  as  tidings  from  you,  that  I  was  to  come, 
reached  my  ears,  Agamemnon,  I  forthwith  ..." 

gave  up  what  I  had  begun ;  I  put  aside  what  I  had  in  hand  and 
I  wrote  rough-hewn  what  you  had  asked  for.* 

239 

From  the  dialogue  where  Agamemnon  tells  Clytaemnestra  of 
the  past  life  of  Achilles  : 

Varro  :  '  Lymphata  '  is  a  term  derived  from  '  lympha  ' 
(water),  '  lympha  '  from  '  nympha  ' ;  in  like  manner  Bens  as 
wi-itten  by  Greek  authors  is  in  a  passage  of  Ennius —  ' 

Thelis  his  mother. 

240 

Agamemnon  tries  in  vain  to  persuade  Clytaemnestra  to  return 
to  Argos : 

Servius  (supplemented),  on  Aen.,  I,  52  :  It  is  a  fact  that 
the  old  writers  used  to  put  '  vastus  '  for  '  desolate  '  .  .  .  — 

Agamemnon  ^ 
Maids  who  are  now  bereft  of  you  and  desolate. 

"  This  is  all  that  can  be  attributed  to  Ennius;  but  of. 
Ladewig,  Avai.  Seen.,  15,  R.,  98. 

*  Cic.  gave  up  work  on  De  Natura  Deorum  and  set  to  work 
on  a  letter  to  Caesar ;  '  edolavi '  is  from  a  satire  of  Ennius  ? 
(p.  437.) 

■■  Vahlen's  attribution  to  this  play  is  probable.  Varro 
means  that  just  as  a  change  of  one  letter  makes  Thetis  into 
Thelis,  so  a  change  of  one  letter  makes  nympha  into  lympha. 

"  V.,prooe>n.,  1888,  9  ff. 

x2 


ENNIUS 

241-8 

Iph.  A.,  801  ff.  [Achill.  loqu.),  813-8,  1000-1001. 

Gellius,  XIX,  10,  12  {de  vocabulo  praeterpropler)  :  Statim 
proferri  Iphigeniam  Q.  Enni  iubet  (Celsinus).  In  eius  tragoe- 
diae  choro  inscriptos  esse  hos  versus  legimus — - 

Charus 

Otio  qui  nescit  uti  .  .  . 

plus  negoti  habet  quam  cum  est  negotium  in  negotio ; 

nam  cui  quod  agat  institutumst  non  ullo  negotio 

id  agit,  id  studet,  ibi  mentem  atque  animum  delectat 

suum : 
otioso    in    otio    animus    nescit    <(quid    agat)>    quid 

velit.  245 

Hoc  idem  est ;  em  neque  domi  nunc  nos  nee  militiae 

sumus; 
imus   hue,   hinc  illuc ;    cum  illuc   ventum   est,   ire 

illinc  Iubet. 
Incerte  errat  animus,  praeterpropter  vitam  vivitur. 

.  •  .  Petimus  igitur  dicas  .  .  .  quid  sit  ignotus  huiusce 
versus  sensus  '  incerte  errat  animus  praeterpropter  vitam 
vivitur.' 

249-51 

Iph.  A.,  956-8  :  AX.  iriKpovs  Se  irpoxvras  ^cpvi^Saj  t'  evap^erai 
KaXxc-S  o  /idvTty  ti's  Sc  fiavris  ear'  avrip, 
OS  oAiy'  dXtjOii  TroAAa  Se  ifiev8r}  Xeyei 
Tvx<^v,  orav  8e  fir]  tv^U  Stoi;^eTai ; 

Cicero,  de  Re  Publ.,  I,  18,  30  :  In  ore  semper  erat  ille  de 
Iphigenia  Achilles — 

2*'  non  ullo  negotio  Hermann  nil  nisi  negotium  Hertz 

militi  negotium  Ribb.        in  illis  vel  in  illo  cdd. 
2"  id  agit  <id>  Ribb. 
2**  <quid  agat>  Dziatzko 
**'  illinc  cdd.  praeter  Par.  (illuc) 

308 


TRAGEDIES 

241-8 

Impatience  of  the  army  held  back  in  AtUia  : 

Gellius,  on  the  word  *  praeterpropter '  :  Celsinus  at  once 
ordered  a  copy  of  Quintus  Ennius'  Iphigenia  to  be  brought 
cat.    In  a  chorus  of  that  tragedy  we  read  the  following  lines — 

Chorus  " 

He  who  knows  not  how  to  use  leisure  has  more 
work  than  when  he  is  awork  at  work.  For  he  for 
whom  a  task  is  set  to  do,  does  it  without  any  work ; 
he  attends  to  it ;  therein  too  he  delights  his  mind  and 
his  thoughts.  In  leisurely  leisure  the  mind  knows 
not  what  it  does  or  wants.  Thus  it  is  with  us  also ; 
look  you,  we  are  now  neither  at  home  nor  are  we 
afield.  We  go  hither  and  then  thither :  and  when 
thither  we  have  come,  away  again  it  pleases  to  go.* 
Our  mind  wanders  unsure  ;  our  lives  we  live  but  more 
or  less. 

.  .  .  Well  then  we  ask  you  to  tell  us  .  .  .  what  is  the 
unknown  meaning  of  this  line,  '  Our  mind  wanders  unsure; 
our  lives  we  live  but  more  or  less.' 

249-51 

AchiUes  STieers  at  Calchaa'  prophecy  : 

Cicero  :  The  famous  words  of  Achilles  fix)m  Iphigenia  were 
always  in  his  mouth  — 

"  Of  warriors — see  p.  299 ;   V.,  in  £?.,  XV,  262  ff. 

*  These  poor  soldiers  must  have  felt  towards  Agamemnon 
like  the  soldiers  of  the  brave  old  Duke  of  York,  who  had  ten 
thousand  men.  The  lines  are  very  corrupt,  and  inelegant 
even  where  they  are  sound.  That  part  of  the  speech  of  AchUIes 
in  Euripides  which  gave  Ennius  his  ideas  is  perhaps  an 
interpolation  into  Euripides'  play. 


ENNIUS 

Achilles 
astrologorum  signa  in  caelo  quid  sit  observationis, 
cum   capra  aut   nepa   aut   exoritur   nomen   aliquod 

beluarum, 
quod  est  ante  pedes  nemo  spectat,  caeli  scrutantur 

plagas. 

Cp.  Cic,  de  Div.,  II,  13,  30  :  Donat.,  ad  Ter.,  Adelph., 
Ill,  3,  32;  Seneca,  Apocolocynt.,  8. 

252 

Iph.  A.,  1505-1509  :  1<1>,  Ico  \  XaiinaSovxos  ifiepa  Ai\6s  re 
^iyyos,  irepov  erepov  \  cdcova  Kal  fj-olpav  oiK'qaofiev  \  X^^P^  f^°'- 
<f>iXov  (f>dos.     vel  1375,  Kardavetv  iiiv  p-oi  SeSoKraL. 

Festus,  5  :  '  Ob '  praepositione  antiques  usos  esse  pro 
'  ad '  testis  est  Ennius  quum  ait  ...  in  Iphigenia — 

Iphigenia 
Acherontem  obibo  ubi  Mortis  thesauri  obiacent. 


MEDEA 

SIVE 

MEDEA  EXUL 

Eur.,  3Ied.,  1-8  : 

Eld'  axfieX'  'Apyovs  (i'']  SiaTTrdadai  oKa^os 
KdA;(aJV  is  alav  Kvaveas  'XvfnrXyjyo.Sas, 
^TjS'  e'v  yaTTaiai.  TlrjXiov  neaeiv  nore 
TfirjOeiaa  irevKr]  firjS'  ipeT^aou.  X^P^'-S 
avSpiov  dpiarojv  ol  to  Trayxpvaov  Sepos 
TleXiq.  fjLeTrjXdov.     ov  yap  dv  Seanoi-v'  efit] 
M'^Seto  TTvpyovs  yfjs  enXeva'  ItoA/cias' 
epoJTi  dv(i6y  eKTrXayela'  'idaovos-   •   •  • 

***  sit  Cic.        fit  Yfortasse  rede 

"  Efforts  to  emend  these  lines  may  be  needless — V.,  160 
and  prooem.,  1878,  7.    Sit  or  fit  observationis  seem  to  govern 

310 


TRAGEDIES 

Achilles 

.  .  .  what  a  peering  there  is  at  the  star-readers' 
constellations  in  the  sky ;  when  the  She-goat  or  the 
Scorpion  rises,  or  some  such  name  chosen  from  the 
beasts,  no  man  looks  at  what  is  before  his  feet ;  one 
and  all  scan  the  stretches  of  the  sky." 

252 

Agamemnon  and  Menelaus  have  yielded  to  the  demands  of 
Ulysses  and  the  army.    Iphigenia  is  ready  to  be  sacrificed  : 

Festus :  That  the  archaic  writers  used  the  preposition 
06  for (KiEnnius  bears  witness  when  he  says  .  .  .  in  Iphigenia — • 

Iphigenia 

I  shall  go  to  meet  Acheron,  where  the  treasures 
of  Death  lie  in  my  way. 


MEDEA 

OR 

MEDEA  BANISHED 

Cicero  {de  Fin.,  I,  2,  4)  includes  Ennius'  Medea  among 
plays  which  were  translated  word  for  word  from  the  Greek. 
That  this  is  not  really  true  of  this  play  the  following  fragments 
will  show.  In  all  the  essentials,  however,  it  was  a  Latin 
reproduction  of  Euripides'  M^Scta.  But  Ennius  extended 
his  play  to  include  also  the  plot  of  Euripides'  Mr/Seta  iv  \lyel, 
or  at  least  far  enough  to  bring  Medea  to  Athens  (Schol.  ad 
II.,  XI,  741  and  other  sources;  V.,  CCVIII).  It  is  not  right 
to  assume  a  second  play  'Medea  Atheniensis'  (R.,  157-9; 
see  fr.  294-5);  Varro,  Cicero,  and  Xonius  knew  only  one 
Medea  of  Ennius,  to  which  the  poet  apparently  gave  the  title 
Medea  Etui  (that  is,  in  exile  at  Corinth  with  Jason). 

the  accusative  signa  as  though  the  sentence  were  e.g.  ^ua« 
obsenent  homines  signa. 

3" 


ENNIUS 

253-61 

Auctor,  ad  Herenn.,  II,  22,  34  :  Hie  quod  extremum  dictum 
est  satis  fuit  exponere  ne  Ennium  et  ceteros  poctas  imitemur 
quibus  hoc  modo  loqui  concessum  est — 

Nutrix 

Utinam  ne  in  nemore  Pelio  securibus 

caesae  accedissent  abiegnae  ad  terram  trabes, 

neve  inde  navis  inchoandi  exordium  255 

coepisset  quae  nunc  nominatur  nomine 

Argo,  quia  Argivi  in  ea  delecti  viri 

vecti  petebant  pellem  inauratam  arietis 

Colchis  imperio  regis  Peliae  per  dolum  ; 

nam  numquam  era  errans  mea  domo  efFerret  pedem 

Medea  animo  aegro  amore  saevo  saucia. 

Nam  hie  satis  erat  dieere,  si  id  modo  quod  satis  esset 
curarent  poetae  '  utinam  ne  era  errans  mea  domo  efferret 
pedem  Medea  animo  aegro  amore  saevo  saucia.' 

Cp.  Prise,  ap.  G.L.,  III,  423,  36,  etc.,  etc. 

262-3 

Med.,  49—51  :  naXaiov  oikcov  Krijixa  SeaTroivr/s  ifJ^'^JS,  \  ri  rrpos 
nvAaiai,    tt^vS'  dyova'   eprj/jilav  \  ear-QKas,   avrrj   dpeo^evrj  aavrfj 

KaKO.. 

Nonius,  38,  29 :  '  Eliminare,'  extra  limen  eicere.  .  .  . 
Ennius  Medea  exule — 

Paedagogus 

Antiqua  erilis  fida  custos  corporis, 
quid  sic  te  extra  aedes  exanimata  eliminas? 
Cp.  Non.,  292,  20. 

2**  caesae     accedissent     (vel    accidissent    vel  cecidissent) 

abiegnae  auct.  ad  Herenn.,  Prise,  III,  Cic,  alii  caesa 

aceidisset   (accedisset   Prise.    VII)  abiegna   vel  sim.    Varro, 
Prise.  VII  prob.  V 


TRAGEDIES 

253-61 

Opening  of  the  play ;  prologue  spoken  by  Medea's  aged 
nurse  : 

The  author  of  To  Herenniu-s  says  :  I  have  deemed  what  I 
have  last  said  to  be  enough  by  way  of  exposition  at  this  point, 
lest  we  be  found  to  be  copying  Ennius  and  the  rest  of  the 
poets,  who  were  granted  the  right  to  speak  in  the  following 
way — 

Nurse 

Would  that  the  firwood  timbers  had  not  fallen 
to  earth  hewn  by  axes  in  a  Pelian  grove ;  and  that 
thereupon  no  prelude  had  been  made  to  begin  the 
ship  which  is  now  known  by  the  name  of  Argo,  for 
that  chosen  Argive  heroes  were  carried  in  it  when 
they  were  seeking  the  golden  fleece  of  the  ram  of 
Colchis,  by  trickery,  at  the  behest  of  King  Pelias. 
For  thus  never  would  my  misled  mistress  Medea, 
sick  at  heart,  smitten  by  savage  love,  have  set  foot 
outside  her  home. 

For  if  the  poets  had  a  care  for  that  only  which  were  enough, 
then  it  was  enough  to  say  here,  '  would  that  my  mistress 
Medea,  sick  at  heart,  smitten  by  savage  love,  had  not  set 
foot  outside  her  home.' 

262-3 

The  usher  to  Jason's  children  addresses  the  nurse  : 

Nonius  :  '  Eliminare,'  to  thrust  outside  the  '  Umen '  .  .  . 
Ennius  in  Medea  Banished — 

Usher 

You  aged  faithful  woman,  guardian  of  your 
mistress'  person,  wherefore  bring  you  yourself  thus 
outdoors,  forspent  outside  your  dwelling  ? 


ENNIUS 
264-5 

Med.,  57-8  :  oiad^  tfiepos  /u.'  VTrijXde  yfj  re  Kovpavw  \  Ae'^ai 
fioXovarj  Sevpo  SeoTToivrjs  rv^as- 

Cicero,  Tu^c.  Disp.,  Ill,  26,  63  :  Sunt  autem  alii  quos  in 
luctu  cum  ipsa  solitudine  loqui  saepe  delectat,  ut  ilia  apud 
Ennium  nutrix — 

Nutrix 

Cupido  cepit  miseram  nunc  me  proloqui 
caelo  atque  terrae  Medeai  miserias. 

266-8 

Med.,  214-18  :  KopivOiai  yvvaiKes,  i^-^XOov  hoiiajv,  \  /x-q  nol  ti 
fiefi<f>Tja8'  olSa  yap  ttoXXovs  ^porcov  \  aefivovs  yeyaiTas,  tovs  fiiv 
ofifiaTCOv  dno  1  tovs  8'  ev  Bvpalois'  ol  8'  a<f>'  rjtjvxov  ttoSoj  | 
dvoKXeiav  eKXTjaavro  Kal  padvplav, 

Cicero,  ad  Fam.,  VII,  6,  1  :  Tu  modo  ineptias  istas  et 
desideria  urbis  et  urbanitatis  depone  et  quo  consilio  profectus 
es  id  assiduitate  et  virtute  consequere;  hoc  tibi  tarn  ignos- 
cemus  nos  amici  quam  ignoverunt  Medeae — 

Medea 

Quae    Corinthum    arcem    altam    habetis    matronae 
opulentae  optimates, 

quibus   ilia    manibus   gypsatissimis   persuasit    ne   sibi   vitio 
illae  verterent  quod  abesset  a  patria;   nam — 

Multi  suam  rem  bene  gessere  et  publicam  patria 

proeul, 
multi   qui   domi    aetatem   agerent   propterea   sunt 

inprobati. 

Quo  in  numero  tu  certe  fuisses  nisi  te  extrusissemus. 


***  habebant  Cic.        ne  mihi  vos  vitio  vortatis  a  patria 
quod  absiem  add.  ex  Eur.  Elmsley 
266-8  i^ii)_  £fin.  Med.  Politianus 


TRAGEDIES 

264-5 

From  the  end  of  the  nurse's  reply  : 

Cicero  :  But  there  are  others  to  whom  in  their  grief  it 
is  often  a  delight  to  hold  converse  with  loneliness  itself,  for 
example  the  well-known  nurse  in  Ennius — 

Xurse 
Now  has  a  desire  taken  hold  of  me,  poor  wretch, 
to  speak  out  to  heaven  and  earth  Medea's  miseries. 

266-8 
Medea  comes  out  of  the  palace  and  defends  her  moody  behaviour  : 

Cicero  writes  to  Trebatius  :  All  you  have  to  do  is  to  lay 
aside  the  silly  fads  and  longings  of  town  and  town's  fashions, 
and  follow  up  with  zest  and  fortitude  the  plan  with  which 
you  set  out.  We  as  your  friends  will  pardon  you  this  as  readily 
as  Medea  was  pardoned  by — ■ 

Medea 
You  well-to-do  and  well-born  ladies,  who  have  for 
your  own  the  lofty  stronghold  Corinth, 

whom  she  with  thickly  plastered  hands  persuaded  not  to  call 
her  to  task  that  she  was  away  from  her  native  land  " ;   for — 

Many  there  are  who  have  performed  well  their 
own  and  their  commonweal's  tasks  far  from  the 
fatherland ;  and  many  there  are  who  because  they 
passed  their  days  at  home  were  for  this  held  in  no 
honour. 

Among  the  latter  number  you  certainly  would  have  been 
numbered  had  we  not  pushed  you  out  of  it. 

"  As  will  be  seen  from  the  quotation  opposite,  Ennius 
misunderstood  the  Greek  of  Exiripides.  That  Poliziano  was 
right  in  assigning  this  fragment  to  Ennius'  Medea  is  clear 
from  the  fact  that  Cicero  goes  on  to  quote  (without  naming 
the  author)  fr.  271  which  we  know  from  another  passage 
of  Cicero  to  belong  to  Ennius;  see  below,  line  271.  In 
gypsaiissimis  Cic.  alludes  to  the  whitened  hands  of  the  actor. 


ENNIUS 
269-70 

Med.,  250-51  :  oiy  rpls  av  vap'  aani8a 

arrjvai  OeXoifi'  av  /xaAAov  ^  t€K€iv  dna^. 
Nonius,  261,  18  :    '  Cernere  '  rursum  dimicare  vel  conten- 
dere .  .  . 

Medea 
.  .  •  nam  ter  sub  armis  malim  vitam  cernere 
quam  semel  modo  parere. 

Cp.  Non.,  261,  9;  Varro,  L.L.,  VI,  81. 

271 

Med.,  303-05  ?     Cp.  381-3 ;  400-1. 

Cicero,  ad  Fam.,  VII,  6,  2  :  Tu  qui  ceteris  cavere  didicisti, 
in  Britannia  ne  ab  essedariis  decipiaris  caveto,  et  quoniam 
Medeam  coepi  agere,  illud  semper  memento — 

Medea 
Qui  ipse  si  sapiens  prodesse  non  quit,  nequiquam 
sapit. 
Cp.  Cic,  de  Off.,  Ill,  15,  62  (ex  quo  Ennius  e.  q.  s.);  Cic, 
ad  Fam.,  XIII,   15,  2  .  .  .  vera  praecepta  EvpimSov   fiioto 
ao<l>iaTr]v  oaris  ovx  aurai  ao<}>6s  (fr.  905  N). 

272-3 

Med.,  352—4 :  et  a'  ij  VioCaa  Aa/XTra?  o^ctoi  diov  \  Koi  ttoiSo? 
ivTOs  TTJaSe  Tfpfiovwv  xdovos,  \  davei. 

Cicero,  pro  Rabir.,  11,  29 :  Regum  autem  sunt  haec 
imperia  .  .  .  et  illae  minae — 

Creon 
Si  te  secundo  lumine  hie  offendero, 
moriere. 

Quae  non  ut  delectemur  solum  legere  et  spectare  debemus, 
sed  ut  cavere  etiam  et  fugere  discamus. 

Cp.  Cic,  ad  Att.,  VII,  26,  1. 


3l6 


*'"  quam  s.  m.  parere  add.  ex  Non.,  261,  9 
272-3  trib.  Enn.  Med.  S 


TRAGEDIES 

269-70 
Nonias  :   '  Cemere  '  also  means  to  fight  or  strive  ...  — 

Medea 

for  I  would  fain  make  trial  of  my  life  thrice  under 
arms,  than  give  birth  just  once. 

271 

Medea  angwering  Creon  who  is  suspicious  of  her  : 

Cicero  writes  to  Trebatius  :  You  who  have  learnt  to  look 
out  on  behalf  of  the  rest  of  mankind,  in  Britain  look 
out  lest  you  be  taken  in  by  carters,  and  (since  I  began  " 
with  playing  the  part  of  Medea)  remember  you  at  all  times  that 
famous  line — 

Medea 

He  who,  though  wise  himself,  cannot  help  himself, 

is  wise  in  vain  ^ 

272-3 

Creon  threatens  Medea  as  he  grants  a  day^s  delay  before  she 
leaves  the  land : 

Cicero :  And  to  kings  belong  these  commands.'  .  .  . 
And  the  famous  threat — 

Creon 

If  one  day  hence  I  do  light  upon  you,  you  shall  die. 

Of  these  we  ought  to  be  readers  and  spectators,  not  that  we 
may  merely  be  delighted  by  them,  but  that  we  may  learn  how 
to  beware  also  and  to  escape. 

«  See  fr.  266-8. 

*  Wherever  we  place  this  line,  we  need  not  doubt  that 
Ennius  took  the  words  from  one  of  the  lost  plays  of  Euripides, 
not  his  Medea. 

'  Scaliger  attributes  to  Ennius'  Medea  all  of  the  three 
examples  given  by  Cicero. 


ENNIUS 

274-80 
if ed.,  364-75;  398-99. 

Cicero,  de  Nat.  Deor.,  Ill,  25,  65  :  Balbus  '  interpellare 
te,'  inquit  '  nolo,  Cotta,  sed  sumemus  tempus  aliud;  efficiam 
profecto  ut  fateare.    Sed  ...  — 

Medea 

Nequaquam  istuc  istac  ibit ;  magna  inest  certatio. 
Nam  ut  ego  illi  supplicax'em  tanta  blandiloquentia 
ni  ob  rem  ? 

Parumne  ratiocinari  videtur  et  sibi  ipsa  nefariam  pestem 
machinari  ?    Illud  vero  quam  callida  ratione — 

Qui  volt  esse  quod  volt,  ita  dat  se  res  ut  operam 
dabit. 

Qui  est  versus  omnium  seminator  malorum — 

lUe  traversa  mente  mi  hodie  tradidit  repagula 
quibus  ego  iram  omnem  recludam  atque  illi  perniciem 

dabo, 
mihi  maerores  illi  luctum,  exitium  illi  exilium  mihi. 

Hanc  videlicet  rationem  quam  vos  divino  beneficio  homini 
solum  tributam  dicitis  bestiae  non  habent.  Videsne  igitur 
quanto  munere  deorum  simus  adfecti  ? 

281 

Med.,  431-2  :  av  8'  eV  fiev  olkcov  TTaTp<^atv  enXevaas  J  fjiaivo- 
fifva    KpaSla  •   •  •  |   627  S.  :   "Epwres   inep    fiev    dyav  eXdovres 

K.T.X. 

Nonius,  297,  16 :  '  Efferre '  significat  proferre.  .  .  . 
Ennius  Medea — 


2'**-  trib.  Enn.  Med.  Osann 

^'^  ni  ob  rem  Mayor         alii  alia         ni  orbem  vel  obem  vel 
sim.  cdd. 


TRAGEDIES 

274-80 

After  the  departure  oj  Creon,  Medea  in  a  monologue  pondert 
on  her  plan  of  revenge  : 

Cicero  :  I  do  not  want  to  interrupt  you,  Cotta,  said  Balbus, 
so  let  us  choose  another  time;  I  will  certainly  make  you 
confess.    But  ...  — 

Medea 

In  no  way  thither  shall  the  business  go ;  not  on  that 
course ;  great  is  the  striving  within  it.  What  I  Would 
I  have  humbled  myself  before  him  with  such  charm 
of  speech  were  it  not  to  my  purpose  ? 

Do  you  think  her  reasoning  is  at  fault  and  that  rfie  is 
engineering  for  herself  an  unspeakable  evil  ?  But  with  what 
cunning  reasoning  does  she  argue  in  these  well-known  words — 

\^Tioever  has  a  \vish  that  whatever  he  wishes  shall 
come  about,  according  to  the  trouble  he  will  take, 
so  turns  out  the  event. 

This  is  a  line  which  is  a  sower  of  all  and  every  ill — 
Yonder  wretch  crooked  in  soul  has  this  day  given 
me  charge  of  bolts  and  bars  whereby  I  shall  let  open 
all  my  wrath  and  make  ruin  for  him,  yes,  sorrows 
for  me,  grief  for  him,  for  me  a  banishment,  for  him 
a  bane. 

To  be  sure  this  gift  of  reasoning,  which  you  say  is  bestowed 
by  divine  kindness  on  man  alone,  is  something  which  the 
beasts  have  not.  Do  you  see  what  a  great  gift  of  the  gods  we 
are  blessed  with  ? 

281 

The  chorus  speaking  to  Medea  •  in  an  ode  : 

Nonius  :  '  Efferre  '  means  to  put  forward.  .  .  .  Ennius  in 
Medea — 


•  R.,  154;   contrast  V.,  170. 


319 


ENNIUS 

Chorus 

Utinam   ne    umquam    Mede   Colchis   cupido   corde 
pedem  extetulisses  .  .  . 

282-3 

Med.,  475-82:  cV  rwv  Se  irpcorwv  Trputrov  ap^o/iai  Aeyeiv.  | 
eocjaa  a  .  .  .  iTefi<f>devra  ravpcov  TTvpiTVOoiv  i^niaraTrfV  |  ^eJyAcwai 
Kai  anfpovvra  davaaip-ov  yvrjv  \  SpaKOVTO,  6'  .  .  .  Kreivaa*  dvea^ov 
aol  <f>dos  auiT'fjpiov. 

Charisius,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  284,  7  K  :  Fit  schema  dianoeas  .  .  . 
per  paralipsim,  cum  volumus  negantes  aliquid  indicare 
tamquam — 

Medea 

Non  commemoro  quod  draconis  saevi  sopivi  impetum, 
non  quod  domui  vim  taurorum  et  segetis  armatae 
manus. 

Cp.  id.,  286-7. 

284-5 

Med.,  502-4 :  vvv  iroi  rpaTTCjfiai :  irorepa  irpos  irarpos  Sofiovs  \ 
ovs  aol  TrpoSovaa  Kal  Trarpav  d<f)iK6p.r)v  \  -q  rrpos  rdXaivas  IleAiaSaj  ; 

Cicero,  de  Oral.,  Ill,  58,  217  :  Aliud  vocis  genus  iracundia 
sibi  sumat  .  .  .  aliud  miseratio  ac  maeror,  flexibile  plenum 
interruptum  flebili  voce — 

Medea 

Quo  nunc  me  vortam  ?    Quod  iter  incipiam  ingredi  ? 
Domum  paternamne  anne  ad  Peliae  filias  ? 

**i  mede  cordis  cdd.  Colchis  Lips  Medea  foras 
Onions  Mede  portis  coni.  Linds.  extetulisses  Buecheler 
extulisses  cdd.  trochae.  octon.  constit.  V  anapaest, 

Buecheler 

320 


TRAGEDIES 

Chorus 

O  Medea  of  Colchis,  would  that  you  had  not  ever 
with  hankering  heart  set  foot  outside  .  .  . 

282-^ 

Dispute  between  Medea  and  Jason  : 

Charisius :  A  '  figiire  of  thought '  comes  about  ...  by 
'  paraleipsis '  when  we  want  to  point  out  something  while 
denying  that  we  are  doing  so,  for  example — 

Medea 

...  I  say  no  word  "  of  how  I  lulled 
To  sleep  the  funi-  of  the  savage  snake. 
Nor  how  I  tamed  the  temper  of  the  bulls, 
And  the  stout  valour  of  the  warrior  crop. 

284-5 

Medea  stresses  her  lonelinefs  : 

Cicero :  Let  wrath  claim  for  itself  one  kind  of  voice  .  .  . 
pity  and  grief  another  kind — wavering,  full,  broken  by  a 
sobbing  tone — 

Medea 

Whither  shall  I  turn  now  ?    What  road  set  out 
To  tread  ?    Towards  my  father's  home,  or  what  ? 
To  Pelias'  daughters? 

"  v.,  169.  Notice  how  Ennius  uses  a  device  of  rhetoric 
thoroughly  Roman ;   contrast  the  Greek. 


2"-^  trib.  Enn.  Med.  Welcker 
*»*-'  trib.  Enn.  Med.  Colonna 


321 


ENNIUS 

286 

Mtd.,  530-1  :  cos  'E-pcos  a'  ^vay^aae  [  to^ois  di^wrots  Tovfxov 
(KawaaL  Se'/xas. 

Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp.,  IV,  32,  69  :  Quid  ait  ex  tragoedia 
princeps  ille  Argonautarum  ? — 

lason 
Tu  nie  amoris  magis  quam  honoris  servavisti  gratia. 

Quid  ergo,  hie  amor  Medeae  quanta  miseriarum  excitavit 
incendia. 

287 

Med.,  152:  AT.  o/xvu/xi  Faias  SdneSov  'HAt'ou  re  ifxxis-  vel 
764  :   MH.  to  ZeO  Ai'/ct;  re  X-qvos  'hAiou  re  ^coy. 

Nonius,  170,  8  j   '  Sublimare,'  extollere.    Ennius  Medea — 
Sol  qui  candentem  in  caelo  sublimat  facena 

288 

Med.,  773  :  [MH.]  Ae'fco-  hi^ov  8e  jxr]  npos  fjSovfiv  Xoyovs. 
vel  132  :  XO.  (kXvov  (jxavav  IkXvov  8«  ^oav. 

Nonius,  467,  7  :    '  Aucupavi,'  activum  positum  pro  passive 
fructus  vex'borum  aures  aucupant. 
289-90 

Med.,  1070—2  :  Sot'  aairdaaadai  Hffrpl  8e^iav  x^P"-  1  '^ 
(fnXTaTT)  X^'-P>  <f>^XTaTov  Se  /xoi  arofxa  \  Kal  axrjfia  Kai  Trpoaajnov 
evyfves  tckvcdv,  .  .  . 

Nonius,  84,  31  :  '  Cette '  significat  dioite  vel  date  ab  eo 
quod  cedo  ...  — 

Medea 

salvete  optima  corpora ; 
cette  manus  vestras  measque  accipite. 

***  trib.  Enn.  Med.  Colonna 

^**  fructus  cdd.         fremitus  Mr.        fortasse  fluctus 

322 


TRAGEDIES 

286 
Jason  replies  to  Medea  : 

Cicero :   What  saj-s  the  renowned  leader  of  the  Argonauts 
in  the  tragedy  ?  — 

Jason 

You   saved   me   more    for   love's    sake   than    for 
honour's. 

Well  then,  what  a  blaze  of  woes  did  this  love  of  Medea  stir 
up. 

287 

Kijtg  Aegeus  of  Athejis  on  making  a;i  oath,  or  Medea  reveals 
her  plan  of  taking  refuge  with  Aegeu-s  at  Athens  : 

Xonius  :   '  Sublimarc,'  to  lift  right  up.    Ennius  in  Medea — 

.  .  .  The   sun, 
Who  lifts  aloft  in  heaven  his  blazing  brand 

288 

Medea  revealing  her  plan  to  the  chorus  ?  : 

Nonius :      '  Aucupavi,'     an    active    form     put     for     the 
passive  ...  — 

a  harvest  of  words  catches  the  ears. 

289-90 

Medea  takes  leave  of  her  children  : 

Xonius  :    '  Cette  '  means  '  tell  ye  '  or  '  give  ye,'  from  the 
word  cedo  ...  — 

Medea 

Good-bye,  you  dearest  little  things ;    there  now ! 
Give  me  your  hands  and  you  take  mine. 

y2 


ENNIUS 
291-3 

Med.,  1251-4  :  ld>  Ta  re  Kai  Traix(f>ar)s  |  olktIs  'AeXlov  KariBer' 
tSere  tclv  |  ovXofievav  yvvaiKa  nplv  <f>o(.viav  \  reKvois  irpoa^aXelv 
Xep'  avTOKTOvov     Cp.  1258-9. 

Probus,  ad  Verg.,  E.,  VI,  31  :  Homcrum  ipso  hoc  loco  (II., 
XV^III,  483)  possumus  probare  quattuor  elementorum  men- 
tionem  fecisse  .  .  .  similiter  et  Ennius  in  Medea  exule  in  his 
versibus — 


Chorus 

luppiter  tuque  adeo  summe  qui  res  omnis  inspicis 
quique  tuo  Sol  luniine  mare  terrain  caelum  contines, 
inspice  hoc  facinus  priusquam  fiat,  prohibessis  scelus. 

Nam  et  hie  luppiter  et  Sol  pro  igni,  qui  mare  et  terram  et 
caelum  continet,  ut  non  dubie  caelum  pro  aere  dixerit. 


294-5 
Nonius,  469,  34  :    '  Contempla  '  .  .  .  Ennius  Medea — 

Asta  atque  Athenas  anticum  opulentum  oppidum 
contempla, 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  9 :  In  hoc  templo  faciundo  arbores 
constitui  fines  apparet  f  et  intra  eas  regiones  qua  oculi  con- 
spiciant,  id  est  tueamur,  a  quo  templum  dictum  et  contemplare, 
ut  apud  Ennium  in  Medea  '  contempla  ' — 

et  templum  Cereris  ad  laevam  aspice. 

2»i-2  sunune  qui  .  .  .  tuo  Sol  Havet,  Rev.  de  Phil.,  Ill,  80 
summe  Sol  qui  res  omnes  spicis,  |  quique  tuo  cum  V 
summe  Sol  qui  res  omnis  inspicis  quique  tuo  lumine  cdd. 


TRAGEDIES 

291-3 

From  the  song  »ung  by  the  chorus  while  Medea  does  her  horrid 
xcfirJi  within  : 

Probus  :  We  can  prove  that  Homer  also  in  this  very  passage 
made  mention  of  the  four  elements  .  .  .  and  Ennius  likewise 
in  Medea  Banished,  in  the  following  lines — 

Chorus 

O  Jupiter,  and  thou  too,  Sun  most  high, 
\Mio  lookest  upon  all  things,  and  pervadest 
Sea  land  and  sky  ^vith  thy  light,  look  on  this 
Dread  deed  before  'tis  done  ;  prevent  this  sin. 

For  here  too  both  Jupiter  and  the  Sun  are  put  for  fire, 
which  pervades  sea  and  land  and  sky ;  so  we  need  not  doubt 
that  he  used  the  term  '  skv  '  for  '  air.' 


294-5 

Medea  in  flight  approaches  Athens  ;   the  city  is  pointed  out 

to  her : 

Nonius  :  '  Contempla,'  .  .  .  Ennius  in  Medea — 

Stand  there  and  Athens  "  contemplate,  a  city 
Ancient  and  wealthy, 

Varro  :  In  making  this  sort  of  '  temple  '  we  see  that  trees 
are  established  as  the  boundaries,*  t  and  also  within  those 
regions  where  the  eyes  look  forth,  that  is  where  we  '  tueamur,' 
from  which  is  derived  '  temple '  and  '  contemplate,'  as  we 
read  in  Ennius  in  Medea — '  contemplate  '  .  .  .  — 

and  towards  the  left, 
Look  upon  Ceres'  temple. 

"  This  goes  beyond  the  plot  of  Euripides'  Medea — see  p.  31 1 . 
*  A  clause  has  dropped  out  of  Varro's  text  here. 


ENNIUS 
MELANIPPA 

Of  the  two  plays  of  Euripides  on  the  tale  of  Melanippe 
Ennius  took  as  his  model  MeXavLTnrrj  rj  ao^-q.  Melanippe,  in 
the  absence  of  her  father  King  Aeolus,  bore  twin  sons  by 
Poseidon ;  she  exposed  the  m ;  but  they  were  reared  by  wild 
kine.  When  her  father  returned,  some  cowherds  took  the 
children  for  a  monstrous  brood  of  one  of  the  cows,  and  brought 

296-7 
Nonius,  469,  3  :    '  Auguro '  .  .  .  Ennius  Melanippa — 
Certatio  hie  est  nulla  quin  monstrum  siet ; 
hoc  ego  tibi  dico  et  coniectura  auguro. 

298 
Nonius,  246,  9  :  '  Auscultare  '  est  obsequi  ...  — 

Hellen 
Mi  ausculta,  nate,  pueros  cremitari  iube. 

299-300 
Nonius,  176,  2  :   '  Sospitcnt,'  salvent  ...  — 

Hellen  ? 

regnumque  nostrum  ut  sospitent 
superstitentque. 
Cp.  Non.,  170,  10. 

2**  cremitari  (vel  iube  cremarier)  Bothe         cremari  cdd. 
300  om.  ut  cdd.   170  superstitentque  cdd.   176,   170 

fortasse  que  delendum 

326 


TRAGEDIES 

MELAXIPPE 

them  as  such  to  the  king.  The  children  were  doomed  to  be 
burnt.  Melanippe,  who  was  given  the  duty  of  preparing  them 
for  the  p}Te,  tried  to  prove,  by  Anaxagorean  metaphysics,  that 
the  babes  might  be  the  natural  offspring  of  the  cattle.  When 
Aeolus  learnt  the  truth,  he  imprisoned  Melanippe  in  a  dungeon 
and  had  the  babes  thrown  to  the  mercy  of  wild  beasts. 

296-7 
Hellen  '  (father  of  Aeolus)  or  a  herdsman-messenger  ?  : 
Xonius  :    '  Auguro  '  .  .  .  Ennius  in  Melanippe — 
Here  can  there  be  no  dispute  that  it  is  a  monstrous 

brood.    This  I  say  unto  you  and  foretell  it  a<:  from  a 

sign. 

298 

Ilellen  advises  Aeolus  thai  the  babes  he  burnt  with  brush- 
irood  *  .• 

Xonius  :   '  Auscultare  '  means  to  obey  ...  — 

Hellen 

Listen  to  me,  my  son ;  enjoin  you  that  the  boys  be 
burned. 

299-300 

Hellen  (f)  prays  for  the  fortunes  of  the  kingdom  : 
Nonius  :  '  Sospitent,'  they  may  save  ...  — 

Hellen  ? 
and  that  they  may  save  and  spare  our  realm  for  long. 

•  v.,  173. 

'  For  bv  burning  the  monsters  upon  aypia  $vXa  ill  luck 
would  be  avoided.  R.,  178 ;  Bhet.  0.,  VII,  1313  W  :  d  5c  t^  toC 
irarpis  'zX^rfvos  yvcofirj   neiadel;  oXoKavTOvv   tol    pp(<l>rj  Kplvas 

K.T.X. 


ENNIUS 
301 

?  Eurip.,  Mel.,  485-8  N:  kovk  i/xos  6  fivdos  dAA'  ifirjs  fnjrpos 
irdpa,  I  toy  ovpavos  re  yala  t'  ■^v  fj.op<l>ri  ixla-  \  eTTfi.  S'  e^wpiadrjoav 
dAA^Acov  8i;^a  |  tiktovoi,  -navra  KaveSojKav  els  (f>dos,  k.t.X.  vel490. 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  4,  7  :  '  Splendet  tremulo  sub  lumine 
pontus '  {Aen.,  VII,  9).  Tremulum  lumen  de  imagine  rei  ipsiua 
expressum  est :  sed  prior  Ennius  in  Melanippe — 

Melanippe  ? 
Lumine  sic  tremulo  terra  et  cava  caerula  candent. 

302 

Gellius,  V,  11,  11  :  Media  forma  quaedam  est  .  .  .  qualis 
a  Quinto  Ennio  in  Melanippa  perquam  eleganti  vocabulo — 

stata  <( forma) 

dicitur,  quae  neque  Koivr]  futura  sit  neque  iroiv^q  .  .  . 

303 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  516, 14  K :  '  Scindo  scidi.'  Vetustis- 
simi  tamen  etiam  scicidi  proferebant  ...  — 

Aeolus  ? 

quum  saxum  sciciderit, 

NEMEA 


Cp.  Gell.,  VI,  9,  15. 


According  to  the  original  story,  Adrastus  founded  the 
Nemean  games  in  honour  of  Opheltes  (son  of  King  Lycurgus 
of  Nemea) ;  who,  left  unguarded  by  Hypsipyle  while  she  guided 
the  '  Seven  against  Thebes  '  to  a  spring,  was  killed  by  a  snake ; 


323 


TRAGEDIES 

301 

Possibly  Melanippe  speaks  the  following  words  in  her  effort 
lo  prove  thai  the  babes  are  the  cattle^ s  natural  offspring  : 

Macrobius,  on  '  The  sea  shines  bright  under  the  flickering 
light '  in  Virgil :  '  Flickering  light  '  is  an  expression  drawn 
from  a  picture  of  the  thing  itself.  But  Ennius  used  it  first 
in  Melanippe  — 

Melanippe  ? 

Thus  ^vith  flickering  light 
Do  earth  and  heaven's  blue  hollows  brightly  glare. 

302 

Melanippe^s  moderate  beauty : 

Gellius :  There  is  a  kind  of  middling  looks  ...  I  mean 
the  sort  to  which  the  term — 

well  balanced  looks 

is  applied  in  a  most  elegant  choice  of  a  word  by  Quintus 
Ennius  in  Melanippe;  looks  which  are  destined  neither  for 
'  common  gain  '  nor  '  private  pain.' 

303 

Aeolus  shuts  Melanippe  up  in  a  dungeon  : 

Priscianus  :  '  Scindo  scidi.'  Nevertheless  the  oldest  writers 
used  to  say  '  scicidi "...  — 

Aeolus  ? 
when  she  has  riven  the  rock, 

NEMEA  " 

to  this  other  details  were  added  later.  We  know  nothing  of 
Ennius'  play,  except  that  its  title  suggests  that  the  model 
was  Aeschylus  (R.,  159  ff.). 

•  i.e.  '  the  Vale,'  '  Grove  '  or  '  Town  Nemea ' — otherwise 
Nonius  and  Priscianus  would  have  written  Nemeis. 

329 


ENNIUS 
304 

Prisciamis,  ap.  G.L.,  TI,  171,  4  K  :  Hie  et  Imec  et  hoc  pecus. 
Ennius  in  Neniea — 

Pecudi  dare  vivam  marito. 

305 
Nonius,  183,  14  :   '  Venor,'  circumvenior.    Ennius  Nemea — 
Teneor  consipta  undique  venor. 

Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  4.3,  37  :  consiptum  apud  E.  pro  conseptura. 

PHOENIX 

The  material  for  plays  about  Phoenix  was  found  in  the 
Iliad,  IX,  447  ff.,  from  which  we  can  get  glimpses  of  the 
plot  of  Ennius'  play.  Comparison  of  lines  312-13  with  what 
we  iinow  of  Euripides'  ^olvi^  (who  made  his  hero  innocent  and 

306 
//.,  IX,  447  {Phoen.  loqu.).  .  .  . 


'H  S'  cue*'  ifie  XiaoeaK€TO  yovvoiv 
TtaWaKihi.  TTpo^iyfjvai  Iv'  exSpripeie  yepovta. 
Tfj  mOofiTjv  Kai  tpe^a-   naT'^p  S'  efios  ainLK    o'Cadei^ 
TToXXa  KarrjpaTO. 

Nonius,    91,    4 :      '  Cupienter,'    cupidissime.  .  .  .  Ennius 
Phoenice — ■ 

Phoenix  ?         Amyntor  ? 
Stultus  est  qui  cupida  mente  cupiens  cupienter  cupit. 

*"*  consipta  S  sec.  Paul.        concepta  G        consepta  rell. 

30*  stultust  vel  stultast  quae  Linds.  siqui  cupienda 

Bergk  qui  non  c.  Ribb.  sicui  cupido  Mr.  mente 

add.  V 

33° 


TRAGEDIES 
904 

Priscianus  :   '  Pecus,'  all  genders.    Ennius  in  Nemea 
To  give  her  alive  to  a  bull  "  as  her  mate. 

305 
Xonius  :   '  Venor,'  I  am  surrounded.    Enniua  in  Nemea  — 
I  am  held  hedged  in,  on  all  sides  am  I  hunted.'' 


PHOENIX 

blinded  by  his  father)  suggests  that  Euripides  was  the  model. 
But  if  I  have  interpreted  line  318  rightly,  Euripides  cannot 
have  been  the  pattern  throughout. 


306 

Amyntor's  wife  persuaded  her  son  Phoenix  to  become  the  lover 
of  her  husband's  mistress.  This  enraged  Amyntor.  Either  he 
or  Phoenix  speaks  the  follou'ing  : 

Xonius  :  '  Cupienter,'  with  much  cupidity.  .  .  .  Ennius  in 
Phoenix — 

Phoemx  ?        Amyntor  ? 

A  fool  is  he  who  lusts  with  lustful  mind, 
Lusting  lustingh\ 

"  The  meaning  is  not  known,  but  it  might  refer  to  Europa 
and  Zeus. 

*>  These  words  may  be  from  a  speech  by  Hypsipyle  in 
flight  after  the  death  of  little  Opheltes.  In  one  passage  Paulus 
(43,  37)  tells  us  that  Ennius  used  consiptum  for  conseptum; 
in  another  (45,  15)  he  says  consiptum  means  cJavis  praefixum. 


ENNIUS 
307 

IX,  435-6  :  fn^noTe  yovvaaiv  qIolv  e(f>€aa€a6ai  <f>iXov  vlov  \  t^ 
tfifdev  yeyaoJTa. 

Cicero,  de  Oral.,  46,  155  :  Itaque  idem  poeta  qui  inusitatius 
contraxerat  .  .  .  non  dicit  '  libenim  '  .  .  .  sed  ut  isti 
volunt — 

Ami/ntor 

neque    tu    meum    umquam    in    gremium    extollas 
liberorum  ex  te  genus. 

308-11 

Gellius,  VI,  17,  10  (de  vocabulo  '  obnorius ')  :  lam  vero 
illud  etiam  Q.  Ennii  quo  pacto  congruere  tecum  potest  quod 
scribit  in  Phoenice  in  hisce  versibus  ? — 

Phoenix 

Sed  virum  vera  virtute  vivere  animatum  addecet 
fortiterque  innoxium  stare  adversum  adversaries, 
ea  libertas  est  qui  pectus  purum  et  firmum  gestitat ; 
aliae  res  obnoxiosae  nocte  in  obscura  latent. 

312-13 

Eur.,  Phoenix,  809  N:  rjSr)  Se  noXXcJv  TipedrjV  X6ya>v  Kpirrjs- 
Nonius,  245,  .30  :  '  Argutari '  dieitur  loquacius  proloqui  .  .  . 

Amyntor 

Turn  tu  isti  crede  te  atque  exerce  linguam  ut  argutarier 
possis. 

*"'  trib.  Enn.  Phoen.  Bergk  meum  add.  V 

^^^  te  Haupt  tu  nee  metuisti  credere  ?  (Amyntor) 
tuque  exercere  Ribb, 


TRAGEDIES 

307 

Amyntor  curses  Phoenix  : 

Cicero :  And  so  the  same  poet,  who  had  somewhat 
unusually  contracted  words,  .  .  .  does  not  say  '  liberum  ' 
.  ,  .  but  as  your  purists  would  like  it  '  liberorum  ' — 

Amt/ntor 

And  may  you  never  lift  up  to  my  bosom  any 
offspring  of  children  gotten  of  you. 

308-11 

Phoenix  makes  a  stund  against  Amyntor  : 

Gellius  (on  the  word  '  obnoxius  ')  :  Well  now,  tell  me,  in 
what  way  can  your  argument  be  squared  with  what  no  less  a 
person  than  Quintus  Emiius  writes  in  Phoenix,  in  the  following 
lines  ? — 

Phoenix 

But  it  behoves  a  man  of  virtue  true 

To  live  a  life  inspired,  to  stand  steadfast 

With  guiltless  bravery  in  the  face  of  foes. 

The  man  who  bears  himself  both  pure  and  staunch — 

That  is  true  liberty.     All  conduct  else 

Lies  lurking  in  dim  darkness,  fraught  with  guilt." 

312-13 

A  myntor  jeers  ai  the  ready  speech  of  Phoenix  ?  * ; 

Nonius  :  '  Argutari '  is  an  expression  used  in  the  sense  of 
to  declaim  very  glibly  ...  — • 

Ami/ntor 

Then  trust  yourself  to  yonder  fellow,  and  give 
your  tongue  training,  that  you  may  be  able  to  trick 
by  your  prating. 


"  In  obnoxiosae  and  node  there  is  a  play  of  words. 
*  The  context  is  not  clear;  V.,  176;  R.,  194. 


333 


ENNIUS 

314 
//.,  IX,  458  s.  : 

Tov  fiev  iyu)  ^ovXevaa  KaraKrafxev  o^ei  )(aXKa>, 
aXXd  Ti?  adavdrcDV  iravaev  ■)(6Xov  os  p    iv\  dvfiui 
8T)fiov  di)K«  ^OLTiv  KaX  dv€iSca  ttoAA'  dv$p{i>iru)V  .   . 
ws  fir)  narpoiftovos  fxer   'A;^aiotcrtv  KaXioifiyfV. 

Nonius,  507,  22  :    '  Faxim,'  fecerim  ...  — 
Phoenix 
Plus  miser  sim  si  scelestum  faxim  quod  dicam  fore. 

315 
Nonius,  510,  32  :    '  Saeviter  '  pro  saeve  ...  — 
saeviter  suspicionem  ferre  falsam  futtilum  est. 

316 

IX,  464-5  : 

1^  fitv  TToXXd  erai  koX  aveifiioi  a/x^ij  iovres 
avTov  Xiaaofievoi  KaTeprjrvov  iv  niydpoiatv.  .  .  . 

Nonius,  512  :   '  Duriter  '  pro  dure  ...  — 

Quam  tibi  ex  ore  orationem  duriter  dictis  dedit ! 

Cp.  Charis.,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  197,  27  K. 

317 
Nonius,  514,  12:    '  Futtile,'  futtiliter  .  .  .— 
Ut  quod  factum  est  futtile  amici  vos  feratis  fortiter. 

318 

IX,  478  s.  ? 

Nonius,  518,  4  :  '  Derepente  '  .  .  .  — 
Nuntius  ? 
Ibi  turn  derepente  ex  alto  in  altum  despexit  mare. 

"  This  fr.  certainly  suggests  that  in  this  play  Phoenix  is 
innocent  of  any  association  with  his  father's  mistress,  and 
here  laments  that  his  father  suspects  him  of  it. 

334 


TRAGEDIES 

314 
Phoenix  mym  temjiled  to  kill  his  father,  but  some  god  held  him 
back  lest  he  should  be  called  a  parricide  by  the  Achaeans : 

Nonius  :    '  Faxim,'  the  same  as  '  fecerim  '  .  .  .  — 

Phoenix 
More  -wTctched  would  I  be  should  I  perform 
What  I  would  come  to  call  a  villainy. 

315 
Xonius  :    '  Saeviter  '  for  '  saeve  '  .  .  .  — 

It  is  the  part  of  shallow-wits  to  bear 
A  false  mistrust  ■with  passion." 

316 
Phoenix  desired  to  leave  his  father's  house  but  uns  kept  back 
forcibly  by  his  friends  and  kinsmen  ;  a  friend  *  speaks  ?  : 

Xonius  :   '  Duriter  '  for  '  dure  '  .  .  .  — 
How  hard  were  the  words  of  his  mouth  which  he 
mouthed  unto  you ! 

317 
Nonius  :    '  Futtile,'  the  same  as  '  futtiliter'  .  .  . — 
My  friends,  see  to  it  that  you  bravely  bear 
Wiiat  has  been  vainly  done. 

318 
Phoenix  escaped  and  fled  to  Peleus  in  Phthia  : 
Nonius  :   '  Derepente  '  .  .  .  — 

Messenger  ? 
Then  and  there  he  suddenly  looked  down  from  a 
height  onto  the  high  sea."^ 

»  v..  176. 
I  attribute  this  fr.  to  some  speech  coming  near  the  end 

of  the  play  and  reporting  the  escape  of  Phoenix. 

335 


ENNIUS 

TELAMO 
319-22 

Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp.,  Ill,  13,  28  :  Videntur  .  .  .  omnia 
repentina  graviora ;   ex  hoc  et  ilia  iure  laudantur — 

Telaino 

<^liberos)> 
ego  cum  genui  turn  morituros  scivi  et  ei  rei  sustuli : 
praeterea    ad    Troiani    cum    misi    ob    defendendam 

Graeciam, 
scibam    me    in    mortiferum    bellum    non    in    epulas 
mittere. 

Cp.,  24,  58  (atque  hoc  idem  et  Telamo  ille  declarat  '  ego 
cum  genui.'  .  .  .)  Fronto,  de  b.  Parlh.,  217;  Seneca,  de 
Consolat.,  11,  12. 

323 

Nonius,  172,  19 :  '  Squalam '  pro  squalidam.  Enniua 
Telamone — 

Telamo  ? 

-     strata    terrae    lavere    lacrumis    vestem    squalam    et 
sordidam. 

Id.,  504,  4  (terra  cd.  Harl.). 

324 

Nonius,  505,  35  :    '  Audibo  '  pro  '  audiam.'  ...  — 

Telamo 

More  antiquo  audibo  atque  auris  tibi  contra  utendas 
dabo. 

33^ 


TRAGEDIES 
TELAMOX 

The  original  of  this  play  is  unknown :  nor  has  any  probable 
theors-  been  put  forward  (R.,  133  ff. ;  V.,  CCIX;  Hermann, 
Opusc.,  VII,  378  ff.). 

319-22 

Telamon  in  Salamis  bears  bravely  the  loss  of  Ajax  : 

Cicero  :  All  disasters  which  are  sudden  seem  to  come  the 
heavier.  Hence  it  is  that  the  following  lines  are  rightly 
praised — 

Telamon 

WTien  children  I  begat,  I  knew  that  they 
Must  die,  and  for  that  end  I  took  them  up ; 
Moreover,  when  I  sent  them  out  to  Troy 
That  they  might  Greece  defend,  I  did  but  know 
That  I  was  sending  them  not  to  a  banquet 
But  to  death-dealing  war. 

323 

Grief  of  Eriboea  "  for  her  son  Ajax  : 

Nonius  :  '  Squalam '  is  used  by  Ennius  in  Telamon  for 
'  squalidam  ' — 

Telamon  ? 

Stretched  on  the  ground 
She  bathed  with  tears  her  dingy  dress  of  mourning. 

324 
Telamon  to  his  ba-stard  son  Teucer  {by  Hesione)  : 
Nonius  :   '  Audibo  '  for  '  audiam.'  ...  — 

Telamon 

By  age-long  custom  will  I  hear  in  turn, 
Lending  to  you  my  ears  to  use. 

"  It  might  be  a  fr.  referring  to  the  grief  of  Hesione  for 
Teucer,  who  was  at  first  thought  to  be  dead.    R.,  134. 

337 

VOL.  I.  z 


ENNIUS 

325-6 

Nonius,  85,  23  :    '  Claret,'  clara  est  .  .  .  — 

Teucer 

Nam  ita  mihi  Telamonis  patris  atque  Aeaci  et  proavi 

lovis 
t  gratia  ea  est  t  atque  hoc  lumen  candidum  claret 

mihi, 


327 

Festus,  234, 19  :  '  Ubsidionem  '  potiuB  dicendum  .  .  .  quam 
obsidium  ...  — 


Telamo 

Scibas  natum  ingenuum  Aiaccm  cui  tu  obsidionem 
paras. 

328-9 

Cicero,  de  Div.,  II,  50,  104  :  Si  sunt  di  benelici  in  homines 
sunt.  Quis  hoc  vobis  dabit  ?  .  .  .  An  noster  Ennius  ?  Qui 
magno  plausu  loquitur  adsentiente  populo — 

Telamo 

Ego  deum  genus  esse  semper  dixi  ct  dicam  caelituni, 
sed  eos  non  curare  opinor  quid  agat  humanum  genus  ; 

Et  quidem  cur  sic  opinetur  rationem  subicit. 


*2*  gratia  ea  est  cdd.  gratia  extet  (est)  Ribb.  astet 
vel  adsit  Buecheler  gratia  ease  est  V.,  Abh.  B.  Ak.  1888, 
38  «. 


TRAGEDIES 

325-6 
Teucer  having  told  his  story  protests  his  innocence  in  the 
matter  of  Ajax's  death  : 

Xonius  :   '  Claret,'  '  is  clear  '  .  .  .  — 

Teucer 

As  this  bright  light 
Shines  on  me,  so  stands  sure  regard  in  me 
For  Telamon  my  father,  for  Aeacus, 
For  Jupiter  my  great-grandfather,* 

327 
Telamon  accuses  Teucer  : 
Festus  :   '  Obsidio  '  should  be  used  rather  than  '  obsidium  ' 

Telamon 
You  knew  that  Ajax,  of  whom  you,  yes  you. 
The  assailant  stand,  was  in  true  wedlock  born. 

328-9 
Teucer  seems  to  have  told  how  the  seer  Calchi-s  represented 
Ajax^s  death  as  divine  justice.     Telamon  in  reply  * ; 

Cicero  :  If  there  are  gods,  then  they  are  kindly  towards 
mortal  men.  \VTio  will  grant  you  this  ?  .  .  .  Can  our  Ennius 
do  it  ?  But  he,  with  great  applause  from  the  crowd  who 
thinks  alike  with  him,  speaks  thus — 

Telamon 
For  my  part  I  have  always  said,  will  say, 
There  is  a  race  of  gods  in  heaven ;  and  yet 
They  take  no  thought,  it  seems,  how  fares  man- 
kind; 
And  indeed  he  goes  on  to  give  the  reason  why  he  thinks  so. 

"  The  reading  is  not  certain,  but  it  is  clear  that  Teucer 
is  making  a  solemn  statement  that  he  is  innocent. 
"  v.,  179,  R.,  134. 

339 
z2 


ENNIUS 

330 

Cicero,  de  Nat.  Dear.,  Ill,  32,  79  :  Telamo  .  .  .  uno  versu 
locum  totum  conficit,  cur  di  homines  neglegant — 

nam  si  curent,  bene  bonis  sit,  male   malis ;    quod 
nunc  abest. 

331 

Soph.,  Ai.,  746  a. ;  950  s. ;  1036;  al. 

Cicero,  de  Div. ,  I,  40,  88  :  Atque  etiam  ante  hos  Amphiaraus 
ct  Tiresias,  non  humiies  et  obscuri  neque  eorum  similes  ut 
apud  Ennium  est — 

qui  sui  quaestus  causa  fictas  suscitant  sententias, 

sed  clari  et  praestantes  viri. 

332-6 

Cicero,  de  Div.,  I,  58,  132  :  Non  habeo  .  .  .  nauci  Marsum 
augurera,  non  vicanos  haruspices,  non  de  circo  astrologos, 
non  Isiacos  coniectores,  non  interpretes  somniorum.  Non 
enim  sunt  hi  aut  scientia  aut  arte  divini  sed — 

.  .  .  superstitiosi  vates  inpudentesque  harioli, 

aut  inertes  aut  insani  aut  quibus  egestas  imperat ; 

qui    sibi    semitam    non    sapiunt,    alteri    monstrant 

viam ; 
quibus  divitias   pollicentur,   ab  iis  drachumam   ipsi 

petunt. 
De  his  divitiis  sibi  deducant  drachumam,  reddant 

cetera. 

Atque  haec  quidem  Ennius  qui  paucis  ante  versibus  esse 
deos  censet  sed  eos  non  curare  opinatur  quid  agat  humanum 
genus  (vide  328-9). 


'*2  fortasse  <sunt>  superstitiosi 
338  Jortasse  non  Enni 


340 


TRAGEDIES 


330 


Cicero  :  Telamo  sums  up  in  one  line  the  whole  topic  why 
the  gods  trouble  not  about  mankind — 

for  if  they  did  care,  it  would  go  well  with  well-doers, 
and  ill  with  ill-doers ;  but  this,  as  things  are,  is  not 
to  be  seen. 

331 

Cicero  :  And  even  before  these  Amphiaraus  and  Tiresias, 
men  not  lowly  or  obscure  or  like  those,  we  find  in  a  passage  of 
Ennlus — " 

WTio  for  the  sake  of  their  own  gain  call  up 
Thoughts  that  are  false, 

but  illustrious  and  outstanding. 

332-6 

Cicero  :  I  care  not  a  fig  for  your  ilarsian  diviner,  nor  your 
village-trotting  gut-gazers,  nor  your  star-readers  from  the 
circus,  nor  your  guessers  of  Isis,  nor  your  interpreters  of 
dreams.  For  it  is  not  b\-  knowledge  or  skill  that  they  are 
prophetic,  but  they  are — 

soothsaying  prophets,  shameless  gut-gazers,  clumsy 
or  crazy,  or  obedient  to  the  behests  of  want ;  men 
who  know  not  their  own  path  yet  point  the  way  for 
another,  and  seek  a  shilling  from  the  very  persons  to 
whom  they  promise  riches.  From  these  riches  let 
them  take  out  a  shilling  for  themselves,  and  hand 
over  the  rest. 

All  these  are  words,  if  you  please,  of  Ennius,  who  a  few 
lines  before  believes  that  there  are  gods,  but  thinks  that  they 
take  no  thought  how  fares  mankind. 

"  The  attribution  to  this  plav  is  probably  right — R.,  96, 

v.,  195.  y  .       y         ^     o 

341 


ENNIUS 

337 

Nonius,  475,  20  :    '  Partiret '  pro  '  partiretur  '  .  .  .  — 

Teucer 
Eandem  me  in  suspicionem  sceleris  partivit  pater. 

338 
Nonius,  160,  5  :    '  Porcet '  significat  prohibet  ...  — 

Teticer 
Deum  me  sancit  faeere  pietas,  civium  porcet  pudor. 


TELEPHUS 

From  Euripides'  Tt^Ac^os.  Reconstruction  must  be  largely 
guesswork.  Telephus,  heir  of  Teuthras'  realm  in  Mysia, 
wounded  in  battle  by  Achilles,  was  told  by  Apollo  that  only 

339 

Eurip.,  Tel.,  698  N  :  tttcox'  d/i^t'jSAijTa  aw/xaros  Xa^wv 
paK-q  I  aXtcrrfpia  tu;^ijs. 

Nonius,  537,  23  :  '  Stolam  '  veteres  non  honestam  vestem 
solum  sed  omnem  quae  corpus  tegeret.    Ennius  Telepho — 

Telephus 

Caedem   caveo   hoc   cum   vestitu   squalida   saeptus 
stola. 
Cp.  Fast.,  486,  34. 


^^'  in  me  Delrio 

338  sancit  Bergk         sinit  id  Buecheler  sentit  cdd.  prob. 

V  {H.,  XV,  260),  Linds. 

342 


TRAGEDIES 

337 

Teuctr  is  troubled  about  his  father's  suspicions  : 

Nonius  :  '  Partiret  '  for  '  partiretur  '  .  .  .  — 

Teucer 
My  father  in  that  verj'  same  "  misgi\'ing 
Has  made  me  share — that  I'm  a  miscreant. 

338 
Teucer,  banished,  will  not  retaliate  : 
Nonius  :  '  Porcet '  means  prevents  ...  — 

Teucer 
My  loyalty  *  towards  the  gods  ordains  that  I  do 
this,  respect  for  my  to^\Tismen  hinders  me  from  it. 

TELEPHUS 

the  thing  which  had  wounded  him  could  cure  him.  Hearing 
that  Achilles  was  in  Argos,  where  Agamemnon  held  sway, 
Telephus  went  thither. 

339 

Telephus  in  Argos  tells  why  he  has  left  his  native  land  : 

Nonius  :  '  Stola  '  is  a  term  used  by  the  old  writers  not  only 
for  a  respectable  garment  but  also  any  garment  which  covers 
the  body.     Ennius  in  Telephus — 

Telephus 
Slaughter  avoid  I  by  this  garb,  wrapped  up 
In  a  mean  shabby  coat. 

"  I.e.  the  same  suspicion  £is  Agamemnon  and  Odysseus 
incurred  in  the  matter  of  Ajax's  death.    V.,  179,  180. 

*  pietas  here  may  mean  obedience  to  Apollo,  on  whose 
advice  Teucer  acted. 

*'*  caedem  caveo  h.  c.  v.  Geel  cedo  et  abeo  iladvig 

sorde  et  scabie  Mr.  convestitus  Colonna  cedo  et  caveo 
cum  vestitus  c<W.         quam  ve  <•  .  .  Fe^t. 

343 


ENNIUS 
340 

Tel.,  703  N:    /x^  /xot  <j>dovr)ariT  avSpes  'eXXi]vcov  aKpoi 
el  TTTcjxos  wv  t€tAtjk'  iv  eadXoiaiv  Aeyetv. 

Festus,  124,  12:  '  Muttire,'  loqui  .   .  .— 

Palam  muttire  plebeio  piaculum  est. 
Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  125,  14. 

341 

Cp.  Tel.,  699  N :  Set  yap  fie  86^ai  irrojxov.     vel  698  {v.  supra). 
Nonius,  537,  23  :    '  Stolam  '  .  .  .  idem  in  eadem — 

Telephus 
Regnum  reliqui  saeptus  mendici  stola. 

342 

Tel.,  720  N  :  kukuis  oAoiar''  a^iov  ynp  'EAAaSt. 

Nonius,  342,  6  :   '  Mactare  '  malo  adficere  significat  ...  — 

Agamemno 
Qui  ilium  di  deaeque  magno  mactassint  malo ! 

343 

Tel.,  723  N  :    a>   noAis    'Apyovs    KXved'    ofa    Xeyei.     713  N  : 
diraaav  rifiaJv  ttjv  ttoAiv  KaKoppodei. 

Nonius,  429,  1  :  Urbs  est  aedificia,  civitas  incolae  ...  — 

et  civitatem  video  Argivum  incendere. 

***  telefus  et  vel  telefo  et  cdd.         Telepho  set  Mr.        sed 
Linds.  (qui  incedere  coni.  pro  incendere) 

344 


TRAGEDIES 


340 


Telephus  addresses  the  Greek  lenders  at  Argos,  keeping  up 
his  part  of  a  low-born  fugitive  : 

Festus  :   '  Muttire,' to  speak  .  .  . — 

Telephus 

It  is  a  sin  for  commoner  to  mutter 
A  word  in  open  gathering. 

341 
Telephus  reveals  himself  to  Clytaemnestra  ?  : 
Nonius  :   '  Stola  '  .  .  .  the  same  poet  in  the  same  play — 

Telephus 
Wrapped  up  in  beggar's  coat  I  left  my  kingdom. 

342 
Agamemnon  "  to  Telephus  as  he  seizes  the  babe  Orestes  ?  : 
Nonius  :   '  Maetare  '  means  to  afflict  with  evil  ...  — 

Agamemnon 

What !    May  the  gods  and  goddesses  doom  him 
To  dire  damnation ! 

343 

Dissension  caused  by  Telephus'  boldness  ?  : 

Nonius  :   A  '  town  '  consists  of  buildings,  a  '  state  '  consists 
of  inhabitants  ...  — 

And  I  see  he  sets  the  Argives'  town  ablaze. 

"  This  seems  to  me  to  be  likely.     Cf.  Hyginus,  Fab.,  101, 
monitu  Clytaemnestrae  Orestem  .  .  .  rapuit. 

345 


ENNIUS 
344 

Nonius,  490,  10  :  '  Itiner  '  pro  iter  ...  — 

deumque   de    consilio    hoc    itiner    credo    conatum 
mode. 

345-6 
Nonius,  232, 17  :  '  Advorsum '  rursum  apud  significat  .  .  . — ■ 
Te  ipsum  hoc  oportet  profiteri  et  proloqui 
advorsum  illam  mihi. 

347-8 
Nonius,  15,  3  :    '  Enoda '  significat  explana  •  .  . — 
Verum  quorum  liberi  leto  dati 
sunt  in  bello,  non  lubenter  haec  enodari  audiunt. 


THYESTES 

What  models  Ennius  used  for  his  Thyestes  (his  last  play — 
Cic.,  Brut.,  20,  78)  we  do  not  know;  and  the  stories  about 
Thyestes  were  various.  There  are  traces  of  a  Euripidean 
origin.  My  reconstruction  is  based  on  the  belief  that  the  play 
had  two  scenes — one  at  the  court  of  Atreus,  the  other  at 
the  court  of  Thesprotus;    it  appears  that  Ennius    made  a 


***  fortasse  te        de  cdd. 
^^*  advorsqs  Mr, 


TRAGEDIES 
344 

Agamemnon  (?)  tells  Telephus  that  he  understands  that  T. 
had  come  by  divine  will  to  be  a  guide  against  Troy  : 

Nonius  :   '  Itiner  '  for  iter  ...  — 

I  think  too,  'twas  by  counsel  of  the  gods 
That  you  did  lately  venture  on  this  journey. 

345-6 

Telephus  "  demands  that  Agamemnon  shall  assure  him  safety  ; 
Clytaemnestra  must  hear  his  assurance  : 

Nonius  :  '  Advorsum '  also  means '  in  the  presence  of '  .  .  .  — 

Yourself  must  in  her  presence  thus  avow, 
I  pray  you,  and  affirm  this. 

347-8 

Chorus  in  a  commentary  on  the  course  of  events  ?  : 

Nonius  :   '  Enoda  '  means  explain  ...  — 

But  those  whose  children  have  been  given  up  to 
death  do  not  willingly  hear  such  riddles  unknotted, 

THYESTES 

greater  impression  with  the  second  part  of  his  play.    Hyginus, 
Fab.,  88,  provides  us  with  a  sketch  of  the  action. 

Atreus,  King  of  Mycenae,  wishing  to  take  vengeance  on 
his  brother  Thyestes,  pretended  to  be  reconciled  to  him  and 
welcomed  him  at  his  court. 


"  R.,  Ill;    or  possibly  Agamemnon,  who  demands  from 
Telephus  that  he  will  not  harm  the  baby  Orestes. 

347 


ENNIUS 

349 

Nonius,  369,  29  :  '  Putare,'  animo  disputare.  .  .  .  Ennius 
Thyeste— 

Ibi  quid  agat  secum  cogitat  curat  putat. 

350 
Nonius,  261,  13  :    '  Cernere,'  iudicare  ...  — ■ 
Impetrem  facile    ab    animo    meo    ut  cernat  vitale 
brabium. 

351 

Probus,  ad  Verg.,  Ed.,  VI,  31  (de  quattuor  elementis). 
Principem  habuerunt  Empedoclem  Agrigentinum  qui  de  his 
ita  scripsit : 

Tfaaapa  8r]  -rravTcov  pi^wfiara  npajTov  eaaiv, 
Zevs  apyrjs  .... 

ut  accipiamus    Zeiis   apy^s  ignem  qui  sit  ^ewv  et  candens, 
quod  ignis  est  proprium,  de  quo  Euripides  : 

opas  Tov  vtpov  TovS'  direipov  alOepa 

Kal  yfjV  nepi^  e)(ovd'  vpyalg  iv  ayKaXais  ; 

TovTov  vofii^e  Zijva,  t6v8'  rjyov  deov  (935  N). 

et  Ennius — 

Aspice  hoc  sublime  candens  quem  invocant  omnes 
lovem. 

Cp.  Fast.,  442,  16  {.  .  .  Ennius  in  Thyeste);  Cic.,  de  Nat. 
Deor.,  IT,  2,  4,  etc. 

Cp.  Eur.,  869  N  :  atdtjp  .  .  .  Zeus  og  avOpwirois  oyofid^eTai. 

***  curat  Studemund  parat  cdd. 

*5"  meo  suppl.  Quich.  babium  cdd.  habitum  V 

{H.,    XII,    254)  viam    Buecheler  abigeum    Ribb. 

vitale  brabium  Linds. 

**i  sublime  Cic,  Apulei.,  Prob.  sublimen  epit.  Fest., 
Ritschl  (0pp.,  II,  462  ff.)  non  prob.  Klotz,  Heraeus  {Philol., 
LV,  197  a.)  vocant  Fest.,  Prob.  invocant  rell.  vide  Eur., 
935  N. 

348 


TRAGEDIES 

349 

Prologue  ?    Evil  plans  of  Atreus  : 

Nonius :  '  Putare,'  to  debate  in  the  mind.  .  .  .  Ennius 
in  Thyestes — 

Thereon  he  muses,  ponders,  and  considers 

In  his  own  mind  what  he  should  do.  ■'  -i--  .  - 

350 
Atreus  forms  his  plan  ?  : 

Xonius  :   '  Cemere,'  to  judge  ...  — 

May  I  with  ease  cause  him  to  adjudge  the  vital 
prize  "  to  my  liking. 

351 

H'Aen  Atreus  served  Thyestes  his  oum  sons  at  a  feast,  the 
very  sun  turned  aside  his  chariot :  * 

Probus,  on  the  four  elements  :  Their  chief  expounder  was 
Empedocles  of  Acragas,  who  writes  about  them  thus  :  '  Firstly, 
four  roots  there  are  of  all  things;  White  Zeus,  etc'  So  we 
may  take  '  White  Zeus  '  as  fire  which  is  ^ecjv  and  glowing 
white,  a  peculiar  property  of  fire,  of  which  Euripides  says  : 
See  you  this  ether  on  high,  boundless,  embracing  earth  in 
pliant  arms  ?  This  you  shall  believe  is  Zeus  :  this  shall  you 
think  is  a  god.'     And  Ennius— 

Look  you  on  this  that  glows  white  aloft :  all  men 
call  on  it  as  '  lupiter.' 

"  I  accept  Lindsay's  reading  brabium,  i.e.  Ppafielov,  a  prize 
won  in  athletic  contests.  But  we  do  not  know  how  the  word 
is  used  here. 

*  I  base  this  interpretation  on  Hygin.,  Fab.,  88  ob  id 
scelus  eiiam  sol  cumim  avertit.  In  Ennius,  sublime  candens 
is  the  sky,  but  I  suggest  that  the  occasion  is  the  sun's  horror 
which  someone  points  out.  Other  views — R,,  201-2;  V., 
CCX,  CCXIX,  18.5. 

349 


ENNIUS 

352 

Nonius,  268,  9  :    '  Contingere,'  evenire  .  .  . 

Thyestes 
Quam  mihi  maxime  hie  hodie  contigerit  malum. 

353 
Nonius,  97,  29  :    '  Delectare,'  illicere,  attrahere  .  .  .  - 
et  me  Apollo  ipse  delectat  ductat  Delphicus. 

354 
Nonius,  255,  25  :    '  Crepare,'  fcrire  ...  — 
sed  sonitus  auris  meas  pedum  pulsu  increpat. 


355 

Cicero,  Oral.,  55,  184  :    Similia  sunt  quaedam  etiam  apud 
nostros,  velut  ille  in  Thyeste — ■ 


Chorus 
Quemnam  te  esse  dicam  qui  tarda  in  senectute  .  .  . 

et  quae  scquuntur;    quae  nisi  cum  tibicen  accessit,  orationis 
sunt  solutae  simillima. 


*^-  mihi  m.  cdd.  maxime  mihi  Bothe 

^'^  et  cdd.         set  Mercier  prob.  V 


350 


TRAGEDIES 

352 

Thyestes  betcails  his  fate  : 

Nonius  :    '  Contingcre,'  to  turn  out  ...  — 

Thyestes 

How  utterly  has  ruin  befallen  me 
Here  on  this  day. 

353 

and  plans  to  consult  Apollo  about  vengeance  on  Atreus  : 

Nonius  :   '  Delectare,'  to  entice,  attract  ...  — 

and  Apollo  himself  of  Delphi  charms  and  draws  me 
on. 

354 

Thyestes  fled  to  Thesprotus  King  of  Epirus.     One  of  the 
L'pirotes  (chorus-leader  ?)  hears  the  approach  of  Thyestes  ?  : 

Nonius  :   '  Crepare,'  to  beat  ...  — 

But  beats  upon  my  ears  a  sound  of  footsteps. 

355 

He  addresses  Thyestes  : 

Cicero  :   There  are  some  examples  like  this  even  in  works  of 
our  own  poets ;  take  the  speaker  in  Thyestes  " — 

Chorus 

And  who  pray  shall  I  say  you  are,  who  thus 
With  aged  lagging  steps  ... 

and  the  words  which  follow.     Except  where  a  flute-player 
accompanies  them,  they  are  much  like  prose. 

"  Probably  not  Pacuvius'  Thyestes. 

351 


ENNIUS 

356-60 

Cicero,  Ttisc.  Disp.,  Ill,  11,  25:  Nunc  aegritudinem  si 
possumus  depellamus  .  .  .  taetra  enim  res  est,  misera  .  .  . 
fugienda;   qualis  enim  tibi  ille  videtur? — 

Thi/estes 

Tantalo'  prognatus    Pelope    natus   qui   quondam    a 

socru 

Oenomao  rege  Hippodameam  raptis  nanctus  nuptiis, 

lovis  iste  quidem  pronepos.  Tamnc  ergo  abiectus  tamque 
fractus  ? — ■ 

Nolite  hospites  ad  me  adire,  ilico  istic ! 
Ne  contagio  mea  bonis  umbrave  obsit. 
Meo  tanta  vis  sceleris  in  corpora  haeret ! 

Tu  te  Thyesta  damnabis  orbabisque  luce  propter  vim 
sceleris  alieni  ? 

361 

Cicero,  de  Oral.,  Ill,  41,  164  :  Nolo  esse  verbum  angustius 
id  quod  translatum  sit  quam  fuisset  illud  proprium  ac  suum — 

Chorus 

Quidnam  est  obsecro  quod  te  adiri  abnutas  ? 

Melius  esset  '  vetas  '  '  prohibes  '  '  absterres,'  quoniam  ille 
dixerat '  ilico.  .  .  . 


'^'  socru  Bentley  socero  cdd. 

''^  post  nuptiis  trib.  Ennio  verba  lovis  i.  q.  p.  Bentley 

358  ]\'^olite  inquit  hospites  Cic.  istim  Wolf 

3*"  meo  add.  Bentley  alii  alia 


352 


TRAGEDIES  / 

Thyestes  telh  who  he  is  ;  he"  uxirns  them  not  to  touch  him  : 

Cicero  :  Well  now,  let  us  thrust  distress  away  if  we  can  ... 
for  it  is  a  loathsome,  wretched  thing  ...  to  be  avoided. 
What  think  you  of  the  well-known  hero  ? — 

Thyestes 

I,  sprung  from  Tantalus,  begotten  of  Pelops, 
\Mio  having  once  gained  Hippodamea, 
A  ravished  wife  from  King  Oenomaus, 
The  father  of  my  bride, 

Well,  he  was  a  great-grandson  of  Jupiter  !  And  then  was 
lie  so  downcast,  so  broken  ?    Says  he — 

Strangers,  draw  you  not  near  to  me !  Back  there, 
back  I  Lest  a  tainted  touch  from  me,  lest  my  very 
shadow  harm  you  that  are  sound.  Oh,  such  a  deadly 
violence  of  sin  clings  to  my  body  ! 

What,  will  you,  Thyestes,  utter  your  own  doom,  and  rob 
yourself  of  the  light  of  day,  because  of  the  '  violence '  of 
another's  sin  ? 

361 

Cicero  :  I  do  not  w&nt  a  word  which  is  figurative  to  have 
a  narrower  meaning  than  the  same  would  have  had  in  its 
own  proper  sense — 

Chorus 

WTiy  then  is  it,  I  pray  you,  that  you  nod  me  back 
from  approaching  you? 

'  Do  you  forbid  '  or  '  debar '  or  '  scare  away  '  would  be 
better,  since  the  other  speaker  had  said  just  before  :  '  Back 
there.  .  .  .'  (line  358) 


"  With  a  sudden  change  of  movement  comes  a  change  of 
metre.  No  doubt  can  be  felt  that  Cicero  quotes  from  Ennius' 
Thyestes. 


ENNIUS 
362 

Nonius,  90,   13  :    '  Conglomerare,'  involvere,  superaddere. 

Thyestes 

Eheu   mea   fortuna   ut   omnia   in   me   conglomeras 
mala! 

363-5 

Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp.,  Ill,  19,  44  :    Quaerendum  igitur  quern 
ad  modum  aegritudine  privemus  eum  qui  ita  dicat — 

.  .  .  Pol  mihi  fortuna  magis  nunc  defit  quam  genus. 
Namque  regnum  suppetebat  mi,  ut  scias  quanto  e 

loco 
Quantis  opibus  quibus  de  rebus  lapsa  fortuna  accidat. 

Quid  ?    Huic  calix  mulsi  impingendus  est  ut  plorare  desinat, 
aut  aliquid  eius  modi  ? 

366-70 

Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp.,  I,  44,  107  :    Exsecratur  luculentis  sane 
versibus  apud  Ennium  Thyestes,  primuni — 

Ut  naufragio  pereat  Atreus ! 

Durum  hoc  sane;    talis  enim  intcritus  non  est  sine  gravi 
sensu ;  ilia  inania — 

Ipse  summis  saxis  fixus  asperis  evisceratus, 
latere  pendens  saxa  spargens  tabo  sanie  et  sanguine 
atro, 

^*^  eheu  L        heu  cdd. 
3«3-6  trib.  Thyest.  Ribb. 

'**  fortasse  ut  n.  p.  A.  Ennii  sententiam  non  verba  indicant; 
ut  n.  p.  A.  trib.  Enn.  Schol.  Basilic. 

354 


TRAGEDIES 

362 

Thyestes  goes  on  to  tell  of  his  misfortunes  : 

Nonius  :    '  Conglomerare,'  to  roll  upon,  to  add  over  and 
above  ...  — 

Thyestes 

Alas,  my  fortune,  how  dost  thou  roll  all 
And  every  ill  upon  me ! 

363-5 

Cicero  :    We  must  inquire,  therefore,  in  what  way  we  are 
to  free  from  distress  him  who  thus  speaks — 

And  now  i'  faith  my  fortune  more  than  birth 
Fails  me ;    that  you  may  know  from  what  great 

pride 
Of  place,  what  wealth,  what  worldly  goods  my 

fortune 
Has  slipped  and  fallen — I  once  did  have  a  kingdom. 

Well  ?    Must  we  tip  him  a  cup  of  mead  to  make  him  stop 
wailing,  or  something  of  that  kind  ? 

366-70 

Thyestes  curses  Atreus  : 

Cicero  :   In  a  play  of  Ennius  Thyestes  utters  curses  in  lines 
admittedly  magniiicent;   first  comes  — 

May  Atreus  perish  by  shipwreck! 

Admittedly  a  cruel  prayer,  for  such  a  death  does  not  come 
without  great  suffering.    The  following  lines  are  meaningless — 

He,  set  disbowelled  on  sharp  steep  rugged  rocks. 

Hanging  by  his  own  flank  and  spattering 

The  rocks  with  gore,  with  mess  of  black-hued  blood," 

"  Lucilius  quoted  these  two  lines ;  see  Remains,  etc..  Vol.  III. 

355 
aa2 


ENNIUS 

Non  ipsa  saxa  magis  scnsu  omni  vacabunt  quam  ille  '  latere 
pendens,'  cui  se  hie  eruciatum  censet  optarc.  Quae  crant  dura 
si  sentiret ;  nulla  sunt  sine  sensu.    lUud  vero  perquam  inane — 

Neque    sepulchrum    quo    recipiat    habeat    portum 

coi-poris 
ubi  remissa  humana  vita  corpus  requiescat  malls. 

Vides  quanto  haec  in  errore  versentur ;  portum  esse  corporis 
et  requiescere  in  sepulchre  putat  mortuum,  magna  culpa 
Pelopis  qui  non  erudierit  filium  nee  docuerit  quatenus  csset 
quidque  curandum. 

Cp.  Cic.,  in  Pison.,  19,  43;  Non.,  405,  3. 

371-2 

auctor,  ad  Herenn.,  II,  25,  39  :  Item  vitiosum  est  cum  id 
pro  certo  sumitur  quod  .  .  .  etiam  nunc  in  controversia  est, 
hoc  modo — 

Thesprotus 

Eho  tu  di  quibus  est  potestas  motus  superum  atquc 

Inferum, 
pacem  Inter  sese  concillant  conferunt  concordlam. 

Nam  ita  pro  suo  iure  hoc  exemplo  utentem  Thesprotum 
Ennius  induxit  quasi  iam  satis  certis  rationibus  ita  esse 
demonstasset. 

Cp.  Cic.,rfe7nu.,  I,  49,  91. 

373 
Nonius,  110,  11  :   '  Flaccet,'  languct,  deficit  .  .  . — 

Thesprotus 
Sin  flaccebunt  condiciones  repudiate  et  reddito. 
^'^  sin  Guilielmus         in  cdd. 

"  This  was  after  Thyestes  had  left.  During  a  famine  at 
M3'cenae,  Atreus  was  ordered  to  restore  Thyestes. 

"  It  is  not  certain  whether  or  not  CresphoiUem  should  bo  read 
here.    Cf.  V.,  CCX,  184  and  prooem.,  1888-9, 17,  which  I  accept. 

<^  I  suspect  that  the  scene  is  where  Atreus,  having  obtained 
the  hand  of  Pelopia,  possibly  has  suspicions  of  her ;    she  had 


TRAGEDIES 

The  very  stones  will  not  be  freer  of  pain  than  he  '  hanging 
by  his  flank,'  for  whom  Thyestes  thinks  he  is  desiring  torments. 
These  would  be  heavy  pains  if  he  felt  them ;  they  are  nothing 
without  feeling.     Then  the  following  is  utterly  meaningless — 
And  may  he  have  no  tomb  where  he  may  find 
A  haven  for  his  carcase,  where  that  carcase, 
The  mortal  life  let  out,  may  rest  from  trouble. 

You  see  how  great  is  the  error  in  which  all  this  is  involved ; 
he  believes  there  is  a  '  haven  *  for  the  body,  and  that  a  dead 
man  '  rests '  in  a  tomb,  to  the  great  discredit  of  Pelops,  in 
that  he  did  not  school  his  son  or  teach  him  how  far  everything 
should  be  a  cause  for  anxiety. 

371-2 

Atreus'  has  come  to  Thesprotm'  court;  Thesprotus  believes 
the  brothers  icill  be  reconciled  ?  : 

The  author  of  To  Uerennim  :  There  is  again  a  fault  when 
something  is  taken  as  decided,  which  is  still  a  matter  of  dispute, 
in  this  way — 

Thesprotus 

Ho  I  See  you,  the  gods  who  guide  the  power  and 
busy  bustle  of  beings  that  dwell  above  and  below, 
they  make  a  friendly  peace  among  themselves  and 
talk  together  of  agreement. 

For  in  this  manner  does  Ennius  stage  Thesprotus  *  as  making 
use  of  this  example  on  his  own  authority,  as  though  he  had 
already  proved  it  by  really  convincing  arguments. 

373 
Thespratvis  makes  an  agreement  with  Atreus  abaid  Pelopia: 
Nonius  :    '  Flaccet,'  pines,  weakens  ...  — 

Thesprotus 
But  if  our  terms  go  lax,  then  cast  her  off 
And  give  her  back.'' 

been  ravished  by  her  father  Thyestes  (who  did  not  know 
she  was  his  daughter)  and  was  already  with  child  (who  was 
afterwards  Aegisthus) — Hygin.,  Fab.,  88. 

357 


ENNIUS 

AIJAE   FABULAE 
AMBRACIA 

Ennius  accompanied  Marcus  Fulvius  Nobilior  on  his 
appointment  to  a  command  against  the  Aetolians,  and 
shared  in  the  campaign  which  Fulvius  conducted  there  in 
189  B.C.  (Cic,  Tusc.  Disp.,  I,  2,  3;  Brid.,  20,  79;  cp.  pro. 
Arch.,  11,  27).    That  Ennius'  work  entitled  Ambracia  was  a 


374 

Nonius,  183,  11  :  '  Veget '  pro  vegetat  vel  erigit  vel  vegetum 
est.  .  .  .  Ennius  Ambracia — 

'  et  aequora  salsa  veges  ingentibus  ventis.' 


375 
Nonius,  471,  11  :   '  Populat '  .  .  .  — 
Agros  audaces  depopulant  servi  dominorum  domi. 

376 
Nonius,  87,  29  :  '  Cluet,'  nominatur.  ...  — 
Esse  per  gentes  cluebat  omnium  miserrimus. 

3'^  domiBuecheler  domini  Bothe  minis  Ribb.  m.| 
<non  coerciti>   coni.  V         dominis  cdd.  prob.  Pascal 

3^«  esse  per  gentes  Guietus  per  gentes  Asiae  Buecheler 

per  gentes  esse  cdd. 

»  E.,  207-211;  V.,  XIII-XV.  The  same  subject  was 
dealt  with  in  the  XVth  book  of  the  AtinQls, 


OTHER   PLAYS 

OTHER   PLAYS 
AMBRACIA 

'  fabula  praetexta  '  is  probable."  It  was  written  with  the 
object  of  glorifying  M.  Fulvius  with  special  reference  to 
his  capture  of  Ambracia — qnam  victoriam  per  se  magnificam 
Q.  Ennius  amicus  eius  insigni  laude  celebravit  {'  Vict.,'  de  Vir. 
Illustr.,  52  M). 

374 

The  dangers  of  the  Adriatic  ?  : 

Nonius  :  '  Veget  '  for  '  vegetat,'  '  lifts  up  '  or  '  is  big.'  .  .  . 
Ennius  in  Ambracia — 

'  and  thou  makest  the  salt  seas  to  grow  big  with 
mighty  winds.' 

375 

Lawless  character  of  the  Aetolians  ?  : 
Nonius:   '  Populat.'  .  .  . — 

The  naughty  slaves  lay  waste  at  home  *  their 
masters'  fields. 

376 

One  of  the  Aetolians  : 

Nonius  :    '  Cluet,'  is  called.  ...  — 

Through  all  the  nations  was  he  called  the 
wretchedest  of  men. 

*  In  Nonius  dominis  at  the  end  of  the  line  has  perhaps 
ousted  by  dittography  another  word,  possibly  one  in  the 
ablative  case.  But  domi  would  be  typical  of  the  alliterations, 
assonances  and  word-plays  so  common  in  old  Latin  verse. 

359 


ENNIUS 

377-8 
Nonius,  469,  25  :    '  Cunctant '  pro  cunctantur  ...  — 

'  Bene  mones ; 
tute  ipse  cunctato ;  o  vide  fortem  virum. 


SABINAE 
379-80 

lulius  Victor,  ap.  R.L.M.,i02,  30  H  :  Ab  eventu  in  qualitate, 
ul  qualia  sunt  ea  quae  evenerunt  aut  videantur  eventura, 
tale  illud  quoque  existimetur  ex  quo  evenerunt;  ut  Sabinis 
Ennius  dixit — • 

Cum  spolia  generis  detraxeritis,  -  ^  - 
quara  inscriptionem  dabitis? 


CAUPUNCULA 

381 

Xonius,  155,  30 :  '  Propitiabilis '  <promptus>  ad 
propitiandum.    Ennius  Caupuncula — 

hinc  est  animus  propitiabilis. 

^"  cunctato  o  vide  V  cunctato  rel  cuncto  cdd. 

monens  .  .  .  ipse  cunctat  o  Buecheler 

379-80  generis  lahn,  Christ  pro6.  Vgenericdrf.  detraxeritis 
<impie>  teZ  <mortuis>  V  detraxeritis  quam  patres  | 

inscriptionem  Mr.  prob.  Ribb. 

5*^  Nov,.,  155  promptus  add.  W  propitiabilis  ad  p.  LuQ 

360 


OTHER   PLAYS 

377-8 
The  campaign  : 
NonioB  :   '  Cunctant '  for  '  cunctantur  '  .  .  .  — 

'  That's  good  ad\ace  of  yours  ;  then  you  yourself 
Hold  back.    Oh  !    See  the  valiant  warrior. 

THE  SABINE  WOMEN 

Doubtless  a  '  fabula  praetexta '  "  on  the  story  of  the  rape 
of  the  Sabines. 

379-80 

Julius  Victor  :  Again,  there  is  argument  as  to  quality  made 
from  an  event,  so  that  that  from  which  things  have  resulted 
is  deemed  to  be  of  like  kind  as  the  things  which  have  resulted 
from  it  or  may  seem  likely  to  result :  like  the  words  of  Ennius 
in  The  Sabine  Women — 

Now  that  you  have  dragged  us  as  spoils  from  our 
bridegrooms,  what  inscription  will  you  cut  upon  us  ?  * 


THE  LITTLE  HOSTESS 

A  comedy ;   but  the  single  fragment  does  not  even  give  us 
the  title  for  certain. 

381 

Nonius  :    '  Propitiabilis,'  ready  to  be  propitiated.     Ennius 
in  The  Little  Hostess— 

Hence  can  the  feelings  be  soothed. 

<»  Vahlen,  Rh.  Mus.,  X^^,  580.    R.,  205-7. 
"  As  though  we  were  dedicated  spoils  of  war. 

a      propitiando      reU.    prob.      Linds.      caupuncula      Ribb. 
cupuncula  V        coponicula  Onions         cupiuncula  cdd.  Xon. 

361 


ENNIUS 

PANCRATIASTES 

382 

Nonius,    505,  35  :    '  Audibo  '   pro  andiam.      Ennius  .  .  . 
Pancratiaste — 

A 

Quo  nunc  me  ducis  ? 

B 

Ubi  molarum  strepitum  audibis 
maximum. 

383 
Nonius,  513,  12  :    '  Poterviter  '  .  .  .  — 
Quis  est  qui  nostris  foribus  tarn  proterviter? 

384 
Nonius,  517,  10  :    '  Desubito'  .  .  . — 
cum    desubito    me     orat    mulier    lacrimansque    ad 
genua  accidit. 


EX   FABULIS    INCERTIS 

EX  TRAGOEDIIS 

385 

I. 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  IX,.  253  :  '  integer  aevi,'  integri  aevi 
figurate,  id  est  adulescens  cui  aetas  integra  superest,  unde 
Ennius — 

deos  aevi  integros 
362 


UNASSIGNED   FRAGMENTS 

THE   ALL-ROUND   CHAMPION 

A  corned V. 

382 

Nonius  says  :  '  Audibo '  for  '  audiam '  .  .  .  the  same  in 
The  All-round  Champion — 

A 

Where  are  you  leading  me  now  ? 

B 

Where  you'll  hear  a  mighty  rumble  of  mills. 

383 
Nonius  :  '  Proterviter  '  .  .  .  — 
WTio's  that  so  boldly  at  our  doors  ? 

384 
Nonius :  '  Desubito  '  .  .  .  — 

when  on  a  sudden  the  woman  takes  to  praying  and 
falls  weeping  at  my  knees. 

UNASSIGNED   FRAGMENTS 
OF   PLAYS 

FROM  TRAGEDIES 

385 

I.  From  passages  connected  with  gods  and  religious  things  : 

Servius,  on  '  integer  aevi '  in  Virgil :  Figuratively  for 
'  integri  aevi ' ;  that  is,  a  young  person  whose  life  still  remains 
unimpaired.     WTienee  Ennius — 

the  gods  untouched  by  time 


ENNIUS 

386 

Tereutius,  Eun.,  Ill,  5,  42  : 

At  quem  deum  !    Qui  templa  caeli  summa — 

sonitu  concutit 

Donatus,  ad  loc.  :  '  Sonitu  concutit '  parodia  de  Ennio. 
*  Templa  caeli '  sententia  tragica,  sed  de  industria  non  errore. 

387 

Cicero,  de  Orat.,  Ill,  40,  162  :  Quo  in  genere  primum  est 
fugienda  dissimilitudo — 

caeli  ingentes  fornices. 

Quamvis  sphaeram  in  scaenam  ut  dicitur  attulerit  Ennius, 
taraen  in  sphaera  fornicis  similitude  non  potest  inesse. 
Cp.  Varro,  L.L.,  V,  19. 

388 

Cicero,  de  Nat.  Deor.,  II,  25,  65  (de  love)  :  Hunc  igitur 
Ennius  ut  supra  dixi  nuncupat  ita  dicens  .  .  .  planius  quam 
alio  loco  idem — 

Cui   quod  in   me   est   exsecrabor,   hoc   quod  lucet, 
quidquid  est — 

389 

Eur.,  Med.,  168-70  {niUrix  loqu.)  :  KXveO'  ola  Xiyei  Kam- 
^odrai  I  defuv  evKraiav  Zijvd  0'  o?  opKCDV  \  BvrjTots  ra^ias  vevo- 
fjLioTai.     Cp.  id.,  207-8. 

Cicero,  de  Off.,  Ill,  29,  104 :  Est  enim  ius  iurandura 
adfirmatio  religiosa  .  .  .  non  ad  iram  deorum  quae  nulla 
est  sed  ad  iustitiam  et  ad  fidem  pertinet;  nam  praeclare 
Ennius — 

O  Fides  alma  apta  pinnis  et  ius  iurandum  lovis ! 

Cp.  Apulei.,  de  deo  Socr.,  5,  10. 

886  Jig,.  .  qyj  ^  (.  s.fortasse  Ennio  tribuenda 
'**  trib.  MeJanipp.  R  qui  Gulielmus 

3S9  trib.  Thyeat.  vel  Med.  V 


UNASSIGNED   FRAGMENTS 
386 

Terence  :  And  what  a  god  !  He  who  heaven's  highest 
precincts — 

with  thunder  shakes  * 

Donatus  on  this  line  :  '  With  thunder  shakes  '  :  a  parody 
of  Ennius  :  '  Heaven's  precincts  '  :  an  idea  from  tragedy, 
but  put  here  on  purpose,  not  by  mistake. 

387 

Cicero  :  In  dealing  with  a  thing  of  this  kind  we  must 
first  avoid  any  unlikeness — 

Heaven's  huge  arclies. 

Although,  it  is  said,  Ennius  brought  a  sphere  on  to  the  stage, 
nevertheless  you  camiot  possibly  find  a  likeness  between  an 
arch  and  a  sphere.* 

388 

Cicero  :  It  is  Jupiter,  therefore,  as  I  said  above,  who  is 
named  by  Ennius  in  the  words  .  .  .  more  plainly  too  than 
he  does  in  another  place — 

This  that  shines,  whate'er  it  is,  to  which  so  far  as 
in  me  lies  I  shall  utter  my  curses — 

389 

Cicero  :  For  sworn  oath  is  a  solemn  affirmation  ...  it 
has  nothing  to  do  with  the  wrath  of  the  gods,  which  does  not 
exist,  but  with  justice  and  faith.  For  Ennins  has  a  brilliant 
saying — 

O  Faith,  kindly  wing-girt  goddess ;  O  thou  oath 
sworn  in  Jupiter's  name  ! 

"  Only  these  words,  I  think,  belong  to  Ennius. 

*  The  allusion  is  not  known,  but  V.  quotes  a  suggestive 
passage  of  Hygin.,  Fab.,  130  :  Atlanti  .  .  .  caeli  fomicem 
super  humeros  imposuit. 


ENNIUS 

390-1 
Festus,  430,  6  :   '  Sospes  '  .  .  .  Ennius — 

parentem  et  pa<(triam  .  .  . 

y  sospitcm. 

392-3 
II. 

Diomedes,  ap  G.L.,  I,  447,  5  K :  '  Homoeoteleuton ' 
oratio  similibus  clausulis  terminata   .  .  .  ut  apud  Ennium — 

Eos  reduci  quam  reliqui,  devehi  quam  deseri 
malui. 

Cp.  Charis.,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  282,  10  K;  Donatus,  ap.  IV,  398, 
25  K.    Cp.  Eur.,/;jA.  .4.,370-2,  495. 

394 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  49  :  Apud  Ennium  — 
quin  inde  invitis  sumpserint  perduellibus 
perduelles  dicuntur  hostes. 

395-6 

Plinius,  N.H.,  XV^III,  84  :  Pulte  non  pane  vixisse  longo 
tempore  Romanes  manifestum  quoniam  et  pulmenteria 
hodieque  dicuntur  et  Ennius  antiquissimus  vates  obsidionis 
famem  exprimens — 

OfFam  eripuere  liberis  plorantibus 
patres. 

commemorat. 

'*'~i  pa<triam  di  servate>   S         trib.  Ereckth.  R 

392-3   ij-lff    Jpfiig,  R 

395-«  liberis  pUrantibus  8t.  eripuisse  plorantibus  liberis 
Plin,  eripuere    patres    pueris    plorantibus    offam    Bergk, 

0pp.,  I,  258  n.  alii  alia 

366 


UNASSIGNED   FRAGMENTS 

390-1 
Festus  :   '  Sospes  '  .  .  .  Ennius — 
Parent  and  native  land  .  .  .  safe  and  sound. ^ 

392-3 
II.  From  passages  referring  to  warfare  arid  fighting  : 

Dioniedes  :  '  Homoeoteleuton  '  comes  about  when  parts  of 
a  sentence  end  with  the  same  closing  sound  .  .  .  for  example, 
in  a  passage  of  Ennius  * — 

I  preferred 

That  home  they  should  be  taken,  not  forsaken; 

And  shipped  aMay,  not  cast  away. 

394 

Varro  :  In  a  passage  of  Ennius — 

that  they  took  it  not  thence  against  the  will  of  their 
foes 

'  perduelles  *  is  a  t«rm  used  for  foes. 

395-6 

Pliny  :  It  is  clear  that  the  Romans  lived  for  a  long 
time  on  pulse,  not  bread,  since  we  speak  of  '  pulmentaria  ' 
even  to-day,  and  Ennius,  a  very  early  archaic  poet,  to  express 
the  hunger  of  a  siege,  uses  the  words — 

Fathers  snatched  the  morsel  from  their  wailing 
children."^ 

*  Scaliger's  restoration,  which  is  generally  accepted,  does 
not  seem  to  me  to  fill  the  gap  in  Festus  (cf.  Fest.,  ed.  Linds.). 

*  This  might  well  come  from  Iphigenia. 

■^  To  transpose  plorantibus  and  liberis,  and  so  get  a  senarius 
with  one  word  over,  seems  to  be  the  simplest  emendation; 
I  therefore  put  this  fragment  among  the  plays. 


ENNIUS 

397 

III.,  XII,  275 s.;  28.5. 

Nonius,  196,  29  :    '  Caemcnta  '  .  .  .  feminini  Ennius— 
Labat,  labuntur  saxa,  caementae  cadunt. 

398 
?  II.,  XII,  253  s. 

Nonius,  205,  23  :  '  Frctum  '  .  .  .  masculini.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

Crassa  pulvis  oritur,  omnem  pervolat  caeli  fretum. 

399 
?  //.,  XVI,  802-3  (de  Patrocl.  interitu). 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  93  :  '  Euax '  verbum  nihil  significat, 
sed  eSutitum  naturaliter  est  ut  apud  Ennium — 

Hehae,  ipse  clipeus  cecidit. 

Cp.  auct.  ap.  G.L.,  V,  574,  24  K. 

400 
III. 

Gellius,  V,  15,  9  :  Ennianum  Xeoptolemum  probabamus 
qui  profecto  ita  ait — 

Neoptolemtis 
Philosophari    mihi    necesse,    paucis,    nam    omnino 
baud  placet. 

Id.,  V,  16,  5  :  eiusdemquc  illius  Enniani  Neoptolcrai  de  quo 
supra  scripsimus  consilio  utendum  est  qui  degustandum  ex 
phiiosophia  censet,  non  in  earn  ingurgitandum. 

Cf.  Cic,  Tusc.Disp.  II,  1,  1. 

401 

Fronto,  Epp.,  Vol.  I,  p.  76  Haines :  De  Herode  quod 
dicis  perge,  oro  te,  ut  Quintus  noster  ait, — 

Pervince  pertinaei  pervicacia. 

'**  trib.  Heel.  Lytr.  R,  comoediae  Spengel 

*"**  philosophandum  est  paucis  Gell.  philosophari  sibi  ait 
necesse  esse  sed  p.  Cic.  alteram  versum  degustandum  ex 
ea  non  in  earn  ingurgitandum  censeo  constU.  llibb. 
368 


UNASSIGNED   FRAGMENTS 
397 

Nonius  :   '  Caementa  '  .  .  .  Eimius  has  it  in  the  feminine — 
It  totter 'd,  and  tottered  the  stones,  the  blocks 
fell  dowTi. 

398 
Nonius  :    '  Tretum  '  ...  in  the  masculine  .  .  .  Ennius— 
Thick  rose  the  dust  and  soared  over  the  sea  of 
heaven. 

399 

Varro  :  The  word  '  euax  '  means  nothing,  but  is  a  natural 
exclamation,  like  the  one  in  a  passage  in  Ennius — 

Aha !    His  very  shield  fell. 

400 
III.  Philosophic  and  moral  precepts  : 

Gellius  :  I  agreed  with  Neoptolemus  in  Emiius ;  he  speaks 
as  follows — 

Xeoptolemtis 

I  must  needs  be  a  philosopher — in  a  few  things ; 
for  in  all  ways — that  displeases  me. 

Gellius  :  And  we  must  follow  the  counsel  of  that  very  same 
Neoptolemus  in  Ennius,  of  whom  I  wrote  above:  he  says, 
'  A  man  should  take  a  taste  of  philosophy,  and  not  rush  to 
swallow  her.' 

401 

Marcus  Aurelius,  in  Fronto's  correspondence :  About 
Herodcs,  I  pray  you  go  on  with  what  you  say,  ami,  in  the 
words  of  our  Quintus  " — 

Conquer  with  sturdy  staunchness. 

"  Probably  Quintus  Ennius. 

"1  Irib.  Enn.  R 
VOL.  I.  B  B 


ENNIUS 

402-3 

Cicero,  de  Off.,  I,  8,  26  :   Apud  Ennium — 

Nulla  regni  sancta  societas 
nee  fides  est. 

Cp.  Cic,  de  re  publ,  I,  32, 49. 

404 

Fronto,  Epp.,  Vol.  I,  p.  136  Haines :  ...  adfinitate 
sociatum  neque  tutelae  subditum,  praeterea  in  ea  fortuna 
constitutum  in  qua  ut  Q.  Ennius  ait — 

Omnes  dant  consilium  vanum  atque  ad  voluptatem 
omnia. 

405-6 

Cicero,  de  Orat.,  II,  54,  221  :  Est  hominibus  facetis  et 
dicacibus  difficillimum,  habere  hominum  rationem  et  temporum 
et  ea  quae  occurrant,  cum  salsissime  dici  possunt,  tenere. 
Itaque  nonnulli  ridiculi  homines  hoc  ipsum  non  insulse 
interpretantur ;    dicere  enim  aiunt  Ennium — 

Flammam  a  sapient!  faeilius  ore  in  ardente  oppvimi 
quam  bona  dicta  teneat ; 

Haec  scilicet  bona  dicta  quae  salsa  sint. 

407 

Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp.,  IV,  33,  70  :  Mihi  quidem  haec  in 
Graecorum  gymnasiis  nata  consuetudo  videtur,  in  quibus 
isti  liberi  et  concessi  sunt  amores ;   bene  ergo  Ennius— 

Flagiti  principium  est  nudare  inter  cives  corpora. 

Cp.  Eur.,  Androm.,  595  ff. 

40i  regni  Jortasse  retciendum  trib.  Thyesl.  R 


UNASSIGNED   FRAGMENTS 

402-3 

Cicero  :  In  a  work  of  Eiinius — 

When  one  is  king  no  partnership,  no  pledged  word 
is  holy. 

404 

Marcus  Aurelius,  in  Fronto's  correspondence  :  .  .  .  a  man 
allied  by  kinship  and  not  entnisted  to  a  guardian;  and 
moreover  established  in  that  rank  of  society  in  which,  as 
Quint  us  Ennius  has  it — • 

They  all  give  empty  counsel ;  all  their  deeds  they 
do  with  an  eye  to  pleasing. 

405-6 

Cicero  :  The  wags  and  wits  find  it  hard  to  take  proper 
account  of  time  and  character,  and  as  thoughts  occur  to 
them,  to  hold  them  back  at  the  moment  when  they  can  be 
expressed  most  smartly.  And  so  there  are  some  jokers  who 
give  a  quite  worthy  turn  to  this  also.  For  they  declare  that 
Ennius  says — 

'Tis  easier  for  a  wise  man  to  smother  the  flame  of 
burning  speech  than  to  hold  in  good  words ; 

that  is  to  say,  those  '  good  words  '  which  are  smart. 


407 

Cicero  :  As  for  me,  I  think  that  this  custom  had  its  birth 
in  the  gymnastic  schools  of  the  Greeks  :  in  them  such  love- 
making  was  free  and  tolerated.  Rightly,  therefore,  does 
Ennius  say — 

It  is  the  beginning  of  disgrace  to  bare  the  body 
among  fellow-citizens. 

371 

BB  2 


ENNIUS 

40&-9 

Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp.,  Ill,  3,  5  :  At  et  morbi  perniciosiores 
pluresque  sunt  animi  quam  corporis;  hoc  enim  ipso  odiosi 
sunt  quod  ad  animum  pertinent  eumque  sollicitant,  animusque 
aeger  ut  ait  Ennius — • 

Animus    aeger    semper    errat,    neque    pati    neque 

perpeti 
potis  est,  cupere  numquam  desinit. 

410 

Cicero,  de  Off.,  II,  7,  23  :  Omnium  autcm  rcrum  nee  aptius 
est  quicquam  ad  opes  tuendas  ac  tenendas  quam  diligi  nee 
alienius  quam  timeri;    praeclare  enim  Ennius — 

Quern  metuunt  oderunt,  quem  quisque  odit  periisse 
expetit. 

Cp.  Ovid.,  Am.,  II,  2,  10;  Hieron.,  Epist.,  82,  3  (I,  737 
Migne). 

411 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  88,  31  (10):  '  Metus  '  feminine  diccbant. 
Ennius— 

Vivam  an  moriar  nulla  in  me  est  metus. 

412-14 

Cicero,  de  Off.,  I,  16,  51  :  Omnium  autem  communia 
hominum  videntur  ea  quae  sunt  generis  eius  quod  ob  Ennio 
positum  in  una  re  transferri  in  permultas  potest — • 

Homo  qui  erranti  comiter  monstrat  viam 
quasi  lumen  de  suo  lumine  accendat  facit ; 
nihilo  minus  ipsi  lucet  cum  illi  accenderit. 
Cp.  id.,  Ill,  13,  54  ;  pro  Balbo,  16,  36. 

*"*  animusque  aeger  ut  ait  Ennius  semper  e.  q.   s.   Cic, 
poti  (potiri)  Ribb.  fortasse  recte 
*"'  potis  est  Ribb.         potest  Cic. 

372 


UNASSIGNED   FRAGMENTS 

40a-9 

Cicero  :  But  the  diseases  too  of  the  soul  are  more  deadly 
and  more  numerous  than  those  of  the  body.  For  they  are 
loathsome  through  the  very  fact  that  they  have  to  do  with 
the  soul,  and  trouble  it,  and,  as  Ennius  says — 

A  sick  soul  is  always  wandering ;  it  can  neither 
bear  troubles  nor  bear  with  them ;  it  never  ceases 
longing. 

410 

Cicero  :  But  in  all  the  world  there  is  nothing  better  fitted 
for  guarding  and  keeping  one's  power  than  to  be  loved, 
nothing  more  remote  from  this  than  to  be  feared.  For 
brilliantly  does  Ennius  put  it — 

Whom  men  fear  they  hate ;  whom  anyone  hates 
he  desires  to  be  dead. 


411 

Paulus  :    Writers  used  to  use  '  metus  '  in  the  feminine. 
Ennius — 

Should  I  live  or  die- — there  is  no  fear  in  me. 


412-14 

Cicero  :  But  all  men,  it  seems,  have  in  common  goods 
of  the  kind  which,  applied  to  one  example  only  in  Ennius, 
can  be  transferred  so  as  to  apply  to  very  many — 

The  man  who  kindly  points  the  way  to  a  wanderer, 
does  as  though  he  kindle  a  light  from  the  light 
that  is  his ;  it  shines  none  the  less  for  himself  when 
he  has  kindled  it  for  his  fellow. 


412  u  trib.Tdeph.R        suae  lumine  accendit  facie  Hartman, 
Mnemos.,  XXI,  S82fortasse  rede 

373 


ENNIUS 

415 
Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  89  :   Apud  Ennium— 

Si  voles  advortere  animum  comiter  monstrabitur. 
comiter  hilare  ac  lubenter. 

41& 

Cicero,  de  Off.,  II,  18,  62  :  In  iis  qui  se  adiuvare  volent  .  .  . 
restricti  omnino  esse  nullo  modo  debemus  sed  in  deligendis 
idoneis  iudicium  et  diligentiam  adhibere.  Nam  praeclare 
Ennius — 

Benefacta  male  loeata  malefjvcta  arbitror. 

417 
IV. 

Rutilius  Lupus,  ap.  R.L.M.,  8,  14  H  :  8i.a<f>opd.  Hoc  schema 
cum  verbum  iteratum  aliam  sententiam  significat  ac  signi- 
ficavit  prime  dictum.  Id  est  huiusmodi  .  .  .  item  in  Ennii 
versu — 

mulierem ;     quid    potius    dicam    aut    verius    quam 
mulierem  ? 

Cp.  Eur.,  Hec,  1178;  Stheneh.,  607  N. 

418 

Nonius,  197,  28  :  '  Quia  '  et  generi  feminine  attribui  posse 
veterum  auctoritas  voluit  .  .  .  Ennius — 

.  .  .  Et  quis  illaec  est  quae  lugubri  succincta  est  stola  ? 

419 

Servius  ad  Aen.,  I,  4  :  '  Saevae.'  .  .  .  Saevam  dicebant 
veteres  magnam.    Sic  Ennius —  j 

induta  fuit  saeva  stola 

"5  trib.  Teleph.  R 

Rutil. :  in  Enni  versu  Meinecke         universum  cdd. 

***  trib.  Andromedae  R         et  quis  cdd.         set  quis  Ribb. 

374 


UNASSIGNED  FRAGMENTS 

415 

Varro  :  In  a  passage  of  Ennius — 

If  you  will  deign  to  turn  your  mind  to  me,  kindly 
shall  it  be  sho^\Ti  to  you. 
'  comiter '  means  cheerfully  and  willingly. 

416 

Cicero  :  In  dealing  with  persons  who  will  want  help  given 
them  .  .  .  we  ought  by  no  means  to  be  niggards  towards 
all  of  them ;  but  yet  we  ought  to  bring  judgment  and  diligence 
to  bear  in  picking  out  the  worthy.  For  brilliantly  does 
Ennius  put  it — 

Good  deeds  ill  placed  I  think  are  ill  deeds. 

417 
IV.  Various  : 

Rutilius  Lupus  :  Diaphora.  This  is  a  figure  of  speech 
which  comes  about  when  a  word  by  repetition  takes  a  meaning 
different  from  that  which  it  had  at  the  first  utterance.  This 
is  the  kind  of  thing  .  .  .  again  in  Ennius'  line — 

a  woman ;  what  better  or  truer  term  could  I  use  than 
'  woman  '  ?  * 

418 

Nonius  :  The  old  writers  held  it  possible  to  assign  the  word 
'  quis  '  to  the  feminine  gender  also.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

and  who  is  she  girt  up  in  a  gown  of  mourning  ? 

419 

Servius,  on  '  saevae  '  in  Virgil :  The  old  writers  '  used  the 
term  '  saeva  '  for  '  big.'    Thus  Ennius — . 

Clothed  she  was  in  a  huge  gown 

"  This  might  well  come  from  Hecuba :  V.,  198.    The  second 
utterance  of  the  word  '  woman '  is  scornful. 
*  Certainly  not  Virgil  in  Aen.,  I,  4. 

375 


ENNIUS 

420 

Festus,  548,  3  :   At  antiqui  tarn  etiam  pro  tamen  usi  sunt, 
ut  .  .  .  Eniiius — 

ille  meae  tarn  potis  pacis  potiri. 
421 

Varro,  L.L.,  V,  23  :    '  Terra'  ut  putant  eadem  et  humus; 
ideo  Ennium  in  terrain  cadentis  dicere — 

cubitis  pinsibant  humum 

422 

Festus,  538,  14  :   '  Tesca  '  sunt  loca  augurio  designata  .  .  . 
aspera,  difficilia  aditu  ...  — 

<^lo)ca  aspera,  saxa  tesca  tuor 

423 

Servius  auctus,  ad  Verg.,  Georg.,  I,  12-13  (Vol.  Ill,  p.  134, 
T.) :    Nonnulli    vero    ob    hoc    '  cui    prima   frementem   fudit 
aquam '    legunt    quod    veteres    murmura    aquae    fremitum 
dieebant.     Ennius— 
ager  oppletus  imbrium  fremitu. 

424-5 
Varro,   L.L.,   V,    14 :     '  Locatum '    veteres  id  (collocatum) 
dicere  solitos  apparet  apud  .  .  .  Ennium — 

O  terra  Thraeca  ubi  Liberi  fanum  inclutum 
Maro  locavit, 

Cp.  Eur.,  Hec.,  1088. 

426 
Aero,  ad  Hor,,  C,  III,  11,  18:    'Muniant  angues  caput 
eius  '  .  .  .  ut  ait  Ennius — 

anguivillosi  canis. 

*22  trib.  Andromedae  R,  cf.  V.,  203 

*24-5  trib.  Erechth.  vel  Hec.  V  inclutum  Gulielmus 

iuciviQ  cd.         locavi  Varro 

*2«  anguivillosi  coni.  V  angue  villosi  canis  Aero 


UNASSIGNED   FRAGMENTS 

420 

Festus :  But  the  archaic  writers  used  '  tarn '  even  fer 
'  tamen  '  :  for  example  .  .  .  Ennius — - 

Still  he  can  get  my  good  will. 
421 

VaiTo  :  '  Terra,'  it  is  thought,  is  the  same  as  '  humus  ' ; 
and  that  therefore  Eruiius  \\  ith  the  words — 

They  did  bruise  their  elbows  on  the  ground 

speaks  of  persons  falling." 

422 

Festus  :  '  Tesca  '  is  a  term  used  of  places  which  are  marked 
out  for  augury  .  .  .  rough,  and  not  easy  to  approach  .  .  ,  — 

I  see  rough  places  and  high  ragged  rocks 

423 
Servius  (supplemented)  on  a  passage  in  Virgil :    But  there 
are   some   who   read    '  cui   prima   frementem   fudit   aquam ' 
(instead  of  equum)  because  the  old  writers  were  wont  to  use 
'  fremitus  '  for  the  murmuring  of  water.     Ennius — 

The  land  was  filled  with  the  roar  of  waters. 

424-5 
Varro  :    That  the  old  writers  were  wont  to  use  '  locatum  ' 
for  '  coUocatum  '  appears  in  .  .  .  Ennius — 

O  land  of  Thrace,  where  Maro  ''  did  place  a  re- 
nowned temple  of  Liber, 

426 
Aero,  on  '  Though  snakes  fortify  his  head  '  ...  in  Horace  : 
of  the  snake-shaggy  dog.*^ 

"  As  they  stand  the  words  suggest  an  assembly  of  people 
lying  on  the  ground  and  listening  to  a  speaker;  cp.  pinsutU 
terram  genibits  in  Annals,  fr.  342. 

*>  Maro,  a  companion  of  Bacchus,  who  founded  the  Thracian 
town  Maronea. 

*  i.e.  Cerberus. 

377 


ENNIUS 

EX   COMOEDIIS 

427 

Cicero,  de  Div.,  II,  62,  127  :  lam  vero  quis  dicere  audeat 
vera  omnia  esse  somnia — 

Kj  Aliquot  somnia  vera  <(sunt) 

inquit  Ennius — 

sed  omnia  non  necesse  est. 

428 

Festus,  170,  6  :  '  Naucum  '  ait  Ateius  philologus  poni  pro 
nugis.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

-  o  -  ^  Illic  est  nugator,  nil,  non  nauci  homo. 

429 
Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  101  :  Apud  Ennium — 
Voclbus  concide ;   fae  lam  musset  obrutus. 

Mussare  dictum  quod  muti  non  amplius  quam  fiv  dicunt. 

430 

Diomedes,  ap.  O.L.,  I,  400,  15  ff.  K  :  Moro  .  .  .  crebro 
moror  dicimus.  ,  .  .  Ennius — 

An  aliquid  quod  illi  dono  moraret  ?    Non,  sed  accipit. 

*-'  sunt  add.  W  alii  alia  non  fluno  necesse  est 
Voss.  B        nonnunc  haec  eet  Voss.  A  Vind. 

*2*  sic  constituo.  nihili  Ursinus  nihil  cdd.  nauci 
<  est  >  V 

^^*  fac  iam  musset  Zander  facito  musset  Mr.  faxis 
musset  Ribb.  facimus  et  obrutus  (obrutum  Flor. 

facimus  musset  cd.  Turn.) 

**"  Ennius  an  aliquid  quod  dono  illi  morare  sed  accipite 
demolio  cdd.  Ennius  anali  Stowasser  do  nil  morares  ? 
accipe    V         accipe.   item   demolio   coni.    Keil  illi  dono 

moraret  ?  non  sed  accipit  W 

378 


UNASSIGXED   FRAGMENTS 
FROM   COMEDIES" 

427 

Cicero  :  Well  now,  who  would  dare  to  say  that  all  dreams 
are  true.      Says  Ennius — 

Some  dreams  are  true;  but  it  does  not  follow 
that  all  are  so.** 

428 

Festus :  Ateius  the  philologist  says  that  '  naucus '  is  a 
term  put  for  nonsense.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

That  fellow  there  is  a  noodle,  a  nobody,  a  good-for- 
nothing. 

429 

Varro  :    In  a  passage  of  Ennius — 

Split  him  with  shouts;  reduce  him  to  mumbles 
at  once,  all  smothered.^ 

'  Mumble  '  is  used  because  the  dumb  say  no  more  than 
'  mum.' 

430 

Diomedes  :  '  iloro  '  we  frequently  use  in  the  form  '  moror.' 
.  .  .  Ennius — 

Would  he  delay  to  take  any  gift  I  offer  him? 
No,  but  he  takes  it.** 

■»  We  can  judge  these  (doubtfully  at  best)  only  by  the 
general  tone  of  the  words  quoted. 

*  It  is  uncertain  in  what  metre  Ennius  wrote  this  saying. 
By  adding  sunt,  I  make  an  iambic  septenarius  (tetram.  calal.), 
a  metre  found  chiefly  in  Plautus  and  Terence  (cp.  Catullus, 
XXV)  and  so  suggesting  a  comedy. 

'  All  restorations  are  doubtful. 

''  A  very  corrupt  fragment. 

379 


ENNIUS 

431 
Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  93  :   Apud  Ennium— 
Heu  mea  puella  ipse  quidem  id  succenset  tibi ! 

432 

auctor  ad  Ilerenn.,  IV,  12,  18  :  Vitabimus  eiusdera  litterae 
nimiam  adsiduitatem  cui  vitio  versus  hie  erit  exemplo  .  .  . 
et  hie  eiusdem  poetae— 

Quicquam    quisquam    cuiquam    quemque    quisque 
conveniat  neget. 

INCERTA 

433 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  12  :  A  tuendo  et  templa  et  tesca  dicta 
cum  discrimine  eo  quod  dixi ;    etiam  indidem  iilud  Ennii — 

Extemplo  acceptum  me  necato  et  filium. 

Extemplo  enim  est  continue,  quod  omne  templum  esse  debet 
continuo  septum  nee  plus  unum  introitum  habere. 


434 

Diomedes,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  345,  1  K  :    Item  '  adeo  adis';    hoc 
iteramus  '  adito  aditas  '  dictitantes,  ut  Ennius — - 

Ad  eum  aditavere. 


435 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  VI,  686  :    *  Genis,'  palpebris.    Ennius  de 
dormiente — • 

imprimitque  genae  genam. 

**^  ipse    quidem    L         e    spe    quidem   id    successit   Ribb. 
(sec.  0.  Mueller)         puella  spe  q.  i.  succenset  cdd. 
«32  c/.  v.,  p.  201 


380 


UNASSIGNED   FRAGMENTS 

431 

Varro  (on  exclamations)  :   In  a  passage  of  Ennius — 
Oh  dear,  my  girl,  that  very  man  is  in  a  heat  of 
rage  at  you  for  that ! 

432 

The  author  of  To  Herennius  ;  We  will  avoid  too  frequent 
repetition  of  the  same  letter;  for  which  blemish  the  following 
line  will  be  an  example  .  .  .  and  this  line  of  the  same  poet — 

Let  anyone  deny  anyone  anything,  whoever  meets 
■whomever, 

THE   FOLLOWING  MIGHT  COME   EITHER  FROM 
TRAGEDIES   OR   FROM  C05IEDIES 

433 

Varro  :  Both  '  templa  '  and  '  tesca  '  are  derived  from 
'  tueor '  with  the  difference  which  I  have  spoken  of.  From 
the  same  derivation  comes  also  the  following  by  Ennius — 

Forthwith  take  and  slay  me  and  my  son. 

For  '  extemplo  '  means  '  without  a  break,'  because  "  every 
*  temple '  must  be  fenced  round  '  without  a  break  '  and  have 
no  more  than  one  entrance. 

434 

Diomedes  :  Again,  '  adeo,  adis  ' ;  we  get  the  frequentative 
form  of  this  verb  by  saying  '  adito,'  '  aditas,' ;  for  example, 
Ennius — 

They  kept  going  up  to  him. 

435 

Servius  on  '  genis  '  in  Virgil  * :  '  Genis,'  eyelids.  Ennius 
describes  a  person  sleeping — 

and  he  presses  eyelid  to  eyelid. 

"  This  is,  of  course,  fanciful. 

'  Aen.,  VI,  686  where  gtnia  could  mean  '  on  his  cheeks.' 

381 


ENNIUS 
436 

Servius  (auctus),  ad  Aen.,  IX,  399  :  '  Pulchram  proi)eret 
per  vulnera  mortem  ' ;  aut  deest  adire  aut  deest  ad  .  .  .  aut 
certe  antique  properet  mortem  ut  .  .  .  Ennius — 

festivum  festinant  diem 

Cp.  Serv.  auct.,  ad  Verg.,  Georg.,  IV,  170. 


437 

Festus,  532,  4  :  '  Topper '  significare  ait  Artorius  cito, 
fortasse,  celeriter,  temere.  .  .  .  Sinnius  vero  sic  :  topper 
fortasse  valet  in  Enni  et  Pacuvi  scriptis;   apud  Ennium  est — 


Topper  quam  nemo  melius  scit 


SATURAE 

It  is  a  matter  of  doubt  whether  Ennius  wrote  four  or  six 
books  of  Satires ;  nor  is  it  known  whether  any  or  all  of  Ennius' 
minor  works  under  other  titles  should  be  included  in  them. 
With  regard  to  the  number  of  books,  Porphyrio,  ad  Hor.,  S., 
I,  10,  46,  says  that  Ennius  left  four  books  of  Satires.  But 
Donatus,  ad  Ter.  Phorm.,  II,  2,  25,  seems  to  quote  from  a 
sixth  book.  In  Porphyrio,  UII  was  perhaps  written  or 
misread  as  IIII,  and  even  the  name  Ennius  is  not  there  clearly 
recorded;  or  in  Donatus  IV  was  read  or  miscopied  as  VI. 
With  regard  to  certain  minor  works,  it  is  possible  that  the 
work  Scipio  cited  by  several  authors  (see  below)  is  the  title 
of  the  third  book  of  the  Satires,  to  which  the  frs.  of  Scipio 


"  The  fragment  might  be  from  the  Annals,  but  Festus  in 
this  passage  seems  to  be  quoting  from  plays  only. 

382 


SATIRES 


436 


Servius  (supplemented)  on  '  Hastens  death  '  in  Virgil : 
We  must  supply  '  adest  '  or  '  ad  '  .  .  .  or  at  any  rate  '  pro- 
peret  mortem  '  is  put  in  archaic  style  as  we  find  in  .  .  . 
Ennius — ■ 

They  hurry  the  merry-making  of  the  day 


437 

Festns :  Artorius  sajs  that  '  topper '  means  quickly, 
perhaps,  swiftly,  rashly.  .  .  .  But  Sinnius  writes  thus : 
'  topper  '  in  the  writings  of  Ennius  and  Pacuvius  has  the  force 
of  '  perhaps  ' ;   we  find  in  a  passage  of  Ennius  ' — 

Whom  perhaps  no  one  ^  knows  better 


SATIRES 

would  thus  belong.  I  would  point  out  that  only  Nonius  quotes 
from  Satires  Bk.  Ill,  and  he  never  quotes  from  Scipio.  But 
in  view  of  Gellius,  ^^,  9,  1,  etc.,  and  IV,  7,  2  (quoted  below), 
we  most  separate  Scipio  from  the  Satires.  We  can  see  that 
the  Satires  were  written  in  a  variety  of  metres:  that  they 
included  dialogues  and  fables;  that  some  of  them  had  a 
direct  and  censorious  bearing  on  public  morals  and  politics; 
and  that  Ennius  claimed  to  write  in  a  free  conversational  and 
light-hearted  manner.  It  seems  that,  the  old  native  drama 
satura  having  been  replaced  by  Greek  plays,  Ennius  invented 
here  a  new  form  of  literature  which  preserved  some  of  the 
essential  spirit  of  the  earlier  type. 


*  Yet  topper  seems  to  be  simply  toto  opere,  '  with  all  speed  ' 
or  '  diligence.' 

383 


ENNIUS 

Liber  I 
1 

Nonius,    474,    22  :     '  Convivant '    pro    convivantiir. 
Ennius  Satyrarum  lib.  I — 

Malo  hercle  magno  suo  convivat  sine  modo ! 


2 
Nonius,  510,  7  :   '  Celere  '  pro  celeriter  ...  — 
Dum  quidquid  des  celere. 


Liber  II 
3-4 

Servius   (auctus),   ad   Acn.,   XII,    121  :     '  Pilata,'   fixa   et 
stabilia.  .  .  .  Ennius  Saturarum  II — ■ 

Contemplor 
inde  loci  liquidas  pilatasque  aetheris  oras, 

cum  lirmas  et  stabiles  significaret  quasi  pilis  fultas. 

5 

Nonius,  147,  8  :    '  Obstringillare,'  obstare  ...  — 

Restitant  occurrunt  obstant  obstringillant  obagitant. 

^  magno  suo  Bothe         suo  m.  Non.         convivat.         Sine 
modo  Bothe,  Bh.  Mus.,  V.,  266  fortasse  rede 

384 


SATIRES 

Book  I 

1 
a  glutton  : 

Nonius  :      '  Convivant '     for     '  convivantur.'  .  .  .  Ennius 
in  Book  I  of  the  Satires — 

He's  one  of  the  guzzlers  without  limit,  and,  by 
god,  may  he  be  utterly  damned  for  it ! 

2 
giving  : 

Nonius  :   '  Celere  '  for  '  celeriter  '  .  .  ,  — 

So  long  as  whatever  you  give  it  is  done  quickly. 


Book  II 
3-4 

Servius  (supplemented),  on  '  pilata '  in  Virgil :  '  Pilata,' 
fixed  and  standing  steady.  .  .  .  Ennius  in  Book  II  of  the 
Satires — 

From  that  place  I  gaze  on  the  piled  spaces  of  the 
ether, 

where   he    meant   '  firm   and  standing  steady,'   as  it   were 
supported  by  '  pilae.' 

5 

busybodies  : 

Nonius  :   '  Obstringillare,'  to  stand  in  the  way.  .  .  — 

They  loiter  and  run  to  meet  you,  they  hinder  and 
hamper  and  harass  you. 

385 

VOL.  I.  C  C 


y 


ENNIUS 

Liber  III 

6-7 

Nonius,  33,  4  :    '  Propinare  '  a  Graeco  tractum,  post  potum 
tradere.  .  .  .  Ennius  Satyrarum  lib.  Ill — 

Enni  poeta  salve  qui  mortalibus 
versus  propinas  flammeos  medullitus ! 

Cp.  Non.,  139,  15. 

8-9 

Nonius,  470,  19  :  '  Criminat '  .  .  .  — 

Nam  is  non  bene  vult  tibi  qui  falso  criminat 
aput  te. 

10-11 

Nonius,  66,   18  :     '  Politiones '  agrorum  cultus  diligentes, 
ut  polita  omnia  dicimus  exculta  et  ad  nitorem  deducta  ...  — 

Testes  sunt 
lati  campi  quos  gerit  Africa  terra  politos. 


Liber  IV 

12-13 

Macrobius,  8.,  VI,  5,  5:  '  Tristis '  pro  amaro  translatio 
decens  est,  ut  '  tristisque  lupini.'  Et  ita  Ennius  in  libro 
Saturarum  quarto — 

neque  ille  triste  quaeritat  sinapi 
neque  caepe  maestum. 

Cp.  Serv.,  auct.  ad  Verg.,  Georg.,  I,  75. 

*  namque  is  olim  V  (Rh.  Mus.  XIV,  567) 
386 


SATIRES 

Book  III 

6-7 

Nonius  :  '  Propinare  '  is  derived  from  the  Greek ;  it  means 
to  hand  on  after  drinking.  .  .  .  Ennius  in  Book  III  of  the 
Satires — 

Your  health,  poet  Ennius,  who  pass  to  mortal  men 
a  cup  of  flaming  verses  drawn  from  your  very  marrow ! 

8-9 

Nonius  :    '  Criminat '  .  .  .  — 

For  no  well-wisher  of  yours  is  he  who  spreads 
slanders  in  your  family. 

10-11 

Benefits  conferred  by  Scipio  ?  :  " 

Nonius  :  '  Politiones  '  means  zealous  cultivation  of  fields ; 
even  so  we  call  '  polita '  all  things  that  are  carefully  worked 
and  brought  up  to  brilliance  ...  — 

The  broad  plains  which  the  land  of  Africa  bears 
in  neat  tillage  are  witnesses. 

Book  IV 

12-13 

Habits  of  the  refined  ?  : 

Macrobius :  '  Tristis '  is  a  neat  figure  of  speech  for  '  amarus,' 
like  '  harsh  lupine  '  (Virg.,  G.,  I,  75).  And  so  also  Ennius  in 
the  fourth  book  of  the  Satires — 

He  seeks  and  yearns  neither  for  harsh  mustard 
nor  for  the  weepy  onion. 

"  A  great  store  of  com  brought  by  Scipio  from  Africa  in 
201  B.C.  was  distributed  among  the  people  (cf.  Livy,  XXXI,  4). 

387 
cc2 


ENNIUS 

Ex  LiBRis  Incertis 
14-19 

Donatus,  ad  Ter.,  Phorni.,  II,  2,  25  :  '  Tene  asymbolum 
venire  .  .  .  (ille  ringitur  tu  rideas).'  Haec  non  ab  ApoUodoro 
Bed  e  IV  (  ?)  Satyrarum  Ennii  ...  — 

Quippe  sine  cura  laetus  lautus  cum  advenis 

inferctis  malis  expedite  bracchio, 

alacer  celsus,  lupino  expectans  impetu — ■ 

mox  cum  tu  alterius  abligurias  bona 

quid  censes  domino  esse  animi  ?    Pro  divum  fidem 

is  tristest  dum  cibum  servat,  tu  ridens  voras. 

Gellius,  II,  29,  1  s. :  fabula  de  avicula  '  cassita.' 

20 

Festus,  444,  2  :  '  Subulo  '  Tusce  tibicen  dicitur ;  itaque 
Ennius— 

Subulo  quondam  marinas  propter  astabat  plagas. 
Cp.  Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  35. 


Donat.  sed  de  sexto  sails  cdd.  Leid.  Dresd.  cf.  V.,  p.  206, 
vide  supra,  p.  382. 

1'  expectans  1.  Muret  1.  e.  cdd. 

1'  mox  cum  cdd.  Quam  mox  Muret  abligurias 
Leid.  obligurias  Vat.         tu  addidi 

^*  domino  Muret         domlnos  cdd. 

1'  is  W  tristest  Plasberg  ille  tristis  cibum  dum  vulg. 
ille  tristis  est  dum  cdd.         voras  ed.  princ.         vorans  cdd. 


»  From  a  sixth  book?  V.,  206-7;  prooem.,  1880,  14  ff. 
But  see  p. 

^  This  seems  to  be  correct  here ;  but  in  all  other  occurrences 
of  the  verb  infarcio  (infercio)  the  meaning  is  '  I  stuff.' 

388 


SATIRES 

Unplaced  Fragments  from  the  Satires 

14-19 
A  parasite  "  ; 

Donatus  on  '  The  idea  of  your  coming  scot-free '  in  Terence : 
All  this  is  taken  not  from  Apollodorus  but  from  the  fourth  (?) 
book  of  Ennius'  Satires — 

WTiy,  when  you  come  along  without  a  care  in  the 
world,  gaily  spick  and  span,  your  cheeks  unstuffed,* 
your  arm  bared  ready,  tripping  a-tip-toe,  waiting 
all  taut  like  a  wolf — when  soon  you  are  lapping  up 
another's  goods,  in  what  mind,  think  you,  is  your 
host?  He's  down  in  the  dumps,  God's  truth,  while 
he  lays  up  a  store  of  vittles  and  you  gobble  it  with  a 
grin. 

I.  In  trochaic  metre. 

A  complete  (?)  Satire  on  Aesop's  fable  '  The  crested  Lark  and 
its  Chicks.* '  See  text  and  translation  in  the  Loeb  edition  of 
(rellius. 

20 

On  the  flute-player  who  tried  to  catch  sea-fish  by  piping  to 
them.^ 

Festus :  '  Subulo '  is  a  Tuscan  term  for  a  flute-player ; 
and  so  we  have  in  Ennius — 

A  piper  once  stood  near  the  regions  of  the  sea. 

«  Aesop,  f.,  210  H.;  Babr.,  88;  Avianus,  21.  There  can  be 
no  doubt,  on  the  evidence  of  words  and  phrases  of  archaic 
look  and  of  trochaic  metre  in  Gellius'  reproduction,  that 
Vahlen  is  right  in  believing  that  Gellius'  prose  reproduces 
Ennius'  verse  though  it  hides  the  metre  almost  completely — 
v.,  CCXI-CCXII ;  Ribbeck,  Rh.  ilus.,  X,  290  S.  (an  attempt 
at  restoring  Ennius'  verses). 

"  Herod.,  I,  141 ;   V.,  CCXIII-CCXIV. 


ENNIUS 

21 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  434,  6  K  :  Nos  quoque  philosopher 
architector  poetor  in  usu  habuimus.     Ennius — 

Numquam  poetor  nisi  si  podager. 


22 

Gtellius,  VI,  9  :   Q.  Ennius  in  Saturis  '  memorderit '   dixit 
per  e  litteram  non  momorderit — 

Non  est  meum  ac  si  me  canis  memorderit. 


23 

Cicero,  de  Nat.  Deor.,  I,  35,  97  :  Ipsa  vero  quam  nihil  ad 
rem  pertinet  quae  vos  delectat  maxime  similitudo.  Quid  ? 
Canis  nonne  similis  lupo  atque  ut  Ennius — 

Simla  quam  similis  turpissima  bestia  nobis ! 

At  mores  in  utroque  dispares. 

Cp.  Seren.  Sammon.,  Lib.  Med.,  819. 


24 

Paulus,    ex    Fest.,    41,    27    (23)  :     ...  Ennius  .  .  .  cum 
dicit — 

Propter  stagna  ubi  lanigerum  genus  piscibus  pascit, 

esse  paludem  deraonstrat  in   qua  nascuntur  pisces  similes 
ranunculis  quos  oves  consectatae  edunt. 

2^  si  add.  V         sim  Mr.         nisi  p.  cdd. 
^^  non  est  ut  cdd.  Non.         meum  inquit  non  est  ac  cdd. 
Oell. 

$90 


SATIRES 

II.  In  iambic  metre. 

21 

Ennius  and  his  Satires  : 

Priscianus :  We  also  have  had  in  use  the  verbs '  philosopher,' 
'  architector,' '  poetor.'     Ennius — 

I  never  indulge  in  poetics 

Unless  I  am  down  with  rheumatics. 

22 

His  indifference  : 

GelUus  :  Quintus  Ennius  in  the  Satires  used  '  memorderit ' 
with  the  letter  e,  not  momorderit.    He  says — 

It's  not  my  way,  as  if  a  dog  has  bitten  me. 

III.  In  hexameters. 

23 

Cicero :  But  that  very  resemblance  which  takes  j^oiu" 
fancy  so  very  much — how  utterly  beside  the  point  it  is  ! 
Why,  does  not  a  dog  look  like  a  wolf  ?  And  again,  as  Ennius 
has  it — 

That  ugly  beast  the  ape  's  the  very  spit  of  us ! 

But  in  both  the  habits  are  different. 

24 
Beginning  of  a  fable  ?  : 
Paulus  :    .  .  .  Ennius  .  .  .  when  he  says — 

Hard  by  the  pools  where  the  woolly  tribe  feeds  on 

fishes, 

he  illustrates  the  existence  of  a  swamp  in  which  are  bred 
fishes  looking  like  buttercups  *  which  sheep  hunt  out  and  eat. 

"  I  take  the  word  as  meaning  the  flower  described  by 
Pliny,  XXV,  172.  Would  sheep  hunt  things  looking  like 
little  frogs  or  tadpoles?  :,  . 

391 


ENNIUS 
25-6 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  71  :   Apud  Ennium — 
<massas)  -  ^  decern  coclites  quas  montibus  summis 
Ripaeis  fodere, 
ab  oculo  codes  ut  ocles  dictus,  qui  uuum  haberet  oculum. 


27 

Festus,  490,  7  :  '  Scirpus '  est  id  quod  in  palustribus 
locis  nascitur  leva  et  procerum  unde  tegetes  fiunt.  Inde 
proverbium  est  in  eas  natum  res  quae  nullius  inpedimenti 
sunt,  in  scirpo  nodum  quaerere.    Ennius — 

Quaerunt  in  scirpo  soliti  quod  dicere  nodum. 

Cp.  Isidor.,  Orig.,  XVII,  9,  97. 


28-31 

Gellius,  XVIII,  2,  7  :  Nuper  quaesita  esse  memini  numero 
septem  quorum  prima  fuit  enarratio  horum  versuum  qui 
sunt  in  Saturis  Q.  Enni  uno  multifariam  verbo  concinniter 
inplicati.    Quorum  exemplum  hoc  est — 

Nam  qui  lepide  postulat  alterum  frustrari 
quem  frustratur  frustra  eum  dicit  frustra  esse; 
nam  qui  sese  frustrari  quem  frustra  sentit, 
qui  frustratur  frustra  est  si  non  ille  est  frustra. 

*'  <massas>  L 

'"  nam   qui  sese  cdd.  nam   si  se   Usenet,   Hosius 

frustra  sentit  Pet.  frustras  rell. 

*^  ille  frustra  est  Skutsch 


SATIRES 
25-6 

Gold-mining  of  the  Arimaspi  in  Scythia  :  ' 

Varro  :   In  a  passage  of  Enoiua — 

ten  nuggets  which  the  One-Eyed  have  mined  on  the 
Ripaean  mountain-tops, 

'  codes,'  as  it  were  '  ocles,'  was  derived  from  '  ocuIob,'  '  codes ' 
meaning  a  man  having  one  eye. 

27 

Ill-natured  critics  : 

Festus  :  '  Scirpus '  is  that  smooth  tall  plant  which  grows 
in  marshy  places  and  from  which  mats  are  made.  From  this 
rose  the  proverb  which  is  applied  to  things  which  present 
no  hindrance — '  to  look  for  a  faiot  in  a  bulrush.'    Ennius — 

As  the  common  saying  goes,  they  are  seeking  a 
knot  in  a  bulrush. 

IV.  In  Salumian  metre. 

28-31 
On  cheattTtg  : 

Gellius :  I  remember  that  not  long  ago  we  put  questions 
seven  in  number,  of  which  the  first  was  an  explanation  of 
those  lines  in  the  Satires  of  Quintus  Ennius,  which  are  deftly 
tangled  up  with  one  word  used  in  a  number  of  different 
phrases.    They  read  as  follows — 

For  he  who  wants  to  be  smart  and  trick  his  fellow, 
is  tricked  when  he  says  the  other  whom  he  tricks  is 
tricked.  For  he  who  is  tricked  into  feeling  that  he 
is  tricking  someone,  the  tricker  is  tricked  if  the  other 
is  not  tricked. 

•  Herod.,  m,  116;  IV,  13,  14,  27.  The  fr.  suggests  a 
mocking  allusion  to  ostentatious  wealth. 

393 


ENNIUS 


Quintilianus,  IX,  2,  36 :  Sed  formas  quoque  fingimus 
saepe  ut  .  .  .  Mortem  et  Vitam  quas  contendentes  in  satura 
tradit  Ermius. 


SCIPIO 

This  poem  (probably  not  to  be  taken  either  as  a  drama  or  as 
the  third  book  of  the  Satires  or  as  part  of  it — see  p.  382) 
celebrated  the  African  campaigns  of  Ennius'  friend  Scipio 
Africanus,  in  which  Scipio  brought  the  second  Punic  War  to  a 


Suidas,  s.v.  "Ewios  •  Pcufiaios  ttoltittjs  ov  AiXiavos  enaiveiv 
d^iov  (firjaiv.  ^Ktiriwva  yap  aScuv  Kal  em  fieya  tov  avbpa  e^dpai 
PovXo/ievos  <f>rjai  fiovov  dv  'O/i-qpov  ina^iots  inaivovs  etnelv 
'S.KLniuivos  ■ 

1-4 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  2,  26  :  '  Turn  pater  omnipotens  .  .  . 
premit  placida  aequora  pontus '  (Aen.,  X,  100  s.).  Ennius  in 
Scipione — 

Mundus  caeli  vastus  constitit  silentio 
et  Neptunus  saevus  undis  asperis  pausam  dedit, 
sol  equis  iter  repressit  ungulis  volantibus, 
constitere  amnes  perennes,  ar bores  vento  vacant. 


"  It  was  probably  a  poem  with  the  same  idea  as  Novius' 
'  Mortis  et  Vitae  iiidicium.'    Vahlen,  CCXIII. 

*  I  would  compare  Livy,  XXIX,  27  (204  B.C.)  ;  others 
cite  Livy,  XXVIII,  17  (206  B.C.). 

394 


SCIPIO 

V.  Unknoum. 

A  dialogue  between  Life  and  Death  : 

Quintilian  :  But  we  often  enough  personify  the  abstract, 
as  Ennius  does  in  one  ■•  of  his  Satires  where  he  represents 
Death  and  Life  wrangling  with  each  other. 


SCIPIO 

close  with  the  battle  of  Zama  in  202  B.C.  I  have  not  adopted 
Vahlen's  order,  because  it  seems  to  me  natural  that  in  the 
poem  the  description  of  the  campaign  should  come  before  the 
description  of  Scipio's  reception  by  the  Roman  people. 


I.  Prelvde. 

Scipio  is  vcorthy  of  the  greatest  of  poets  : 

Suidas :  Ennius,  a  Roman  poet  whom  Aelian  states  to  be 
worthy  of  praise.  For,  in  a  poem  of  praise  on  Scipio,  with  the 
desire  of  extolling  his  hero  he  says  that  '  Homer  alone  could 
utter  praises  worthy  of  Scipio.' 


II.  Scipio's  African  campaigns  described  in  varying  metres  to 
suit  either  slow  or  rapid  action. 

1-4 

The  calm  crossing  to  Africa  :  * 

Macrobius,  on  Virgil's  verses  about  the  calm  caused  by 
Jupiter  speaking  :   Ennius  in  Scipio — 

The  vast  firmament  of  heaven  stood  still  in  silence, 
and  ^\-ild  Neptune  gave  rest  to  his  rough  billows, 
Sun  checked  the  charge  of  his  horses'  winged  hoofs, 
the  ever-flowing  rivers  stood  still,  and  the  trees  were 
void  of  wind. 

395 


ENNIUS 


Gellius,  IV,  7,  3  :  Solius  Ennii  versum  unum  ponit  (Probus) 
ex  libro  qui  Scipio  inscribitur ;  eum  versum  quadrate  numero 
factum  subiecimus,  in  quo  nisi  tertia  syllaba  de  Haimibalis 
nomine  circumflexe  promatur  numerus  clausurus  est.  Versus 
Ennii  quem  dixit  ita  est — 

.  .  .  qua  propter  Hannibalis  copias  considerat. 
6 

II.,  XIII,  339-40  :  e^pifev  8e  nd)^r)  (ftOiaifi^poTOS  iy\eiy]aiv  \ 
fiaKpfjs- 

Macrobius,  S.,  VI,  4,  6  :  '  Tum  ferreus  hastis  |  horret 
ager.'  'Horret'  mire  se  habet;  sed  et  Ennius  ...  in 
Scipione — 

Sparsis  hastis  longis  campus  splendet  et  horret. 

Cp.  Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  XI,  601. 


Cicero,  Ornt.,  45,  152 :  Nobis  ne  si  cupiamus  quidem  distra- 
here  voces  conceditur.  Indicant  .  .  .  omnes  poetae  praeter 
eos  qui  ut  versum  facerent  saepe  hiabant  .  .  .  Ennius 
saepe — 

Scipio  invicte 

8-9 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  561,  32  (20)  :  '  Vel'  conligatio  ...  est 
disiunctiva  .  .  .  earum  (rcrum)  quae  non  sunt  contra,  e 
quibus  quae  eligatur  nihil  interest,  ut  Ennius — 

'  Vel  tu  dictator  vel  equorum  equitumque  magister 
esto  vel  consul.' 

^  qua  cdd.         quaque  Hertz         si  qua  Buecheler 

"  Some  compare  App.,  Lift.,  39:  'S.Knrioiv  TlapBov  .  .  .  elXe 
Kox  TrXrjaiov  'AvvtjSou  fieTeoTpaToneSevev. 

*  Or,  '  wherefore  he  reconnoitres  Hannibal's  host.'  In  this 
line  Hannibahs  must  be  spoken  with  the  third  syllable  long 
instead  of  short. 


SCIPIO 


Scipio  pitches  his  camp  close  to  Hannibal :  ' 
(Jellius :  It  is  from  Enniiis  alone  that  Probus  cites  a  line, 
and  only  one,  from  the  book  entitled  Scipio,  I  have  given  this 
line  below,  written  in  eight-footed  rhythm;  in  this  line, 
unless  the  third  sj-llable  of  the  genitive  of  the  name  '  Hannibal ' 
is  spoken  with  a  circumflex  '  Hannibalis,'  the  rhythm  is  bound 
to  halt.    The  line  of  Ennius  which  he  quoted  is  as  follows — 

where  near  Hannibal's  host  he  had  made  his 
camp.* 

6 

A  battle  : 

Macrobius,  on  '  the  plain  bristles  with  spears '  in  Virgil : 
'  Horret '  is  a  very  strange  term.  But  Ennius  also  has  .  .  . 
in  Scipio — 

The  plain  gleams  and  bristles  with  long  spears 
all  over  it. 

m.  After  the  victory,  the  Boman  people  offer  great  honours 
to  Scipio  : 

7 

Cicero  :  We  do  not  allow  ourselves  to  leave  a  hiatus  even 
if  we  may  wish ;  ...  all  the  poets  point  this  way  to  us  .  .  . 
except  those  who  \ised  many  a  time  to  allow  a  hiatus  in  order 
to  make  a  line  .  .  .  Ennius  often  does  it— 

O  Scipio  '  unconquered 

&-9 
The  people  offer  him  a  perpetual  ^  dictatorship  or  consulship  : 
Paulus  :   '  Vel '  is  a  connecting  particle  which  is  disjunctive 
.  .  .  and  parts  those  things  which  are  not  opposites,  and  of 
which  it  does  not  matter  which  you  choose;    for  example, 
Ennius  has — 

'  Be  you  dictator  or  master  of  the  horse  and 
horsemen,  or  be  you  consul.' 

'  As  Cicero  shows  in  his  next  example,  Ennius'  phrase  scans : 
Scipio  invicte.  '  Livy,  XXXVIII,  36. 

397 


ENNIUS 
10-11 

Trebellius  Pollio  in  Hist.  Atig.,  Clmid.,  7,  6  :  Rogo  quantum 
pretium  est  clypeus  in  curia  tantae  victoriae,  quantum  una 
aurea  statua  ?     Dicit  Ennius  de  Scipione — 

[Quantam  statuam  faciet  populus  Romanus 
quantam  columnam  quae  res  tuas  gestas  loquatur  ?] 

12-14 

Cicero,  de  Fin.,  II,  32,  106  :  Fluit  igitur  voluptas  corporis, 
et  prima  quaeque  avolat  saepiusque  relinquit  causam  paeni- 
tendi  quam  recordandi.  Itaque  beatior  Africanus  cum  patria 
illo  modo  loquens — 

*  Desine  Roma  tuos  hostes 
et  reliqua  praeclare — 

*  Nam  tibi  moenimenta  mei  peperere  labores. 

Cicero,  de  Oral.,  Ill,  42,  167  :  Ornandi  causa  proprium 
proprio  commutatum  ...  — 

*  Testes  sunt  campi  magni. 


EPIGRAMMATA 
1-2 

Cicero,  Tmsc.  Z)isp.,V,  17,  49  :  Estinaliqua  vitapraedicabile 
aliquidetgloriandumacpraeseferendum.ut  .  .  .  Africanus — 

10-11  fortasse  quantam  statuam  faciet  quantam ve  colum- 
nam I  Romanus  populus  quae  te  et  tua  gesta  loquatur 
vel  -KJK,-  q.  s.  q.  c.  |  R.  p.  faciet  tua  gesta  loquentem, 
Quam  tantam  statuam  statuet  populus  Romanus  |  quamve 
columnam  quae  te  res  gestasque   loquatur  L  Quantam 

statuam  statuet  p.  |  quamve  c.  |  quae  te  et  tua  gesta  loquatur 
Rciper,  de  Q.  E.  Scip.,  29 

^'  moenimenta  Klotz  munimenta  Muret  moni-, 

monumenta  cdd. 


EPIGRAMS 

10-11  / 

They  desire  to  set  up  statues  of  him  : 

Trebellius  Pollio  :  What  sort  of  reward  for  so  great  a  victory, 
I  ask  you,  is  a  shield  in  the  senate-house  or  a  golden  statue  ? 
Ennius  says  of  Scipio — 

WTiat  statue,  what  pillar,  will  the  Roman  people 
make,  such  as  will  tell  of  your  great  deeds  ?  " 

IV.  Scipio  refuses  *  all  these  honours  : 

12-U 

Cicero :  Well  then,  bodily  pleasures  flow  away ;  each  in 
turn  fades  and  leaves  oftener  cause  for  repentance  than  for 
remembrance.  The  happier  therefore  was  Africanus  when  he 
was  conversing  with  his  fatherland  in  the  following  fashion — 

'  Rome,  cease  you  your  foes  to  fear 

and  the  rest,  a  brilliant  speech — 

'  since  bulwarks  for  you  have  my  toils  begotten. 

Cicero  :  For  the  sake  of  adornment  one  proper  name  i8 
exchanged  for  another  ...  — 

'  The  great  plains  are  witnesses."^ 

EPIGRAMS  (Epitaphs) 

I.  On  Scipio  Africanus  : 

1-2 

(a)  Cicero  :  In  some  life  or  other  there  is  something  worthy 
to  be  praised  and  boasted  of  and  shown  in  full  view;  for 
example  .  .  .  Africanus — 

"  Trebellius  has  not  given  Ennius'  verses.  I  give  some 
possible  restorations ;  see  the  critical  note. 

'  Livy,  I.e. 

'  In  this  passage  of  Cicero  this  fr.  is  preceded  by  line  12, 
and  so  it  probably  belongs  to  Ennius'  Scipio.  For  the  place 
called  Magni  Campi,  cf.  Livj',  XXX,  8. 

399 


ENNIUS 

A  sole  exoriente  supra  Maeotis  paludes 
nemo  est  qui  factis  aequiperare  queat. 


3-4 

Lactantius,  Div.  Instil.,  I,  18,  10  :  Siquis  unum  hominem 
iugulaverit  pro  contaminate  ac  nefario  habetur  .  .  .  Ille 
autem  qui  infinita  hominum  milia  trucidarit  .  .  .  non  modo 
in  templum  sed  etiam  in  caelum  admittitur.  Apud  Ennium 
sic  loquitur  Africanus — 

Si  fas  endo  plagas  caelestum  ascendere  cuiquam  est, 
mi  soli  caeli  maxima  porta  patet. 

Cp.  Sen.,  Ep.,  108,  34. 

5-6 

Cicero,  de  Leg.,  II,  22,  57 :  (Sulla)  primus  e  patriciis 
Corneliis  igni  voluit  cremari.  Declarat  enim  Ennius  de 
Africano — 

Hie  est  ille  situs 

vere,  nam  siti  dicuntur  ii  qui  conditi  sunt. 

Seneca,  Ep.,  108,  32 :  (grammaticus)  deinde  Ennianos 
coUigit  versus  et  in  primis  illos  de  Africano  scriptos — 

cui  nemo  civis  neque  hostis 
quibit  pro  factis  reddere  opis  pretium. 

Ex  eo  se  ait  intellegere  aput  antiquos  non  tantum  auxilium 
significasse  opem  sed  operam;  ait  enim  Ennius  neminem 
potuisse  Scipioni  neque  civem  neque  hostem  reddere  operae 
pretium. 


^  Sen.,  Ep.,  108,  32  Ennianos,  Pintianus         inanes  cdd. 
*  quibit    Pintianus  quivit    Muret  qui    vult    cdd. 

opis  V        operae  cdd. 

400 


EPIGRAMS 

From  the  rising  of  the  sun  above  the  marshes 
of  Maeotis  "  comes  no  one  whose  deeds  could  balance 
his. 

3-4 

Lactantius  :  If  anyone  has  cut  even  one  man's  throat 
he  is  held  to  be  polluted  and  loathsome  .  .  .  but  he  who  has 
butchered  men  in  thousands  without  end  ...  is  received 
not  only  into  a  temple  but  even  into  heaven.  In  a  passage  of 
Ennius,  Africanus  speaks  in  this  way— 

If  it  is  right  for  anyone  to  go  up  into  the 
regions  of  heaven's  dwellers,  for  me  alone 
heaven's  great  gate  lies  open. 

5-6 

(6)  Cicero  :  Sulla  was  the  first  of  those  Comelii  who  were 
patricians  to  see  fit  that  his  corpse  should  be  burnt.  Xow 
Ennius  has  a  statement  about  Africanus — 

Here  lies  the  man 

truly  so;  for  '  lies  '  is  a  term  applied  to  those  who  have  been 
buried  in  a  grave. 

Seneca  :  And  then  the  scholar  collects  verses  of  Ennius, 
especially  those  written  about  Africanus — 

to  whom  no  one,  fellow-countryman 
or  foeman,  will  be  able  to  render  for  his  pains  a 
recompense  fitting  his  deeds. 

From  this  the  scholar  states  he  understands  that  in  works 
of  archaic  writers  '  ops '  meant  not  only  help  but  efforts ; 
for  what  Ennius  means  is  that  no  one,  neither  countrjman  nor 
foeman,  was  able  to  render  Scipio  a  recompense  for  his  efforts.* 


'  Sea  of  Azov. 

*  The  close  imion  of  these  quotations  from  Cic.  and  Sen.  is 
probably  right,  but  the  reading  in  the  second  line  is  doubtful. 
Cf.  v.,  215-16,  whom  I  have  followed. 

401 

VOL.  I.  D  D 


ENNIUS 
7-10 

Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp.,  I,  15,  34:    Quid?     Poetae  nonne  post 
mortem  nobilitari  volunt  ?    Unde  ergo  illud — 

Aspicite  o  cives  senis  Enni  imaginis  formam. 
Hie  vestrum  pinxit  maxima  facta  patrum. 

Mercedem  gloriae  flagitat  ab  iis  quorum  patres  adfecerat 
gloria.    Idemque — 

Nemo  me  lacrimis  decoret  nee  funera  fletu 

faxit.    Cur  ?    Volito  vivus  per  ora  virum. 

Cp.  id.,  49,  117;  de  Senect.,  20,  73. 


SOTA 

Cf.  Fronto,  Epp.,  Vol.  I,  p.  78,  Haines  :  Sota  Ennianus 
remissus  a  te  et  in  charta  puriore  et  volumine  gratiore  et 
littera  festiviore  quam  antea  fuerat  videtur. 

1 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  41,  25  (23)  :— 

Cyprio  bovi  merendam 

Ennius  Sotadico  versu  cum  dixit  significavit  id  quod  solet 
fieri  in  insula  Cypro,  in  qua  boves  humano  stercore  pascuntur. 


*  pinxit  cdd.  panxit  edd. 

^-i"  decoret   n.  f.  f.  faxit  add.  ex  Cic,  id.,  49,    117   et  de 
Senect.,  20,  73 

402 


SOTAS 

n.  On  Ennius  himself. 

7-10 

(a)  For  his  portrait  ;  (b)  »  for  his  sepulchre  : 

Cicero :   Why,  do  not  poets  wish  to  be  made  famous  after 
death?     Well  then,  hence  arises  the  famous — 

(a)  Look,  ye  citizens,  on  the  portrait  of  Ennius 
in  his  old  age.  'Twas  he  painted  the  doughtiest 
deeds  of  your  fathers. 

He  demands  a  guerdon  of  glory  from  those  whose  fathers  he 
had  endowed  with  glory.    And  the  same  poet  has — 

(b)  Let  none  embelHsh  me  with  tears, 
Or  make  a  funeral  with  wailing  ; 

And  why  ?    Alive  from  lips  to  lips  of  men 
I  go  a-winging. 


SOTAS 

This  title  was  probably  one  given  by  Ennius  to  some  poem 
of  Sotades  (a  coarse  poet  of  the  third  century  B.C.)  which 
he  translated.  Sota  would  correspond  with  2ajrds  a  shortened 
form  of  SorrdSijj. 

1 

On  cattle  of  Cyprus  : 

Paulus  :   When  Ennius  in  a  Sotadic  line  used  the  phrase — 

lunch  for  a  bull  of  Cyprus 

he  referred  to  what  often  happens  in  the  island  of  Cyprus, 
where  the  kine  are  pastured  on  human  dung. 

"  Cicero's  own  way  of  quotation  here  makes  it  certain 
that  these  are  two  separate  epigrams;  and  other  passages 
(see  opposite)  show  that  the  author  of  both  was  Ennius; 
cf.  Jahn, /ferm.,  II,  242. 

403 
DD  2 


ENNIUS 


Varro,  L.L.,  V,  62  :   A  vinctura  dicitur  vieri  id  est  vinciri, 
a  quo  est  in  Sota  Enni — 

Ibant  malaci  viere  Veneriam  coroUam ! 

Cp.  Fest.,  570,  22  :  auct.,  de  metr.,  ap.  G.L.,  VI,  613,  15  K. 


Festus,   538,    fin.  :     '  Tonsam '    Ennius   significat   remum, 
quod  quasi  tondeatur  ferro,  cum  ait  ...  in  Sota — 

Alius  in  mari  vult  magno  tenere  tonsam 


Paulus,  ex  F.,  539,  5  :  '  Tongere  '  nosse  est,  nam  Praenestini 
tongitionem  dicunt  notionem.    Ennius — 

alii  rhetorica  tongent. 

Cp.  Fest.,  538,  12. 

5 

auct.,  de  metr.,  ap.  O.L.,  VI,  613,  16  :  lonicus  a  maiore — 
lUe  ictus  retro  reccidit  in  natem  supinus. 
habet  vitium  in  tertia  syllaba. 


*  trib.  Sot.  et  cum  3  coniunx.  S 

*  trib.  Enn.  Sot.  L 


404 


SOTAS 

2 
Wanton  living  : 

Varro  :    From  '  vinctura  '  is  derived  '  vieri '  which  means 
'  vinciri.'    Hence  it  is  we  have  in  Ennius'  Solas — 

They   were   going    along   to   plait    a   little    love- 
garland — the  lechers ! 

3 

Ambitions  of  men  ;  the  uxmld-be  mariner  : 

Festus  :    By  '  tonsa  '  Ennius  means  oar,  because  it  as  it 
were  '  tonditur '  with  a  knife,  when  he  says  ...  in  Solas — 

One  man  wishes  to  hold  a  trimmer  on  the  mighty 
main 


Would-be  orators  : 

Paulus  :    '  Tongere  '  means  to  know,  for  the  Praenestines 
use  the  term  '  tongitio  '  to  express  knowing.    Ennius — 

Others  ken  well  the  rules  of  rhetoric." 


A  comic  scene  ?  : 

A  grammarian  :  Ionic  '  a  maiore  ' — 

Punched  he  fell  back  again  square  on  his  bum. 

This  line  has  *  a  fault  in  the  third  syllable. 

"»  The  attribution  of  this  and  the  next  fragment  is  not 
certain,  but  they  probably  do  come  from  Solas. 

*  Xot  if  we  elide  the  s  in  icius  and  read  llle  tctu'  retro.  This 
line  is  quoted  closely  after  line  2. 

405 


ENNIUS 
PROTREPTICUM 

SIVE 

PRAECEPTA 
1-3 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  532,  16  K  :  Vetustissimi  tamen 
etiam  in  simplici  '  serui '  protulisse  inveniuntur  pro  ordinavi 
et  pro  sevi.    Ennius  in  I'raeceptis — 

Ubi  videt  avenam  lolium  crescere  inter  triticum, 
selegit  secernit  aufert;  sedulo  ubi  operam  addidit, 
.  .  .  quam  tanto  studio  seruit. 


HEDYPHAGETICA  (?) 

Cp.  Athenae.,  Ill,  92  d  : 

'ApxearpaTos  S'  eV  TaaTpovofiia  <f>r]al- 

Tovs  fJ'VS  Afros  «X^t  fieyaXovs  ooTpua  8'  'A^vSos 

Tovs  Se  KT€vas  y]  VlnvXrjVTj' 
nXeiOTovs  8'  'A/ij8pa/cia  irapexei  2-3 

VII,  300  d  :   Tov   S'  eXon'   eade  fiaXiara    ^vpaKovaais   evi 
kXuvois  I  TOV  ye  KpariorevovTa.  6 

VII,  320  a  :  oKapov  e^  'E^e'crou  ^TjTct.    .    .   .   Kal  oKapov  iv 
■napaXo)  KaX-)(rjh6vi  tov  fieyav  onTa.  7 

VII,  318  f :  TTOvXvnoi.  Iv  re  &daa)  Kal   Kapla  elalv  apioToi    10 
Kal  KepKvpa  rpe'^ei  (leydXovs  ttoXXovs  tc  to  nXijOos- 

Protkepticus  V,  E.  in  Protreptico  Charis.  G.L.,  I,  54 
'  lacun.  post  2  stat.  W         quoniam  V.,  Rh.  Mus.,  XVI,  580 
quam  odd. 

"  Charisius,  quoting  '  pannibus '  as  abl.  or  dat.  plural  for 
'  pannus  '  (rag),  says  Ennius  in  Protreptico.     Vahlen  would 

406 


EXHORTATION 
AN  EXHORTATION 

OR 

RULES  OF  CONDUCT 

Doubtless  a  poem  of  precepts  based  on  a  Greek  model  of 
which  the  title  was  nporpeTrriKov." 

1-3 

Priscianus :  Still  the  oldest  writers  are  found  to  have 
used,  when  conjugating,  the  form  '  semi '  even  in  the  non- 
compounds,  both  in  the  sense  of  '  I  put  together'  [i.e.  from 
sero,  sertum)  and  of  '  I  sowed  '  {i.e.  from  sera,  satum).  Ennius 
in  Rules  of  Conduct — 

When  he  sees  wild  oats  and  darnel  growing  among 
the  wheat,  away  he  picks  them,  parts  them,  carts 
them ;  when  he  has  further  bestowed  honest  care  ^ 
.  .  .  which  was  sown  with  such  ardour. 


DELIKATESSEN  (?) 

Whether  this  be  the  true  title  or  not,  it  is  certain  that 
Ennius  wrote  a  poem  on  tit-bits  based  on  a  mock-heroic 
poem  of  Archestratus  of  Gela  (fourth  cent.  B.C.),  which  is 
quoted  under  various  titles.  The  single  surviving  fragment 
of  Ennius'  version  is  quoted  by  Apuleius  from  the  part  dealing 
with  fish  and  other  sea-animals.  He  quoted  from  memorj-  and 
could  remember  only  a  few  lines ;  the  corresponding  fragments 
of  Archestratus  given  opposite  suggest  that  Apuleius  left 
out  some  lines.  Some  of  the  readings '  are  very  uncertain, 
and  there  are  irregularities  in  the  metre. 

make  the  title  npoTpe-rrrtKos,  but  the  title  (?)  Praecepta  given 
by  Priscianus  suggests  that  Protrepticum  Ls  right. 

*  It  looks  as  though  a  whole  line  and  one  word  more  has 
dropped  out  here. 

'  For  these  cf.  V.,  Rh.  Mus.,  XVI,  581  S.  Bergk.,  Annal. 
Fkckeis.,  LXXXII,  621  £E, 

407 


ENNIUS 

1-11 

Apuleius,  Apolog.,  39  :  Q.  Ennius  hedyphagetica  scripsit. 
Tnnumerabilia  genera  piscium  enumerat  quae  scilicet  curiose 
cognorat.     Paucos  versus  memini;   eos  dicam — 

Omnibus  ut  Clupea  praestat  mustela  marina ! 
Mures  sunt  Aeni  asperaque  ostrea  plurima  Abydi.  .  . 
Mitylenae  est  pecten  erebrumque  apud  Ambraciae 

or  as. 
Brundisii  sargus  bonus  est,  hunc  magnus  si  erit  sume. 
Apriculum  piscem  scito  primum  esse  Tarenti.  5 

Surrenti  tu  elopem  fac  emas  glaucumque  aTro  Ku'/xr/s. 
Quid    scarus?      Praeterii,    cerebrum     lovis    paene 

supremi, 
(Nestoris  ad  patriam  hie  capitur  magnusque  bonusque) 
melanurum       turdum       merulamque      umbramque 

marinam. 
Polypus  Corcyrae  est,  calvaria  pinguia,  acarnae,    10 
purpura,  muriculi,  mures,  dulces  quoque  echini. 

Apul. :  Hedvphagetica  Scriver        hedesphagitica  cdd. 
»  Clupeae  T"^       clipea  cd.  FL,  68,  2 
^  Aeni  super  B 

*  fortasse  Mitylenae  |  e.  p.  c.  a.  Ambraciai  fines 
crebrum  B,  W  caradrum  17.,  68,  2;  29,  2  oras  W 
Ambracienses  Casaubon  'A/ijSpa/ci'r^^iv  coni.  V.  Am- 
braciae finis  FL,  68,  2, 29,  2  caradrumque  apud  Ambraciai 
Vliet          finis  seclud.  Vliet 

*  fin.  vers,  corrupt.  ?   latei  fortasse  assum 

*  Surrenti  tu  B  Surrentid  Saumaise  Surrenti  face 
emas  helopem  oliyn  V  surrentia  elope  fac  emas  vel 
surenti  a  telope  face  emas  FL,  68,  2;  29,  2  aTro  Ku/xi;y 
Bergk  glaucum  prope  Mr.  face  Cumis  B  aput 
cumas  FL,  68,  2;   29,  2 

'  Quid  scaru'  Bergk         quid  scarum  cdd. 

*  fortasse  et  t.  et  merulam  melanurum  u.  m. 

^"  Corcyraest  Bergk  corcir^  cdd.  acarnae  Saumaise 

acarne  cdd.        fortasse  came 
11  muiex  Casaubon 

408 


DELIKATESSEN 


1-11 


Apuleius :  Quintus  Ennius  wrote  on  delikatessen.  He 
enumerated  countless  kinds  of  fish  with  which  no  doubt 
he  was  acquainted  as  a  connoisseur.  I  remember  a  few  lines 
and  will  give  them  here — 

How  the  sea-weasel  from  Clupea "  beats  all 
others !  There  are  sea-mice  at  Aenus  and  scaly 
oysters  in  great  plenty  at  Abydus.  ...  At  Mitylene 
is  the  scallop  ;  it's  a  common  thing  *  along  the  shores 
of  Ambracia.  The  sarge  is  fine  at  Brundisium— buy 
it  if  it's  big.  Know  that  the  little  boar-fish  can 
be  had  first-rate  at  Tarentum.  Make  sure  it's 
at  Surrentum  that  you  purchase  your  herring, 
and  from  Cumae "  your  blue-fish.  What  of  the 
parrot-fish  ?  I  overlooked  that  I  It's  almost  the 
verj'  brain  of  all-highest  Jupiter!  This  fellow  is 
caught  big  and  fine  in  Nestor's  land.  And  I  over- 
looked the  black-tail,  the  plaice,  the  sea-merle,  the 
sea-shadow.  At  Corcyra  men  catch  the  cuttle, 
fat  flounders,  acamae,  the  purple  and  the  little 
purple-fish,  sea-mice  and  sweet  urchins  too. 

"  In  Africa.  I  suggest  we  might  read  clupeis  here  as  the 
name  of  tiny  fresh- water  fish  (Pliny,  IX,  44).  Thus  Ennius 
is  going  to  tell  of  the  greater  excellence  of  salt-water  fish  over 
river-fish.    The  sea-weasel  is  the  dog-fish. 

*  A  glance  at  the  corresponding  lines  of  Archestratus 
makes  one  suspect  that  caradrum  (which  occurs  here  onlv) 
is  wrong  and  crehrum  right.  For  fines  I  read  oras  in  the 
belief  that  it  was  ousted  by  fines  as  a  gloss.  Or  finis  was 
perhaps  added  to  mark '  end  of  line  ' ;  or,  if  we  read  Caradrum 
(as  a  place-name)  and  Ambracini,  it  may  have  been  added  to 
fill  up  a  supposed  gap  in  the  sense. 

*  ano  KvfiT)^  is  probably  right — note,  however,  that 
there  is  a  fish  which  was  called  apua, 

409 


ENNIUS 

Alioa  etiam  multis  versibus  decoravit,  et  ubi  gentium  quisque 
eorum,  qualiter  assus  aut  iusulentus  optime  sapiat,  nee 
tamen  ab  eruditis  reprehenditur. 


EPICHARMUS 

Ennius  probably  based  this  didactic  poem  on  a  separate 
work  of  tile  Greeli  piiilosopiier-poet  (or  on  one  whicli  passed 
for  his)  about  nature  and  the  four  elements.  Cf.  V., 
CCXVIII  ff.,  XXXVII  S.  Epicharmus  of  Cos  (c.  540-450 
B.C.)  dwelt  at  Syracuse  and  wrote  two  kinds  of  comedies: 

1 

Cicero,  Ac.  Pr.,  II,  16,  51  :  Num  censes  Ennium  cum  in 
hortis  cum  Servio  Galba  vicino  suo  ambulavisset  dixisse 
visus  sum  mihi  cum  Galba  ambulare  ?  At  cum  somniavit 
ita  narravit  ...  in  Epicharmo — 

Nam  videbar  somniare  med  ego  esse  mortuum. 


Varro,  L.L.,  V,  60  :  Quibus  iunctis  caelum  et  terra  omnia 
ex  se  genuerunt,  quod  per  hos  natura — - 

Frigori  miscet  calorem  atque  humeri  aritudinem. 


Varro,  R.R.,  I,  4,  1  :   Eius  principia  sunt  eadem  quae  mundi 
esse  Ennius  scribit — 

aqua  terra  anima  et  sol. 

Cp.  Menand.  ap.  Stob.,  Flor.,  91  {adfr.  10-14  adscr.). 


1   med  ego  Manutius         me  ego  cdd. 
^  trib.  Enn.  Epicharm.  Colonna 

'  et  sol  cdd.         et  seel.  Politianus  prob.  V  trib.  Epicharm. 

Colonna 

410 


EPICHARMUS 

He  honoured  others  also  with  many  verses  and  told  in  what 
part  of  the  world  each  of  them  is  to  be  found,  and  in  what 
condition,  fried  or  stewed,  each  tastes  best.  And  still  he  is 
not  brought  to  task  by  the  experts. 


EPICHARMUS 

mythological  travesties,  and  plays  dealing  with  different 
classes  of  people  at  Syracuse.  The  dramas  were  noted  for 
their  pithy  philosophic  sajnngs,  but  we  have  no  tradition  that 
he  wrote  a  definite  work  on  philosophy.  For  an  echo  of  this 
work  of  Ennius  in  the  Annals,  see  pp.  6-7. 

1 

Prelude  : 

Cicero  :  Surely  you  do  not  believe  that  Ennius,  when  he 
had  walked  in  the  gardens  with  his  neighbour  Servius  Galba, 
said  '  Methought  to  myself  I  was  walking  with  Galba  ? ' 
But  when  he  had  dreamed,  he  related  as  follows  ...  in 
Epicharmus — 

For  I  thought  in  a  dream  that  I  was  dead. 

2 
Nature's  working  : 

Varro  :  From  a  union  of  these  (sc.  of  cold  with  heat  and 
of  dryness  with  moisture),  sky  and  earth  gave  birth  to  all 
things  from  their  own  stuff,  for  it  is  through  these  that 
nature — 

mingles  heat  with  cold,  and  dryness  with  moisture." 

3 

Beginnings  of  the  Universe  : 

Varro,  on  tillage  :  The  first  beginnings  of  it  are  the  same 
as  those  which,  according  to  what  Ennius  writes,  are  the 
first  beginnings  of  the  universe — 

Water,  earth,  air,  sun. 

"  Varro  in  the  same  chapter  quotes  Epicharmus  by  name. 
The  subject  of  this  fr.  further  supports  the  attribution. 

411 


ENNIUS 
4-6 

Varro,  L.L.,  V,  64  :  Terra  Ops,  quod  hie  omne  opus  et 
hac  opus  ad  vivendum ;  et  ideo  dicitur  Ops  mater  quod  terra 
mater.    Haec  enim — 

Terris  gentis  omnis  peperit  et  resumit  denuo ; 

quae — 

dat  cibaria, 
ut  ait  Ennius ;   quae — 

quod  gerit  fruges,  Ceres ; 
Antiquis  enim  quod  nunc  g  c. 


Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  341,  19  K  :  Hie  et  haee  amentis  et 
hoe  amente ;  nee  mirum  cuius  simplex  quoque  mentis  Ennius 
protulit  in  Epicharmo — 

Terra  corpus  est  at  mentis  ignis  est 
pro  mens. 


8-9 

Varro,    L.L.,    V,    59 :     ...  Epicharmus    dicit    de    mente 
humana —  ' 

Istic  est  de  sole  sumptus  ignis 

idem  de  sole — 

isque  totus  mentis  est. 

*•  ®  fortasse  non  sunt  Enniana 
412 


EPICHARMUS 
4-6 


Earth  : 


Varro  :  Earth  is  Ops,  because  herein  lies  all  '  opus,'  and 
there  is  '  opus '  (need)  of  this  in  order  to  live;  and  Ops  is 
named  '  mother '  because  earth  is  '  mother.'  For  she  it  is 
who — 

gave   birth  to   all  races   on   earth  and  takes   them 
back  again ; 

who — 

bestows  food-stores, 

as  Ennius  says ;  .who  is  also — 

Ceres,  because  she  gets  us  crops ; 

for  among  the  archaic  writers  c  was  put  for  what  is  now  g. 


Soul : 

Priscianus  :  We  find  '  amentis '  nom.  masc.  and  fem.,  and 
'amente'  nom.  sing.  neut.  This  is  not  surprising,  since 
Ennius  in  Epicharmus  uses  the  form  '  mentis '  as  the  nomin- 
ative, instead  of '  mens,'  even  in  the  non-compound — 

Body  is  earth,  but  soul  is  fire 

8-9 

Varro  :   Epicharmus  says  of  the  human  soul — 

This  fire  is  got  from  the  sun 
and  the  same  writer  states  about  the  sun — 
and  in  this  consists  all  soul." 

"  Here  again  '  mentis '  is  nom.  slag. 

413 


ENNIUS 

10-U 

Menander,  ap.  Stobae.,  Flor.,  91  : 

o  fi€v  'EnL^apfios  rovg  deovs  elvai  Ae'yet 
av€fiovs  v8u)p  yfjv  ijXiov  -nvp  aarepas. 

Varro,  L.L.,  V,  65  :    Idem  hi  dei  Caelum  et  Terra,  lupiter 
et  luno,  quod  ut  ait  Ennius — 

Istic  est  is  lupiter  quern  dico,  quern  Graeci  vocant 
aerem  qui  ventus  est  et  nubes,  imber  postea, 
atque  ex  imbre  frigus,  ventus  post  fit,  aer  denuo. 
Haecce  propter  lupiter  sunt  ista  quae  dico  tibi, 
quando  mortales  atque  urbes  beluasque  omnis  iuvat. 

EUHEMERUS 

SIVE 

SACRA  HISTORIA 

It  is  certain  that  Ennius  translated  or  put  together  in  a 
Latin  form,  probably  in  several  books,  the  Sacred  Chronicle 
of  Euhemerus  (a  man  of  uncertain  birthplace,  but  born 
c.  340  B.C.),  by  whom  the  old  myths  were  given  a  rational 
explanation  in  a  philosophic  romance;  herein  the  gods  were 
explained  as  men  of  old  who  were  heroes  and  conquerors. 
The  two  following  quotations  give  information  in  addition 
to  that  provided  by  Lactantius  in  passages  given  below. 
Cicero,  de  Nat.  Deor.,  I,  42,  119:  'Well,  those  who  teach 
that  brave  or  famous  or  powerful  men  have  after  death 
attained  the  estate  of  gods ;  and  that  these  are  the  very  beings 
whom  we  are  wont  to  worship  and  pray  to  and  adore — are 
they  not  strangers  to  all  and  every  religious  scruple  ?  The 
man  who  went  farthest  in  this  line  of  thought  was  Euhemerus, 
of  whom  our  Ennius  was,  beyond  all  others,  a  translator  and 
follower ;  and  in  Euhemerus'  scheme  even  deaths  and  burials 
of  gods  are  set  forth.'  Lactantius,  Div.  Inst.,  I,  11,  33: 
'  The  ancient  author  Euhemerus,  whose  birthplace  was  the 

^'  haecce  (haece)  olim  Spengel,  L  haec  propterea 
Spengel         haec  Varro 

^*  quando  L  quoniam  0.  Mr.  quia  Laetus  qua  Varro 
414 


EUHEMERUS 

10-14 

Air  : 

Varro :  These  same  deities.  Sky  and  Earth,  are  the  same  as 
Jupiter  and  Juno,"  for,  according  to  the  words  of  Ennius — 

That  is  this  Jupiter  of  whom  I  speak,  whom  the 
Greeks  call  Aer,  which  is  wind  and  clouds,  and 
afterwards  moisture ;  out  of  wetness  comes  cold, 
and  after  that  wind  is  formed,  and  air  once  again. 
That  is  why  Jupiter  is  the  name  for  all  I  have  spoken 
of,  since  he  rejuvenates  *  all  men  and  cities  and 
beasts. 

EUHEMERUS 

OR 

THE  HOLY   HISTORY 

state  of  Messene,  collected  the  acts  of  Jupiter  and  of  the  rest 
of  those  who  are  thought  to  be  gods,  and  wove  a  History 
out  of  the  contents  of  the  labels  and  holy  inscriptions  which 
were  to  be  found  in  the  most  archaic  temples  and  above  all 
in  the  shrine  of  the  Triphylian  Jupiter,  where  the  label  on 
a  golden  pillar  showed  that  it  was  put  up  by  Jupiter  himself; 
on  the  pillar  he  wrote  out  an  account  of  all  his  acts,  so  that 
it  might  bet  a  monument  to  after-time  of  his  achievements. 
This  History  Ennius  both  translated  and  followed.' 

All  the  fragments  of  Ennius'  version  (with  one  exception) 
are  given  in  prose  by  Lactantius  and  it  is  certain  that  this  work 
of  Ennius  was  known  to  Lactantius  in  a  prose  version  only. 
It  has  been  believed,  therefore,  that  Ennius  likewise  wrote 
his  version  in  prose.  But  it  has  been  pointed  out  ( V.,  CCXXII  ff.) 
that  Lactantius'  quotations  contain  fragments  if  not  whole 

"  We  may  not«  here  that  in  L.L.,  V,  18,  \"arro  says  that 
Ennius  in  Epicharmus  calls  the  moon  Proserpina. 

*  We  might  say  in  English  '  God  is  the  name  .  .  .  since 
he  does  good  to  all  men.  .  .  .'  The  two  words  God  and  good 
are  not  connected  in  English  any  more  than  lupiter  luno  and 
iuvo  are  in  Latin. 

415 


ENNIUS 

lines  of  septenarian  rhythm,  while  hardly  a  single  phrase 
occurs  which  could  be  part  of  a  hexameter.  Thus,  although 
any  attempted  reconstruction  of  anj'  of  Ennius'  verse-contexts 
would  be  an  idle  task,  and  although  one  can  trace  a  good  many 
iambic  and  trochaic  rhythms  in  any  Latin  prose  just  as  one 
can  blank  verse  lines  in  English  prose,  still  it  is  worth  while 
giving  such  °  remains  of  rhythms  as  we  can  dimly  see,  without 
maintaining  in  any  instance  that  the  words  stand  exactly  as 
Ennius  wrote  them."  I  have  noted  the  following,  which  are 
numbered  according  to  the  lines  of  the  full  Latin  text  (given 
on  pp.  418  fit.)  from  which  these  are  quoted  : 

1  Primus  in  terris  imperium  summum  Caelus 

2  id  regnum  una  cum  fratribus  suis 

12  uti  de  regno  ne  concedat  fratri 

13  qui  facie  deterior  asset  quam  Saturnus 

21  Turn  Saturno  filius  qui  primus  natus  est, 

eum  necaverunt 

22  Deinde  posterius  nati  sunt  gemini,  luppiter  .  .  . 
26  dantque  eum  Vestae  educandum,  celantes 

31  Pluto  Latine  est  Dis  pater,  alii  Orcum  vocant 

32  filiam  Glaucam  Saturno  ostendunt 

33  filium  Plutonem  celant  atque  abscondunt. 

34  Deinde   Glauca   parva   emoritur,      Haec    ut   scripta 

sunt  lovis  .  .  . 

39  Deinde  "  Titan  postquam  rescivit  Saturno  filios 

40  procreates  (atque)  educatos  esse  clam  se 

41  ducit  secum  filios  suos 
44  eosque  muro  circumegit  et  custodiam 

his  apponit 
51  parentes  vinculis 

exemisse,  patri  regnum  reddidisse 

«  V.  has  given  some— CCXXII-CCXXIV.     He  points  out 
that  the  quotations  show  signs  of  Ennius  apart  from  rhythm. 

*  Particularly     where     an     apparent     septenarian     allows 
—  >_.  —  w  —  w  —  at  the  end  instead  of  —  ^ ^  — . 

'  v.,  CCXXIII  believes  that  the  fr.  Deinde  .  .  .  apponit 
(see  Imes  39-45)  represents  four  lines  of  Ennius'  poetry. 
416 


EUHEMERUS 

53  Post  haec  deinde  Saturno  sortem  datam 

ut  caveret. 
59  cum  iactatus  esset  (per)  omnes  terras  persequentibus 

annatis     quos     (ad     eum)     conprehendendum     vel 
necandum  luppiter 

miserat 
62  vix  in  Italia  locum. 

64  coYisedisse  illi  aquilam  in  capite 
66  Deinde  Pan  eum  deducit  in  montem 

qui  vocatur  Caeli  stela 
68  ascendit  contemplatus  est 

late  terras. 
74  caelo  nomen  indidit 

idque  luppiter  quod  aether 

78  luppiter  Neptuno  imperium  dat  maris 

79  quae  secundum  mare  loca  essent  omnibus 

81  (ea  tempestate  luppiter)  in  monte  Olympo  maximam 
83  veniebant  si  quae  res  in  controversia 

89  humanam  camem  solitos  esitare 

91  edicto  prohibuisse  ne  liceret 

93  Nam  cum  terras  circiuniret 

94  reges  principesve  -  ^  jxipulorum  hospitio  sibi 

111  simile  quiddam  in  Sicilia 

fecit  Aeneas  cum  conditae  urbi  Acestae  hospitis 
114  inposuit  ut  eam  post  moduni 

laetus  ac  libens  Acestes 
118  exemplum  ceteris  ad  imitandum  dedit. 

120  omnibusque  amicis  atque  cognatis  suis 

123  fecit,  inmortali  gloria 

memoriaque  adfectus  sempiterna  monumenta 
128  curaverunt  .   .    .  decoraveruntque  eum 

131  eius  est  inscriptum  antiquis  litteris 

Graecis  ZAN  KPONOY--  id  est  Latine  luppiter 

Satiumi 

417 

VOL.   I.  E  E 


ENNIUS 

Lactantius,  Div.  Inst.,  I,  13,  14 :  Ennius  quidem  in 
Euhemero  non  primum  dicit  regnasse  Saturnum  sed  Uranum 
patrem — 

Initio  primus  in  terris  imperium  sum- 
mum  Caelus  habuit;    is  id  regnum  una 
cum    fratribus    suis    sibi    instituit    atque 
paravit. 
Cp.  epit.,  14,  4. 

I,  11,  63  5.:  ...  In  Sacra  Historia  .  .  .  Ennius  tradit 
.  .  .  Cui  ergo  sacrificare  luppiter  potuit  nisi  Caelo  avo  ? — 

6  quem  dicit  Euhemerus  in  Oceania 
mortuum  et  in  oppido  Aulacia  sepultum. 

I,  14,  1  :  Nunc  quoniam  ab  his  quae  rettuli  aliquantum 
Sacra  Historia  dissentit,  aperiamus  ea  quae  veris  litteris 
continentur,  ne  poetarum  ineptias  in  accusandis  religionibus 
sequi  ac  probare  videamur.    Haec  Enni  verba  sunt — 

Exim  Saturnus  uxorem  duxit  Opem. 
Titan   qui   maior   natu   erat   postulat   ut 

10  ipse  regnaret.  Ibi  Vesta  mater  eorum 
et  sorores  Ceres  atque  Ops  suadent 
Saturno  uti  de  regno  ne  concedat  fratri. 
Ibi  Titan  qui  facie  deterior  esset  quam 
Saturnus,  idcirco  et  quod  videbat  matrem 

15  atque  sorores  suas  operam  dare  uti 
Saturnus  regnaret,  concessit  ei  ut  is 
regnaret.  Itaque  pactus  est  cum  Saturno 
uti  si  quid  liberum  virile  secus  ei  natum 
esset,    ne    quid    educaret.      Id    eius    rei 

^  initio  inquit  primus  Lactant. 

®  aut  lacia  R  aulatia  S  Huracia  Nemethy  Euhem., 

53,  79  coll.  Diod.,  V,  45,  2  :    'TpaKiav  .  .  .  'ClKeavlSa. 

"  i.e.  older  than  Saturn. 
418 


EUHEMERUS 

The  rule  of  Caelus  or  Sky  : 

Lactantius :  Ennius  indeed  in  Euhemerus  states  that  the 
first  to  hold  rule  was  not  Saturn  but  Uranus  his  father.  He 
says — 

In  the  beginning  Sky  held  highest  authority 
in  the  world;  he  together  with  his  brothers 
established  and  formed  this  kingship  for  him- 
self. 

The  death  of  Shy  : 

In  The  Holy  History  .  .  .  Ennius  .  .  .  relates  ...  to 
whom  therefore  can  Jupiter  have  sacrificed  if  not  to  Sky  his 
grandfather  ? — 

who,  according  to  Euhemerus,  died  in 
Oceania  and  was  buried  in  the  town  Aulacia. 

Birth  of  Jupiter,  Juno,  Neptune,  and  Pluto  ;  vengeance  of 
Titan.    Triumph  of  Jupiter  and  flight  of  Saturn  to  Italy  : 

And  now  since  The  Holy  History  disagrees  somewhat  with 
what  I  have  related,  allow  me  to  disclose  the  contents  of 
true  records,  lest  in  calling  to  task  religious  superstitions  I 
seem  to  follow  and  approve  of  the  foolish  sayings  of  the  poets. 
Ennius'  words  are  these — 

After  that  Saturn  took  Ops  to  wife.  Titan 
who  was  the  elder  in  years  "  asked  that  he 
might  be  king.  Thereupon  Vesta  their  mother 
and  Ceres  and  Ops  their  sisters  advised  Saturn 
not  to  yield  to  his  brother  in  the  matter  of  the 
kingship.  Thereupon  Titan,  because  he  was 
less  handsome  than  Saturn  and  saw  that  the 
efforts  of  his  mother  and  sisters  were  made  in 
order  that  Saturn  might  be  king,  yielded  to 
him  the  right  to  be  king.  Therefore  he  made 
an  agreement  with  Saturn  that  if  any  free- 
born  child  of  the  male  sex  should  be  born  to 
him,  he  should  not  bring  it  up.    This  he  did 


E  E  2 


419 


ENNIUS 

20  causa  fecit  uti  ad  suos  gnatos  regnum 
rediret.  Turn  Saturno  filius  qui  primus 
natus  est  eum  necaverunt.  Deinde 
posterius  nati  sunt  gemini  luppiter  atque 
luno.      Turn    lunonem    Saturno    in    con- 

25  spectum  dedere  atque  lovem  clam 
abscondunt  dantque  eum  Vestae  educan- 
dum  celantes  Saturnum.  Item  Neptunum 
clam  Saturno  Ops  parit  eumque  clanculum 
abscondit.      Ad    eundum    modum    tertio 

30  partu  Ops  parit  geminos  Plutoneni  et 
Glaucam.  Pluto  Latine  est  Dis  pater, 
alii  Orcum  vocant.  Ibi  filiam  Glaucam 
Saturno  ostendunt  at  filium  Plutonem 
celant  atque  abscondunt.    Deinde  Glauca 

35  parva    emoritur.      Haec   ut   scripta   sunt 
lovis  fratrumque   eius   stirps   atque  cog- 
natio ;    in  hunc   modum   nobis   ex   sacra 
scriptione  traditum  est. 
Item  paulo  post  haec  infert — 

Deinde       Titan       postquam       rescivit 

40  Saturno  filios  procreatos  atque  educatos 
esse  clam  se,  seducit  secum  filios  suos 
qui  Titani  vocantur,  fratremque  suum 
Saturnum  atque  Opem  conprehendit 
eosque  muro  circumegit  et  custodiam  his 

45  apponit. 

.  .  .  Reliqua  Historia  sic  contexitur — 

lovem  adultum  cum  audisset  patrem 
atque  matrem  custodiis  circumsaeptos 
atque  in  vincula  coniectos,  venisse  cum 

^^  Pluto  .  .  .  vocant,  in  hunc  modum  .  .  .  traditum  est 
fortasse  non  Ennio  tribuenda  ;  at  latent  ut  videtur  septenarii. 

420 


EUHEMERUS 

in  order  that  the  kingship  might  return  to 
his  own  sons.  Next  they  slew  the  first  son 
born  to  Saturn.  And  then  later  on  there  were 
bom  twins,  Jupiter  and  Juno.  Then  they 
allowed  Saturn  to  see  Juno,  but  secretly 
smuggled  Jupiter  away,  and  hiding  him  from 
Saturn  gave  him  to  Vesta  to  be  brought  up. 
Next  Ops  bore  a  son  to  Saturn,  Neptune, 
unknown  to  him,  and  smuggled  him  away 
secretly.  In  the  same  way  Ops  in  a  third 
delivery  gave  birth  to  twins.'Pluto  and  Glauca. 
(The  Latin  counterpart  of  Pluto  is  Dis  Pater, 
though  some  call  him  Orcus.)  Thereupon  they 
presented  the  daughter  Glauca  to  Saturn, 
but  hid  the  son  Pluto,  and  smuggled  him  away. 
Then  Glauca  died  while  still  a  little  girl.  Such 
according  to  the  records  are  the  stock  and 
kin  of  Jupiter  and  his  brothers ;  this  is  the 
manner  of  it  as  handed  down  to  us  out  of  the 
holy  writings. 

Again,  a  little  farther  on  the  History  offers  the  following — 

And  then  Titan,  after  he  had  learnt  that 
sons  had  been  born  to  Saturn,  and  had  been 
brought  up  without  his  knowledge,  took  away 
with  him  his  own  sons  who  are  called  Titans, 
seized  his  brother  Saturn  and  also  Ops,  put 
them  behind  prison-walls,  and  kept  them 
under  guard. 

.  .  .  The  thread  of  what  remains  in  the  History  on  this 
point  is  as  follows,  that — 

WTien  Jupiter  was  grown  up  he  heard  that 
his  father  and  mother  were  beset  by  guards 
and  cast  into  bonds,  and  came  with  a  great  host 

421 


ENNIUS 

magna  Cretensium  multitudine  Titan- 
60  umque  ac  filios  eius  pugna  vicisse, 
parentes  vinculis  exemisse,  patri  regnum 
•  reddidisse  atque  ita  in  Cretam  remeasse. 
Post  haec  deinde  Saturno  sortem  datam 
ut  caveret  ne  filius  eum  regno  expelleret, 

65  ilium  elevandae  sortis  atque  effugiendi 
periculi  gratia  insidiatum  lovi  ut  eiun 
necaret.  lovem  cognitis  insidiis  regnum 
sibi  denuo  vindicasse  ac  fugasse  Saturnum, 
qui  cum  iactatus  esset  per  omnes  terras 

60  persequentibus    armatis,    quos    ad    eum 
conprehendendum  vel  necandum  luppiter 
miserat,  vix  in  Italia  locum  in  quo  lateret 
invenit.  .  .  . 
Cp.  epit.,  13,  3. 

I,  11,  64  :  Caesar  quoque  in  Arato  refert  Aglaosthenen 
dicere  lovem  cum  ex  insula  Naxo  adversus  Titanes  pro- 
ficisceretur  et  sacrificium  faceret  in  litore,  aquilam  ei  in 
auspicium  advolasse.  .  .  .  Sacra  vero  Historia  etiam  ante — 

consedisse    illi   aquilam   in   capite    atque 

66  ei  regnum  portendisse 
testatur. 

I,  11,  62  (de  Saturno) :  Nunc  dicam  quo  modo  ubi  a  quo 
sit  hoc  factum.  Non  enim  Saturnus  hoc  sed  luppiter  fecit. 
In  Sacra  Historia  sic  Ennius  tradit — 

Deinde  Pan  eum  deducit  in  montem 
qui  vocatur  Caeli  Stela.  Postquam  eo 
ascendit    contemplatus    est    late    terras 

•*  Pan    eum    cdd.    (pavenium    R  pane     deducit    H) 

fortasse  Panchaeum  vel  Panchaeam  eum 

•'  Stela  Ciaconius  stella  cdd.  sella  Krahner  coll.  Diodor., 
V,  44,  5  6. 

422 


EUHEMERUS 

of  Cretans  and  defeated  Titan  and  his  sons 
in  battle,  freed  his  parents  from  their  bonds, 
gave  back  the  kingship  to  his  father,  and  so 
went  back  to  Crete.  And  then  after  this 
an  oracle  was  given  to  Saturn,  saying  that  he 
must  beware  lest  a  son  of  his  thrust  him  out 
of  his  kingship  ;  in  order  to  thwart  the  oracle, 
and  avoid  the  danger,  he  ambushed  Jupiter 
to  slay  him;  Jupiter  having  found  out  the 
ambush,  claimed  afresh  the  kingdom  for 
himself,  and  made  Saturn  a  fugitive.  He, 
driven  all  over  the  world  by  armed  pursuers, 
whom  Jupiter  had  sent  to  seize  or  slay  him, 
almost  failed  to  find  in  Italy  a  place  to  hide 


Caesar  also  in  Aratus  records  that  Aglaosthenes  says  that 
when  Jupiter  was  setting  out  from  Naxos  island  against  the 
Titans  and  was  sacrificing  on  the  shore,  an  eagle  flew  to  him 
as  an  omen.  .  .  .  But  even  before  this  The  Holy  History  bears 
witness  that — 

an  eagle  perched  on  his  head  and  foretold 
that  he  would  win  the  kingship. 

How  Saturn  came  to  be  called  son  of  Sky  : 

Now  I  will  tell  you  how  and  when  and  by  whom  this  was 
done ;  for  it  was  not  done  by  Saturn  but  by  Jupiter.  In  The 
Holy  History  Ennius  relates  as  follows — 

Then  Pan  led  him  up  to  a  mountain  which  is 
called  Sky's  Pillar.*'  \\Tien  he  had  climbed  it 
he  gazed  on  the  world  far  and  wide,  and  then 

"  Or,  if  we  accept  Panchaeam  (or  the  like)  and  sella,  readings 
based  on  the  parallel  account  of  the  eastern  Utopia  in  Diodor. 
V,  44  (from  Euhemerus) — '  Then  he  led  him  to  Panchaea  .  .  . 
Sky's  Seat.* 

423 


ENNIUS 

ibique  in  eo  monte  aram  creat  Caelo, 
70  primusque  in  ea  ara  luppiter  sacrificavit. 
In  eo  loco  suspexit  in  caelum  quod  nunc 
nos  nominamus,  idque  quod  supra  mundum 
erat  quod  aether  vocabatur,  de  sui  avi 
nomine  caelo  nomen  indidit,  idque 
75  luppiter  quod  aether  vocatur  placans 
primus  caelum  nominavit  eamque  hostiam 
quam  ibi  sacrificavit  totam  adolevit. 

I,  11,  32:  Sic  Neptuno  maritima  omnia  cum  insulis 
obvenerunt.  Quomodo  id  probari  potest  ?  Nimrrum  veteres 
historiae  decent.  Antiquus  auctor  Euhemerus.  .  .  .  Histor- 
iam  contexuit.  .  .  .  Hanc  historiam  et  interpretatus  est 
Ennius  et  secutus,  cuius  haec  verba  sunt — 

.  .  .  ubi  luppiter  Neptuno  imperium  dat 
maris  ut  insulis  omnibus  et  quae  secundum 
80  mare  loca  essent  omnibus  regnaret. 

...  In    Olympo   lovem    habitasse   docet    eadem    Historia 
quae  dicit — 

Ea  tempestate  luppiter  in  monte  Olympo 
maximam  partem  vitae  colebat  et  eo  ad 
eum  in  ius  veniebant,  si  quae  res  in 
controversia  erant.  Item  si  quis  quid 
85  novi  invenerat  quod  ad  vitam  humanam  . 
utile  esset,  eo  veniebant  atque  lovi 
ostendebant. 

I,  13,  2  (de  Satumo)  :  Idem  sororem  suam  Rheam  quam 
Latine  Opem  dicimus  cum  haberet  uxorem,  responso  vetitus 

'*  idque  luppiter  .  .  .  nominavit  seel.  Mr. 
"  ut  edd.  ut  et  Thilo         et  ut  coni.  Brandt         et  cdd. 

(hoc  est  ut  S,  H) 
80  regnare  Hartel 

424 


EUHEMERUS 

on  that  mountain  he  built  an  altar  to  Sky, 
and  on  that  altar  Jupiter  was  the  first  to  make 
sacrifice.  Standing  At  that  place  he  looked 
up  at  what  we  now  name  the  sky  ;  and  to  that 
which  was  above  the  universe,  and  was  called 
ether,  Jupiter  gave  the  name  '  Sky  '  after 
his  grandfather's  name ;  and  being  the  first 
to  appease  that  which  is  called  ether,  he 
named  it  the  sky ;  and  he  burnt  whole  the 
victim  which  he  sacrificed  there. 

The  powers  given  by  Jupiter  to  Neptune  ;  Jupiter  duxlls  on 
Olympus  : 

Thus  to  Neptune's  share  fell  all  the  things  of  the  sea  and 
the  islands  in  it.  How  can  this  be  proved  ?  Why,  of  course 
the  old  histories  attest  it.  The  ancient  author  Euhemerus  .  .  . 
wove  a  History.  .  .  .  This  History  Ennius  both  translated 
and  followed;   his  words  are  these — 

.  .  .  where  Jupiter  gave  Neptune  authority 
over  the  sea  so  as  to  be  king  over  all  the 
islands  and  all  places  which  might  be  near  the 
sea. 

.  .  .  That  Jupit€r  dwelt  on  Olympus  we  are  taught  by  that 
same  History,  which  says — 

In  those  days  Jupiter  was  spending  the 
greater  part  of  his  life  on  Mount  Olympus, 
and  thither  to  him  men  used  to  come  to  law  if 
there  were  any  matters  in  dispute.  Likewise 
if  anA'one  had  discovered  any  new  thing  which 
might  be  useful  towards  the  life  of  mankind, 
thither  men  used  to  come,  and  show  it  to 
Jupiter. 

J  upiter  forbids  the  eating  of  human  flesh  : 
And  Saturn  again,  when  he  had  taken  for  his  wife  his  sister 
Rhea,  whom  we  call  in  Latin  Ops,  is  said  to  have  been  forbidden 

425 


ENNIUS 

esse  dicitur  mares  liberos  educate  quod  futurum  esset  ut  a 
filio  pelleretur;  quam  rem  metuens  natos  sibi  filios  non 
utique  devorabat  ut  ferunt  fabulae  sed  necabat,  quanquam 
scriptum  sit  in  Historia  Sacra —     ' 

Satumum  et  Opem  ceterosque  tunc 
homines  humanam  carnem  solitos  esitare ; 
90  verum  primum  lovem  leges  hominibus 
moresque  condentem  edicto  prohibuisse 
ne  liceret  eo  cibo  vesci. 

I,  22,  21  :  Historia  vero  Sacra  testatur  ipsum  lovem 
postquam  rerum  potitus  sit  in  tantam  venisse  insolentiam 
ut  ipse  sibi  fana  in  multis  locis  constituent — 

Nam  cum  terras  circumiret,  ut  in 
quamque  regionem  venerat,  reges  prin- 

95  cipesve  populorvun  hospitio  sibi  et  amicitia 
copulabat  et  cum  a  quoque  digrederetur 
iubebat  sibi  fanum  creari  hospitis  sui 
nomine,  quasi  ut  posset  amicitiae  et 
foederis   memoria   conservari.      Sic   con- 

100  stituta  sunt  templa  lovi  Ataburio,  lovi 
Labryandio,  Ataburus  enim  et  Labryandus 
hospites  eius  atque  adiutores  in  bello 
fuerunt;  item  lovi  Laprio,  lovi  Molioni, 
lovi    Casio,    et    quae    sunt    in    eundem 

105  modum.  Quod  ille  astutissime  excogit- 
avit,  ut  et  sibi  honorem  divinum  et  hospiti- 
bus  suis  perpetuum  nomen  adquireret 
cum  religione  coniunctum.  Gaudebant 
ergo   illi   et   huic   imperio   eius   libenter 

110  obsequebantur  et  nominis  sui  gratia  ritus 
426 


EUHEMERUS 

by  the  answer  of  an  oracle  to  bring  up  freebom  male  children 
on  the  ground  that  it  was  fated  that  he  would  be  deposed  by 
a  son.  In  fear  of  this,  it  is  plain  that  he  did  not,  as  the  stories 
go,  eat  up  sons  that  were  bom  to  him,  but  slew  them;  in 
spite  of  what  is  written  in  The  Holy  History  that — 

Saturn  and  Ops  and  all  the  rest  of  mankind 
were  wont  to  feed  on  human  flesh.  But 
Jupiter,  the  first  to  lay  down  laws  and  customs 
for  men,  forbade  by  edict  that  men  should 
be  allowed  to  eat  such  food. 

The  origin  of  the  different  cults  of  Jupiter  : 

But  The  Holy  History  is  a  witness  that  Jupiter  himself, 
after  he  had  become  supreme,  went  to  such  a  pitch  of 
haughtiness  that  he  established,  himself  for  himself,  temples 
in  many  places — 

For  when  he  was  making  the  round  of  the 
world,  the  kings  or  chiefs  of  the  peoples  of 
every  region,  wherever  he  had  come,  bound 
themselves  in  hospitality  and  friendship  vrith 
him ;  and  whenever  he  was  departing  from 
any  place,  he  ordered  that  a  shrine  should 
be  built  in  the  name  of  his  host,  so  that  the 
memory  as  it  were  of  friendship  and  agreement 
should  be  preserved.  Thus  were  established 
the  temples  of  Jupiter  Ataburius,  Jupiter 
Labryandius,  for  Ataburus  and  Labrv'andus 
were  his  hosts  and  his  helpers  in  war ;  and 
also  to  Jupiter  Laprius,  Jupiter  Molio,  Jupiter 
Casius,  and  all  the  other  temples  which  are 
dedicated  in  the  same  manner.  This  was  a 
most  cunning  idea  of  his,  to  get  for  himself 
divine  honour  and  for  his  hosts  a  name  for 
ever  known  and  connected  with  religion.  Thus 
they  were  glad,  and  willingly  obeyed  this 
authority  of  his  and  celebrated  yearly  rites 

427 


ENNIUS 

annuos  et  festa  celebrabant.  Simile 
quiddam  in  Sicilia  fecit  Aeneas,  cum 
conditae  urbi  Acestae  hospitis  nomen 
inposuit,  ut  earn  postmodum  laetus 
115  ac  libens  Acestes  diligeret  augeret  orna- 
ret.  Hoc  modo  religionem  cultus  sui 
per  orbem  terrarum  luppiter  seminavit 
et  exemplum  ceteris  ad  imitandum  dedit. 

Cp.  epit.,  19,  14. 

I,  11,  44  :  Quare  si  lovem  et  ex  rebus  gestis  et  ex  moribus 
hominem  fuisse  in  terraque  regnasse  deprehendimus,  superest 
ut  mortem  quoque  eius  investigemus.  Ennius  in  Sacra 
Historia  descriptis  omnibus  quae  in  vita  sua  gessit  ad  ultimum 
sic  ait — 

Deinde    luppiter    postquam    quinquies 

120  terras  circumivit  omnibusque  amicis  atque 

cognatis   suis   imperia  divisit  reliquitque 

hominibus      leges      mores      frumentaque 

paravit  multaque  alia  bona  fecit,  inmortali 

gloria   memoriaque    adfectus    sempiterna 

125  monumenta  suis  reliquit.     Aetate  pessum 

acta  in   Creta  vitam  commutavit    et  ad 

deos     abiit     eumque     Curetes     filii     sui 

curaverunt     decoraveruntque     eum;      et 

sepulchrum  eius  est  in  Creta  in  oppido 

130  Gnosso    et    dicitur    Vesta    hanc    urbem 

creavisse    inque    sepulchro    eius    est    in- 

scriptum    antiquis    litteris    Graecis    ZAN 

KPONOY  id  est  Latine  luppiter  Saturni. 

Hoc  certe  non  poetae  tradunt  sed  antiquarum  rerum 
scriptores. 

Cp.  epit.,  13,  4. 
428 


EUHEMERUS 

and  holidays  for  their  name's  sake.  Aeneas 
achieved  something  like  this  in  Sicily  when 
he  gave  to  a  city  at  its  foundation  the  name 
of  Acestes  his  host,  so  that  later  on  Acestes 
should  cheerfully  and  willingly  cherish  increase 
and  honour  it.  In  this  way  did  Jupiter  sow  the 
seeds  of  his  own  religious  worship  throughout 
the  world  and  provide  an  example  for  all  the 
rest  of  the  world  to  imitate. 

The  death  of  Jupiter  : 

Wherefore  if  we  grasp  the  fact  that  Jupiter,  to  judge  both 
from  his  achievements  and  his  character,  was  a  man  and  a 
king  on  earth,  there  remains  for  us  to  inquire  into  his  death 
also.  In  The  Holy  History  Ennius,  having  described  all  the 
deeds  done  by  him  during  his  life,  says  near  the  end — 

And  then  Jupiter  after  he  had  gone  the 
round  of  the  world  five  times  and  had  made 
division  of  authorities  to  all  his  friends  and 
relations,  and  bequeathed  to  mortals  laws  and 
manners,  and  furnished  corn  and  provided 
many  other  good  things,  he  was  honoured 
with  deathless  renown  and  remembrances 
and  bequeathed  everlasting  monuments  to  his 
friends.  When  he  was  sunk  in  the  depths  of 
old  age,  he  parted  with  his  life  in  Crete,  and 
went  away  to  join  the  gods ;  and  the  Curetes 
his  sons  tended  and  decked  his  corpse.  His 
tomb  exists  in  Crete  in  the  town  of  Cnossus 
(a  city  which  Vesta  is  said  to  have  set  up) 
and  on  his  tomb  is  written  in  archaic  Greek 
letters  ZAN  KPONOY,  that  is,  in  Latin,  Jupiter 
Son  of  Saturn. 

This  at  any  rate  is  a  tradition  not  of  the  poets  but  of  writers 
on  antiquities. 

429 


ENNIUS 

I,  17,  9 :  Quid  loquar  obscenitatem  Veneris  omnium 
libidinibus  prostitutae.  .?  .  .  Quae  '  prima,'  ut  in  Historia 
Sacra  continetur — 

artem  meretriciam  instituit  auctorque 

135  mulieribus  in  Cypro  fuit  uti  vulgo  corpore 

quaestum  faceret ;  quod  idcirco  imperavit 

ne  sola  praeter  alias  mulieres  inpudica  et 

virorum  adpetens  videretur. 

Cp.  epit.,  9,  1. 


EX   INCERTIS 
SCRIPTIS 

EX  ANNALIBUS? 

1 

Cicero,  Oral.,  47, 157  :  '  Isdem  campus  habet '  inquit  Ennius 
et— 

in  templis  isdem 


Servius,  ad  Aen.,  II,  274  :   ('  Ei  mihi  qualis  erat,  quantum 
mutatus  ab  illo  Hectore  ')  '  Ei  mihi.'     Ennii  versus. 


Servius  (auctus)  ad  Aen.,  IX,  744  :   '  Versat,'  librat,  iactat; 
et  est  Ennianum — 

Versat  mucronem. 

Serv.,  Aen.,  II,  274,  verba  qualis  erat  (vel  etiam  totua  versus) 
fortasse  Ennio  trib.  Ann.  lib.  I 

430 


VARIA 

Venus : 

WTiy  should  I  speak  of  the  lewdness  of  Venus  prostituted  to 
the  lusts  of  all?  .  .  .  who,  according  to  what  we  find  contained 
in  The  Holy  History,  first — 

established  the  art  of  the  courtesan  and  in 
Cyprus  founded  for  women  the  custom  of 
getting  profit  out  of  their  bodies  by  making 
them  pubUc ;  this  she  ordained  so  that  she 
should  not  be  the  only  one  among  women  to 
appear  a  hussy  and  a  gaper  after  men. 


FRAGMENTS   NOT  ASSIGNED 
TO   ANY   WORK 

FROM  THE  ANNALS? 

1 

Cicero :    '  For  them  too  the  plains  hold,'  says  Ennius  (see 
p.  52),  and  also — 

in  those  same  temples  " 


Servius,  on  Virgil's  '  Ah  me  !  In  what  guise  he  was — how 
changed  from  that  Hector  ...!':  '  Ah  me.'  A  line  '  of 
Ennius. 

2 

Servius  (supplemented),  on  '  versat '  in  Virgil :  '  Versat,' 
he  poises,  brandishes ;  it  is  further  an  Ennian  term — 

Passes  made  he  with  his  sword's  point. 

"  The  text  of  Cicero  is  not  quite  certain.  Cf.  St.,  129-30; 
v.,  86. 

"  As  elsewhere,  by  '  versus,'  Servius  may  not  mean  a  whole 
verse.  But  if  he  does  in  this  case,  it  may  describe  the  dead 
body  of  Tarquinius  Priscus  (Bk.  III). 

431 


ENNIUS 

3-4 

Donatus,  ad  Ter.,  Phorm.,  V,   9,   39  :    '  sum  mactatum.' 
'  Sum  '  pro  eo  quod  est  eum ;  sic  frequenter  veteres.     Ennius — 

.  .  .  omnes  corde  patrem  debent  animoque  benigno 
circum  sum. 

5 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  193,  7  :    '  Ob  '  .  .  .  pro  ad,  ut  Ennius  '  ob 
Romam  e.  ?.  5.  (Ann.,  fr.  288).     Festus,  192,  21  .  .  .— 

Ob  Troiam  duxit  <(exercitum) 

Cp.     Paulus,     131,     11,     (7):      (.  .  .  '  ob  Troiam  duxit 
exercitum  '). 

6 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  48  :   Apud  Ennium — 

quae  cava  corpore  caeruleo  cortina  receptat 

'  cava  cortina  '  dicta  quod  est  inter  terram  et  caelum  ad 
similitudinem  cortinae  Apollinis.  Cp.  Lucret.,  II,  1001 :  id 
rursum  caeli  rellatum  templa  receptant. 


Varro,  VII,  32  :  Dubitatur  .  .  .  utrum  primum  una  canis 
aut  canes  sit  appeUata.  .  .  .  Ennius  ...  — 

tantidem  quasi  feta  canes  sine  dentibus  latrat. 

3-4  Cf.  v.,  pp.  84-5 

^  <(exercitum>  suppl.  ex  Paul.,  131  fortasse  tribuend. 

Ann.  lib.  I 

*  q.  .  .  .  r.  0.  Mr.  corpore  caeruleo  cava  quae  cortina 
receptat  T  quaeque  freto  cava  caeruleo  S  <iu?<l  in 
corpore  causa  ceruleo  felo  orta  nare  ceptat  Varr.  trib.  Ann. 
lib.  I V 

"  Donatus'  quotation  from  Ennius  is  defective  and  his 
reading  of  Terence  wrong ;  Terence  wrote  sit  mactatus. 


VARIA 


3-4 


Donatus,   on  a   passage  in  Terence  :    '  Sum '   for   '  eum ' ; 
thus  frequently  the  old  writers.    Ennius —  " 

All  men  should  love  their  father  with  all  their 
hearts,  and  hold  kind  thoughts  towards  him. 


Paulus  :    '  Ob '    .    .    .    for    '  ad ' ;    for    example,    Ennius 
'Against  Rome,  etc.'  (fr.  288).    Festus  has  .  .  , — 

Against  Troy  he  led  an  army  * 

6 
Varro  :   In  a  passage  of  Eimius  ' — 

WTiich  the  hollow  caldron  takes  back  again  within 
its  embodiment  of  heaven's  blue 

The  term  '  cava  cortina '  is  used  because  it  lies  between 
'  terra  '  and  '  caelum,'  and  is  likened  to  Apollo's  caldron. 


Varro  :  It  is  a  matter  of  doubt  .  .  .  whether  the  original 
term  for  '  canis  '  in  the  feminine  was  '  canis  '  or  '  canes.'  .  .  . 
Ennius  ^  .  .  .  — - 

meaning  no  more  than  the  barking  of  a  toothless 
bitch  in  pup. 

*  Apparently  a  quotation  from  Ennius ;  if  it  comes  from  the 
Annals,  its  place  is  near  fr.  15  of  Bk.  I. 

'  The  restorations  of  the  text  are  probably  right.  V. 
(CXLVIII:  and  p.  3)  assigns  the  fr.  to  Homer's  speech  in 
Bk.  I  (cf.  v.,  ed.  I,  XXIII-XXIV);  the  fragment  seems  to 
describe  how  (according  to  Empedocles)  the  sky  or  space 
'  takes  back  '  as  it  were  the  four  elements  of  which  things  are 
made,  and  causes  them  to  combine  into  new  things. 

*  Perhaps  in  the  Satires.  Possibly  Ennius  means  '  gives 
a  toothless  bark,'  '  bark  with  no  bite.' 

433 
VOL.  I.  F  F 


ENNIUS 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  VII,  804  :  Ennius  et  Lucretius  (IV,  460 
bina  lucernarum  florentia  lumina  flammis)  florere  dicunt  omne 
quod  nitidum  est. 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  XII,  605 :  '  flavos  Lavinia  crines.' 
Antiqua  lectio  floros  habuit,  id  est  florulentos,  pulchros,  et 
est  sermo  Ennianus. 


8-9 

Cicero,   de  Oral.,   Ill,   42,   168  :    Sunt  finitima  .  .  .  cum 
intellegi  volumus  ...  ex  uno  plures — 

At  Romanus  homo,  tamen  et  si  res  bene  gesta  est, 
corde  suo  trepidat 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  VII,  691  :   Ab  hoc  (Messapo)  Ennius  dicit 
se  originem  ducere. 

Cp.  Sil.,  XII,  393;  Suid.,  s.  v.  "Ewios. 

Grellius,  XVII,  17,  1  :    Quintus  Ennius  tria  corda  habere 
sese  dicebat  quod  loqui  Graece  et  Osce  et  Latine  sciret. 


10 

Cicero,  de  Oral.,  Ill,  42,  168  :  Videtis  profecto  genus  hoc 
totum  .  .  .  cum  ex  pluribus  intellegitur  unum — 

Nos  sumus  Romani  qui  fuimus  ante  Rudini 

Cp.  Sil.,  XII,  393  S. 

1"  fuvimus  Lambinus  fuimus  odd.  trib.  Enn.  Ann.  lib. 
XVI  Mr.        XII  (olim  XVIII)  V 

"  In  view  of  Lucretius'  line,  Vahlen  may  be  right  in  believing 
that  fr.  317  in  Bk.  IX  of  Ennius  began  with  the  words 
Florebant  flammis  (V.,  Sitz.-Ber.  B.  Ak.,  1896,  720). 

434 


VARIA 

Servius  :  Ennius  '  and  Lucretius  ('  flame-flowering  lights 
of  two  lamps  ')  used  the  term  '  to  flower  '  of  everything  that 
is  bright. 

Servius,  on  '  Lavinia  her  yellow  hair '  in  Virgil :  An  old 
reading  had  'flowery,'  that  is  flower-like,  beautiful;  it  is 
further  a  term  taken  from  Ennius. 

8-9 

Cicero  :  Closely  allied  to  this  are  the  following  .  .  .  when 
we  wish  several  to  be  understood  by  one — 

But  the  man  of  Rome,  though  success  has  blest 
his  trials,  is  fearful  in  his  heart '' 

Servius,  on  Messapus  in  Virgil :  From  him  Ennius  says  « 
he  draws  his  descent. 

Gellius  :  Quintus  Ennius  used  to  say  that  he  had  three 
hearts  on  the  ground  that  he  knew  how  to  speak  in  Greek, 
Oscan  and  Latin. 

10 

Cicero  :  Of  course  you  see  all  this  kind  of  thing  .  .  .  when 
one  is  understood  by  several — 

We  who  once  were  Rudians  are  now  Romans  •* 

'  The  metre  and  the  thought  suggest  Ennius'  Annals, 
and  Cicero  goes  on  to  give  another  hexameter  which  at  any 
rate  refers  to  Ennius. 

'  WTiere  he  says  it  is  not  known.  But  Vahlen  (CXCVII) 
may  be  right  in  believing  that  mention  of  Ennius'  descent, 
origin  and  grant  of  Roman  citizenship  came  in  Bk.  XII, 
where  the  poet  himself  stated  that  he  wrote  that  book  when 
he  was  sixty-seven  years  old. 

•*  That  the  author  of  this  Une  is  Ennius  is  most  probable. 
May  it  not  belong  to  Bk.  XVI,  which  included  the  year 
184  B.C.,  when  Ennius  was  granted  Roman  citizenship? 
Or  it  might  come  in  Bk.  I ;  or  in  either  of  the  literary  works 
(Annals,  Bk.  XV,  or  Ambracia,  pp.  358  ff.)  which  celebrated 
Fulvius  Xobilior,  through  whose  son  Ennius  received  the 
franchise. 

435 
FF  2 


ENNIUS 

EX  SATURIS? 

11 

Cicero,  de  Div.,  II,  54,  111  :  Non  esse  autem  illud  carmen 
8C.  Sibyllae)  furentis  cum  ipsum  poema  declarat  (est  enim 
magis  artis  et  diligentiae  quam  incitationis  et  motus),  turn 
vero  quae  aKpoanxis  dicitur,  cum  deinceps  ex  primis  versus 
litteris  aliquid  conectitur,  ut  in  quibusdam  Ennianis — 

Q.  Ennius  fecit 

Nonius,  448,  10  :  '  Edolare  '  fabrorum  est  verum  verbum 
cum  materiarum  conplanatur  asperitas.  .  .  .  Varro  Bimarco 
'  Cum  Quintipor  Clodius  tot  comoedias  sine  uUa  fecerit  Musa, 
ego  unum  libellum  non  edolem  ut  ait  Ennius  '  ? 

Cicero,  ad  Alt.,  XIII,  47,  1  :  '  Postquam  e.  q.  5.'  (Iphig.,  fr. 
237-8)  extemplo  instituta  omisi,  ea  quae  in  manibus  habebam 
abieci,  quod  iusseras  edolavi. 

12-13 

Servius  auctus,  ad  Aen.,  VIII,  361  :  '  Carinare  '  est  obtrec- 
tare.     Ennius — 

Contra  carinantes  verba  aeque  obscena  profatus. 

alibi — 

-  neque  me  decet  hanc  carinantibus  edere  chartis. 

^*  aeque  Castricomius  atque  cdd.  c.  c.  |  verba  atra 

atque  obscena  olim  V  et  contra  carinans  verba  aeque 

Saumaise  fortasse  contra,  carinantia  verba  |  atque  obscena 
profatus.         irib.  olim  lib,  VI  V 

^*  nee  me  rem  decet  hanc  Ilberg  sed  neque  me  Saumaise 
fortasse  neque  me  decet  haec         trib.  Ann.  VII  ed.  Lips. 

"  If  Cicero  really  means  works,  they  would  probably  be 
Satires.  But  if  he  means  manuscripts,  he  alludes  to  acrostics 
which  we  may  assume  were  attached  by  later  writers  to  works 
of  Ennius  like  the  acrostics  attached  to  Plautus'  plays. 

'  Cicero's  remark  is  not  assigned  by  him  to  anyone;  it 
follows  a  quotation  from  Ennius'  Iphigenia  (p.  306) ;  it  refers 

436 


VARIA 

FROM  THE  SATIRES? 

11 

Cicero  :  And  that  the  famous  song  of  the  Sibj'l  is  not  a 
product  of  raving  is  quite  evident  partly  from  the  poem  itself 
(for  it  is  a  work  of  art;  and  care  rather  than  excitement  and 
emotion)  and  partly  because  it  is  written  in  what  is  called  an 
'  acrostic,'  where  the  first  letter  of  each  line,  the  lines  being 
taken  one  after  the  other  and  joined  in  order,  makes  some  sort 
of  sense;   for  example,  in  some  poems"  of  Ennius — 

Q.  Ennius  his  work 

Nonius  :  '  To  hew  out '  is  a  verb  used  properly  of  joiners 
when  they  plane  down  the  roughness  of  their  material.  .  .  . 
Varro  in  Bimarcus  :  While  Boy  Quintus  Clodius  has  made  so 
many  comedies  without  taste,  may  I  not,  as  Ennius  has  it, 
'  write  rough-hewn  one  little  book  '  ? 

Cicero  :  So  soon  as  .  .  .  {Iphig.,  fr.  237-8)  gave  up  what 
I  had  begun,  I  put  aside  what  I  had  in  hand,  and  I  wrote 
rough-hewn  what  you  had  asked  for.* 

12-13 

Servius  augmented,  on  '  carinae  '  in  Virgil :  '  Carinare  ' 
means  to  revile.    Ennius — 

against  the  foul-mouthed  uttering  words  no  less 
unclean.*' 

Elsewhere — 
nor  does  it  befit  me  to   publish  this  "^    and    make 
these  pages  foul. 

to  a  written  work  (in  praise  of  Caesar);  Varro  suggests 
Ennius  used  '  edolavi '  of  a  little  book.  Hence  I  have  put  the 
passage  from  Cicero  and  the  one  from  Nonius  together  here, 
and  believe  them  to  contain  a  word  from  Ennius'  Satires. 

'  This  and  the  next  fr.  may  belong  to  the  A  nnals ;  carinare 
or  carinare  is  as  it  were  scarinare  (cp.  scortum).  For  contra 
cf.  pp.  172-3. 

'  ac.aaturam?  rem?;  or  read  Aa€c. 

437 


ENNIUS 

14 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  103  :  Multa  ab  animalium  vocibus  tralata 
in  homines  .  .  .  Ennii  a  vitulo — 

tibicina  maximo  labore  mugit. 

15 
Festus,  124, 11  :   '  Moene  '  singulariter  dixit  Ennius — 
Apud  emporium  in  campo  hostium  pro  moene, 

16 
Donatus,  ad  Ter.,  Andr.,  Ill,  2,  25  :   '  Mutire.'     Ennius — 
nee  dice  nee  facie  mu. 

17 

Varro,  L.L.  7  :  Apud  Ennium  .  .  .  mussare  dictum  quod 
muti  non  amplius  quam  /a5  dicunt  ...  — 

neque  ut  aiunt  /xC  facere  audent. 

Censorinus,  de  Die  Nat.,  19,  2  :  Philolaus  annum  naturalem 
dies  habere  prodidit  CCCLXIIII  et  dimidiatum  ...  at  noster 
Ennius  CCCLXVI. 

VARIA  INCERTAE  SEDIS 

18 

Varro,  L.L.  VII,  41  :  Cum  res  maior  erat,  orationi  lega- 
bantur  potissimum  qui  causam  commodissime  orare  poterant, 
Itaque  Ennius  ait — 

oratores  doctiloqui 

1*  Ennius  apud  Fest.      Naevius  apud  0.  Mr.       trib.  Ann.  B 
**  mu  cdd.  Colonna  fortasse  fiv  (cp.  17) 

Censorin. :  scripsit  fortasse  E.  habet  trecentos  sexaginta  sex 
dies  I  annus. 

"  Probably  a  Saturnian  line. 
438 


VARIA 

14 

Varro :  Many  animal  sounds  are  used  figuratively  of 
human  beings  .  .  .  there  is  Ennius'  usage  drawn  from  the 
calf— 

the  flute-girl  moos  with  a  very  great  to-do. 

15 

Festus  :   '  Moene,'  a  singular  form,  was  used  by  Emiius — 
In  a  market  on  the  plain  before  the  enemy's  wall," 

16 

Donatus,  on  '  mutire  '  in  Terence  : 

Not  a  mumble  do  I  mouth  or  make. 

17 

Varro  :  In  a  passage  of  Ennius  .  .  .  '  Mussare  '  is  a  term 
used  because  mutes  say  no  more  than  mu  .  .  . 

nor  do  they  dare  to  make  (as  we  say)  a  mumble. 

Censorinus  :  Philolaus  published  the  statement  that  the 
natural  year  has  364  J  days  .  .  .  but  our  own  writer  Ennius 
says  366. 

VARIOUS  FRAGMENTS 

18 

Varro  :  On  any  occasion  when  a  case  was  of  the  more 
important  kind,  persons  deputed  for  an  oration  were  preferably 
those  who  could  '  orate  '  or  plead  the  cause  most  suitably. 
Hence  the  expression  of  Eimius — 

orators  of  clever  speech  * 

*  This  might  come  from  a  play  or  from  the  Annals — 
probably  it  belongs  to  the  Annals,  and  possibly  came  from 
Bk.  VI  (see  p.  197)  because  Varro  has  just  quot^ed  a  fr.  (about 
an  orator)  which  apparently  came  from  Bk.  VI  and  goes  on 
to  quote  three  that  certainly  belong  to  Bk.  II  (see  pp.  42-3). 

439 


ENNIUS 

19 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  5,  4 :  '  Adgretus  '  apud  Ennium — 
adgretus  fari 
pro  eo  quod  est  adgressus  ponitur. 

20 

Diomedes,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  385,  15  K  :    '  Possum  '  ...  (29) 
'  potestur  '  apud  Ennium  reperimus — 

nee  retrahi  potestur  imperiis. 

21 

Cicero,  de  Re  Publ.,  I,  2,  3  :— 

Urbes  magnas  atque  imperiosas 
ut  appellat  Ennius,  viculis  et  castellis  praeferendas  puto. 

22 

Charisius,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  105,  18K :    '  Saga  '  .  .  .  masculini 
.  .  .  Ennius — 

sagus  caerulus 

23 

Servius,    ad  EcL,   X,   10  :     '  Indigno,'  vel  meretricio  vel 
magno.     Nam  et  Ennius  ait — 

indignas  turres 
24 

Cic,  de  Nat.  Deor.,  II,  18,  49  :    Epicurus  .  .  .  dum  palato 
quid  sit  optimum  iudicat — 

caeli  palatum 

ut  ait  Ennius,  non  suspexit. 

Cp.  Augustin.,  de  Civ.  Dei,  VII,  8. 

2"  nee  r.  v^u-o  potestur  |  imperiis  V  {qui  retrahi  reprimive 
coni.) 

44° 


VARIA 

19 
Paulus  :   '  Adgretus  '  in  a  passage  of  Ennius — 
having  stepped  forward  to  speak 
is  put  for  the  form  '  adgressus.' 

20 
Diomedes  :  '  Possum.'  .  .  .  We  find '  potestur '  in  Ennius 

And  he  is  not  abled  to  be  drawn  back  by  commands. 

21 
Cicero  :  I  think  that — 

cities  great  and  puissant 

are  to  be  preferred  to  hamlets  and  forts. 

22 

Charisius  :  '  Saga  '  ...  of  the  masculine  .  .  .  Ennius — 

a  cloak  of  colour  blue 

23 

Servius  :    '  Indignus,'  wanton,  or  great."     For  Ennius  too 
thus  uses  indignas — 

unworthy  towers 

24 

Cicero  :   Epicurus  .  .  .  while  he  was  judging  what  is  best 
for  the  palate,  did  not  look  up  at — 

the  palate  of  the  sky 

as  Ennius  writes. 

"  There  is  no  need  to  adopt  Servius'  interpretation.    Eimius 
probably  meant '  cruel '  or  '  ugly  towers.' 

441 


ENNIUS 

25 

auclor,  de  duh.  nom.,  ap.  G.L.,  V,  584,  26  K :  '  Nix '  generis 
feminini,  ut  Ennius — 

hae  nives 

26 
Nonius,  190,  20  :   '  Armenta  '  .  .  .  Feminine  Ennius — 
ipsius  ad  armentas  easdem. 

Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  3,  25. 

27 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  I,  190  :  '  Turn  vulgus.'  Bene  vulgus 
ductoribus  interemptis.    Servius  auctus  :  Ennius — 

avium  vulgus 

//.,  XV,  690-1  :  opviOcov  veTerjvcjv  .   .   .   .  |  edvos. 

28 

Nonius,  192,  11  :  '  Araneae  '  et  feminini  sunt  generis.  .  .  . 
Ennius — 

bussus  araneae 
29 
Nonius,  194,  23  :   '  Buxum '  generis  .  .  .  feminini  Ennius — 
buxus  icta  taxus  tonsa 

30 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  457,  5  :  '  Stipes '  fustis  terrae  defixus. 
Fest-us,  456,  21  .  .  .  Ennius  *  *  * — 8tip>ites  abiegno  *  *  *  ♦  e 
stipitem  *****  mit  eum  qua  *  *  *  rripit. 

Servius  (auctus),  ad  Aen.,  II,  173  :  '  Salsus  sudor.'  .  .  . 
Hoc  autem  Ennius  de  lamis  dixit. 

**  ipsius  a.  a.  eosdem  cdd.         easdem  Aid.        ad  armentas 
ipsius  easdem  S  (eodem  Onions) 
"  Cf.  V,  p.  232  et  Thilo  ad  he. 

28  bussus  Quich.       buxus  cdd.  (buxis  Harl.  1 )        aranae  F.  1 
2"  icta  Mercier  vincta  lun.         victa  cdd. 

^^  Paul.  457  :  fortasse  abiegno  <robore> 

442 


VARIA 

25 

A  grammarian :     '  Nix,'   feminine  gender;    for  example, 

Ennius — 

these  snowstorms 

26 
Nonius  :   '  Armenta.'  .  .  .  Ennius  has  it  in  the  feminine — 
to  those  same  herds  of  his." 

27 

Servius,  on  Virgil :  '  Then  the  rabble.'  '  Rabble '  is 
well-chosen,  since  the  leaders  have  been  slain.  The  augmenter 
of  Servius  adds  :  Ennius — 

a  rabble  of  birds 

28 

Nonius  :  '  Araneae.'  This  word  is  osed  even  in  the  feminine 
gender.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

the  gauze  of  the  spider's  web 

29 

Nonius  :  *  Buxum  '  .  .  .  Ennius  has  it  in  the  feminine — 
the  box  hewn,*  the  yew  shorn 

30 

Paulus :  '  Stipes,'  a  stock  fixed  tight  in  the  earth.  Festits 
.  .  .  Ennius  .  .  .  '  stumps  of  fir-wood.'  .  .  . 

Servius  (supplemented)  on  'Salt  sweat'  in  Virgil.'  .  .  . 
Ennius  too  uses  it  of  marshes. 

'  ipsius  may  be  right ;  or  it  may  be  corrupt  or  misplaced. 
*  lunius'  reading  vincta  is  often  accepted.     But  what  is 
'  a  bound  box-tree  '  ? 

'  Who  refers  to  the  Palladium. 

Serv.  auct.  Aen.,  II,  salsas  lamas  trib.  Enn.  Ann.  V  (ami. 
olim  de  lacrimis) 

443 


ENNIUS 

31 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.  VIII,  383,  6  :  Ennius— 

adsectari  se  omnes  cupiunt ; 
adsectari  passive  aKoKovBeiaBan. 

32 

Cicero,  Tv^c.  Disp.,  IV,  23,  52  :  An  est  quicquam  similius 
insaniae  quam  ira,  quam  bene  Ennius — 

'  initium  insaniae  ' 
dixit  ? 

Schol.  ad  Lucan.,  X,  249-52  :  Ennius  haec  de  Nilo  ait, 
quod  per  aestatem  sol  ab  inferioribus  aquam  supra  revocet 
et  hinc  eo  tempore  Nilus  increscat. 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  I,  741  :  Ennius  dicit  Nilum  Melonem 
vocari,  Atlantem  veto  Telamonem. 

33 

Servius  (auctus)  ad  Aen.,  X,  10  :  Non  est  '  hos  suasit '  ne 
fiat  aoXoiKoeiSes,  quamvis  inveniatur  huiusmodi  figura, 
ut  .  .  .  Ennius — 

*  Quis  te  persuasit  ? 

34 

Fronto,  Epp.,  Vol.  I,  p.  10  Haines :  Enni  sententia 
'  oratorem  audacem  esse  debere.' 

35 

Varro,  L.L.,  VI,  61  :  '  Dico  '  origineih  habet  Graecam,  quod 
Graeci  f  NIAIKE  f.     Hinc  Ennius — 

dico  qui  hunc  dicare 

Hinc  iudicare  quod  tunc  ius  dicatur. 

Cp.  Test.,  140,  17. 

444 


VARIA 

31 

Pri3cianus  :   Ennius  has — • 

all  men  long  to  have  a  following ; 

'  adsectari  '  in  a  passive  sense  like  aKoXovdetaOai. 

32 

Cicero  :  Is  there  anything  more  like  madness  than  anger, 
which  Ennius  well  calls — 

'  the  beginning  of  madness  '  ? 

A  scholiast  on  a  passage  of  Lucan  :  Ennius  says  this  about 
the  Nile;  for  (he  states)  the  sun  during  summer-time  calls 
the  waters  up  from  the  regions  below,  and  hence  it  is  that  at 
that  season  the  Xile  grows  in  volume. 

Servius  :  Ennius  says  that  the  Nile  is  called  '  Melo,'  and 
Moimt  Atlas  '  Telamo.'  " 

33 
Servius  (supplemented)  on  a  passage  in  Virgil :   The  order 
must  not  be  '  hos  suasit,'  lest  the  result  be  something  like 
a  solecism.    Nevertheless,  we  do  come  across  a  construction  of 
this  kind ;  for  example  .  .  .  Ennius — 

'  Who  persuaded  you  ?  ' 

34 

Fronto  :  An  opinion  of  Ennius — '  an  orator  ought  to  be 
bold.' 

35 
Varro  :    '  Dico  '  has  a  Greek  origin.  .  .  .  Hence  Ennius — 
I  who  say  that  he  states,'' 

Hence  '  iudicare  '  to  judge,  because  then  '  ius  dicitur,^  justice 
is  delivered. 

"  This  word  is  clearly  the  same  as  telamo  in  Vitruv.,  Arch., 
VI,  7,  6,  where  it  means  a  carved  male  figure  (called  axAoj  by 
the  Greeks)  upholding  the  entablature  of  a  temple. 

'  A  very  doubtful  fr.  The  quotation  is  perhaps  corrupt 
and  hunc  dicare  may  hide  iudicare;  but  even  so  the  sense 
would  not  be  clear. 

445 


ENNIUS 


36 


Isodorus  Orig.,  XI,  1,  108 :  Grenua  sunt  commissiones 
femorum  et  crurum  et  dicta  genua  eo  quod  in  utero  sint  genis 
opposita.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

atque  genua  comprimit  arta  gena 


SPURIA  ? 
1 

Marius  Victorinus,  ap.  G.L.,  VI,  101,  24  K  :  Herous  figuram 
trimetri  accipit,  velut — 

Albani  muris  Albam  Longam  cinxerunt. 

Hie  enim  si  per  dipodias  percutiatur,  fiet  trimetrus. 


Auctor  de  metr.,   ap.    G.L.,    VI,    612,   5    K :    Hexameter 
heroicus  .  .  .  totus  ex  spondiis — 

Gives  Romani  tunc  facti  sunt  Campani. 

Cp.  616,  9. 


Auctor  de  speciebus  hexam.  her.,  ap.  G.L.,  VI,  634,  15  K  : 
Genus  unum  est  XII  syllabarum  ex  omnibus  spondeis, 
tamquam — 

Introducuntur  legati  Minturnenses 

Cp.  Maxim.  Victorin.,  ap.  G.L.,  VI,  211,  22. 

446 


VARIA 


36 


Isidorus  :  The  knees  are  the  junctures  of  the  thighs  and  the 
legs,  and  they  are  called  '  genua  '  on  the  ground  that  in  the 
womb  thej'  are  placed  over  against  the  '  genae,'  cheeks.  .  .  . 
Ennios — 

and   the    cheek   compresses    the   knees,    all   close- 
packed. 


SPURIOUS  FRAGMENTS? 

1 

Marius  Yictorinus  :  A  '  heroic  '  line  can  take  the  shape  of  a 
trimeter,  like —  ° 

Long    Alba's    people    ringed    their    town    with 
enclosures. 

For  this  line,  if  it  be  split  up  into  two-footed  metre,  will  become 
a  trimeter. 

2 

An   author  on  metres  :    The  heroic  hexameter  .  .  .  one 
consisting  entirely  of  spondees — 

Then  the  Campani  were  made  of  Rome  burgesses.* 


An  author  on  Forms  of  the  heroic  hexameter  :  There  is 
one  kind  which  consists  of  twelve  syllables,  all  of  the  feet 
being  spondees,  such  as —  ' 

Then  there  were  brought  in  the  envoys  of  Minturnae 

"  Probably  an  example  invented  by  Yictorinus. 

*  Invented  by  the  grammarian  ?  But  cf.  Valmaggi,  p.  46, 
v.,  CLXXIII-IV.  The  author  has  just  quoted  Virgil  and 
Lucretius. 

'  Another  invention  T 

447 


ENNIUS 

4 
Columna,  p.  239 : — 

perculsi  pectora  Poeni 

Hoc  fragmentum  mihi  e  Cosentia  Fabius  Aquinas  misit; 
quod  a  quodam  suo  vetustissimo  Statii  interprete  m.  s. 
excerpsit. 

Cp.  Sil.,  VIII,  242  :  instincti  pectora  Poeni. 


Pompeius,  ap.  G.L.,  V,  303,  19  K  :  Faciebant  versum  in 
quo  versu  non  invenies  nisi  omnia  nomina,  ut — 

Marsa  manus,  Paeligna  cohors,  Vestina  virum  vis 

Cp.  Charis.,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  282,  6  K :  Explanat.  in  Donat.,  ap.  IV, 
665  K  (de  scematibus  .  .  .  Enni  versus),  etc. 

6-7 
Placidus,  79,  3  D  :— 

Romam  ex  aquilone 
Rhaeti  destringunt 

vel  conlimitant  vel  finibus  se  eius  adiungunt. 

8 
Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  III,  205,  20  K  :— 
O  genitor  noster  Saturnie,  maxime  divum, 

Homer.,  II,  VIII,  31  : 

ai  irarep  rjfierepe  KpoviSr),  vnare  Kpeiovrcav. 

"  Where  Colonna,  Barth,  or  anyone  else  claims  to  follow 
the  authority  of  some  literary  work  which  has  otherwise  not 
been  known,  there  we  are  justified  in  rejecting  the  alleged 
fragment.    Cf.  Norden,  79. 

448 


VARIA 

4 

Colonna  "  : — 

The  Phoenicians,  stricken  at  heart 

This  fragment  was  sent  to  me  from  Cosenza  by  Fabius  of 
Aquinum;  he  gleaned  it  from  the  manuscript  of  a  certain 
very  old  interpreter  of  Statius  which  was  in  his  possession. 


Pompeius  :  They  used  to  compose  a  kind  of  verse  which 
you  will  not  find  to  contain  anything  but  nouns  and  names  * ; 
for  example — - 

Marsian  troop,  Paelignian  company,  Vestinian 
warrior-force 

6-7 
Placidus ' : — 

Rome  on  the  North  is  touched  on  by  the  Rhaeti 

'  Destringunt,'  border  on,  or  are  joined  directly  to  her 
boundaries. 

8 

Priscianus : — 

O  son  of  Saturn,  O  our  begetter,  greatest  of 
gods,** 

*  Pompeius  includes  both  nouns  and  names  in  nomina. 
Only  one  grammarian  assigns  this  fr.  to  Ennius,  but  it  mav  be 
genuine— cf.  Polyb.,  II,  24;  Sil.  Ital.,  VIII,  495-515  (battle 
of  Caimae) ;  there  is  another  line  in  Ennius  of  the  same  type — 
see  p.  112. 

'  Probably  quoting  from  a  much  later  poet  than  Ennius; 
it  suggests  a  writer  of  a  date  subsequent  to  the  granting  in 
49  B.C.  of  the  Roman  franchise  everywhere  in  Italy  up  to  the 
Alps. 

•*  This  line  is  quite  worthy  of  Ennius. 

449 

VOL.   I.  G  G 


KNNIUS 

9-10 

Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  IV,  638  :  Sciendum  Stoicos  diccre  unum 
esse  deum  cui  nomina  variantur  pro  actibus  et  officiis,  unde 
etiam  duplicis  sexus  esse  dicuntur.  .  .  .  lovis  oratio — 

Caelicolae,  mea  membra,  dei  quos  nostra  potestas 
officiis  divisa  facit, 

11 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  7  :  Quaqua  intuiti  erant  oculi  a  tuendo 
primo  dictum  templum;  quocirca  caelum,  qua  attuimur, 
dictum  templum  sic — 

Contremuit  templum  magnum  lovls  altitonantis. 

Homer.,  //.,  I,  354,  al.  :  Zeiis  vil/ippejjidTTjs. 

12 

Charisius,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  266,  15  K  :  '  Soloecismus  '  est  oratio 
inconsequens.  .  .  .  (267) — 

vosque  Lares,  tectum  nostrum  qui  funditus  curant, 

13 

Explaymt.  in  Donat.,  ap.  G.L.,  IV,  565,  K  :  Tmesis  est  unius 
l?artis  orationis  facta  diruptio,  alia  scilicet  interposita,  ut  est 
illud  '  septcm  subiecta  trioni '  (Verg.,  G.,  III.  381).  Tolle  d« 
medio  subiecta  et  habes  septemtrioni.     Emiius — 

saxo  cere  comminuit  brum 

Cp.  Donat.,  ap.  G.L.,  IV,  401,  16  K  :  Pompei.,  ap.  IV,  310, 
4  K  :  Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  I,  412. 

^*  trih.  Enn.  Koch 

^*  et  saxo  expl.  in  Donat. 

"  Baehrens'  attribution  may  be  right. 


VARIA 

9-10 

Servius,  on  '  lovi  Stygio  '  in  Virgil :  We  must  not©  that  the 
Stoics  say  there  is  but  one  god,  to  whom  various  names  are 
given  according  to  his  activities  and  functions,  whence  we 
have  names  of  gods  belonging  to  both  sexes  ...  a  speech 
of  Jupiter —  " 

Dwellers   of  heaven,  my  own   members,    gods 
made  by  the  division  of  my  power  into  its  duties, 

11 

Varro  :  '  Templum  '  is  a  term  which  was  first  used  of  spaces 
wheresoever  our  eyes  had  held  '  contemplation,' '  intuit i  erant ' ; 
it  is  derived  from  '  tueri ' ;  hence  it  is  that  the  term  '  templum  ' 
was  used  of  the  sky  also,  where  we  see  it  in  '  contemplation,' 
thus — 

Trembled  all  the  mighty  precinct  of  high-thundering 
Jupiter,'' 

12 

Charisius  says  :  A  '  solecism  '  is  grammar  which  does  not 
follow  the  rule  ...  — 

And  you,  House-Gods,  who  make  our  home,  from 
floor  to  roof,  their  care, 

13 

A  commentator  on  Donatus  :  '  Tmesis '  is  the  splitting  apart 
of  one  word,  that  is  to  say,  by  the  interposition  of  another, 
like  the  familiar  example  septem  srtbkda  trioni.  Take  subiecta 
away  from  the  middle  and  you  have  '  septemtrioni .^   Ennius —  * 

With  a  stone  he  his  crani  '^  split  um 

*  Worthy  of  Ennius.  But  it  may  be  a  fr.  of  Cn.  Matins  or 
Ninniua  Crassus,  who  were  translators  of  the  Iliad. 

*  Some  (e.g.  Koch,  Eierc.  Crit.,  2;  Leo,  Gesch.  d.  Rom.  Lit., 
182 ;  W.  Hardie,  Res  Metrica,  4-5)  refuse  to  believe  that  Ennius 
ever  wrote  such  a  thing,  and  only  one  soiuxe  attributes  it  to 
him.  On  the  other  hand,  such  a  comic  idea  as  this  might  have 
foimd  a  place  in  the  Satires. 

*  Or  '  occi  split  put.' 

451 

G02 


ENNIUS 

14 

Diomedes,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  499,  12  K  :    '  Partipedes  '  sunt  qui 
in  singulis  pedibus  singulas  orationis  partis  adsignant,  ut — 

Miscent  foede  flumina  Candida  sanguine  sparse. 


15 

Nonius,  312,  30  :  '  Fundere  '  prostenere,  iacere.  Vergilius, 
^ew.,  lib.  I  .  .  .  (192)  et  ^en.,  lib.  II:  fusi  sine  mente  ac  sine 
ullo  sensu  iacerent. 


16-17 

auctor.  Bell.  Hisp.,  5:    Hie  falteriust  non    solum  morti 
mortem  exaggerabant,  sed  tumulos  tumulis  exaequabant. 

Enii  versum  ita  restituit  Woelfflin  : — 

Exaequant  tumulis  tumulos  ac  mortibus  mortes 

accumulant. 

18 

Explanat.  in  Donat.,  ap.  G.L.,  IV,  563,  32  K  :    Per  genera 
verborum  fiunt  soloicismi,  sicut — 

-  spoliantur  eos  et  corpora  nuda  relinquunt. 

pro  '  spoliant.' 

Cp.  Donat.,  ap.  G.L.,  IV,  394, 8  K ;  Pompei.,  ap.  V.,  291, 25  K. 


Non.,  312  Enn.  lib.  II  fusi  ed.  pr.         v.  Linds.  ad  loc. 
Bell.  Hisp.,  5,  hie  ut  ait  Ennius  Woelfflin,  Arch.,  VIII,  597 
fortasse  scribend.  hie  tumulos  tumulis,  hie  mortem  morti  .  .  . 


VARIA 

14 

Diomedes  :  '  Partipedes  '  are  lines  in  which  to  each  single 
foot  a  single  complete  word  is  assigned,  for  example —  " 

They  with 
Bloodstains  filthily  spattered  limpid  rivulets  tainted. 

15 

Nonius  :  '  Fundere,'  to  hurl  down,  to  throw.  Virgil  in 
the  first  book  of  the  Aeneid  .  .  .  and  in  the  second  book  of 
the  Aeneid  * :  '  sprawled  they  lay,  out  of  their  minds,  their 
senses  utterly  gone.' 

16-17 

The  author  of  The  Spanish  War :  '  Hereon  they  not  only 
heaped  death  on  death  .  ,  .  but  piled  barrows  level  with 
barrows.' 

Woelfflin  restores  a  Jr.  of  Ennius  : — 

They  pile  barrows  by  barroM's ;  and  deaths  on 
deaths  they  heap. 

18 

A  commentator  on  Donatus  :  '  Solecisms '  come  about  in 
misuse  of  the  voices  of  verbs,  like  this  example — 

Them  they  despoil  and  leave  the  bodies  bare. 

where  '  spoliantur  '  stands  for  '  spoliant.' 

"  Invented  by  the  grammarian  ? 

*  Clearly  the  second  quotation  from  Virgil — fusi  per  moenia 
Teucri  has  been  ousted  by  fusi  sine  mente  ac  sine  ullo  sensu 
iacereni  (Cic,  in  Verr.,  II,  5, 28).  Both  these  passages  and  also 
Lucretius,  III,  113  may  echo  a  phrase  of  Ennius  (Pascal, 
Riv.  di  jil.  class.,  XXVI,  27),  but  it  is  obvious  that  we  cannot 
restore  a  real  fr.  of  Ennius  here  (Ilberg,  Symb.  Philol.,  Bonn., 
438). 

453 


ENNIUS 

19 

Marius  Plotius,  ap.  G.L.,  VI,  468,  6  K  :  Synecdoche  est 
oratio  plus  minusve  dicens  quam  necessaria  postulat  sig- 
nificatio  ...  — 

rex  ambas  ultra  fossam  protendere  coepit. 
Subauditur  enim  manus. 

20 

Porphyrio,  ad  Hor.,  A.P.,  403  :  Per  versus  hexametros 
reddidit  responsa  ...  — 

Phemonoe  Burro  !   Cluo  purpurei  Epirotae. 

21-2 

Orosius,  Hist.,  IV,  1,  14 ;  Sed  Pyrrhus  atrocitatem  cladis 
quam  hoc  bello  exceperat  dis  suis  hominibusque  testatus  est 
adfigens  titulum  in  tempio  Tarentini  lovis,  in  quo  haec 
scripsit — 

[Qui  antehac  invicti  fuere  viri,  pater  optime  Olympi, 
hos  ego  in  pugna  vici  victusque  sum  ab  isdem.] 

Et  cum  a  sociis  increpitaretur  cur  se  victum  diceret  qui 
vicisset,  respondisse  fertur  :  '  ne  ego  si  iterum  eodem  modo 
vicero  sine  ullo  milite  Epirum  revertar.' 

Cp.  Paul.  Diac,  Hist.,  II,  16. 

23 

Festus,  570,  26  :  '  Veruta  pila  '  dicuntur,  quod  <(velut 
verua)  habent  praefixa.     Ennius  li.  X — 

cursus  quingentos  saepe  veruti 

(Lucret.,  IV,  409  :  vix  etiam  cursus  quingentos  saepe  veruti.) 

2"  V.  St.,  fp.  91,  235-6.        "  qui  invicti  ante  fuere  Paul. 
*^  hos  et  ego  Paul. 

"  Taken  as  part  of  the  oracle  given  to  Pyrrhus  of  Epirus 
(Ann.,  Bk.  VI,  Valmaggi,  pp.  50-51 ;  Stowasser,  W.  Stud., 
XIII,  325  ff.),  but  it  is  almost  certainly  not  even  poetry  at 
all;  cf.  St.,  pp.  235-6.  The  name  Phemonoe  (priestess  at 
Delphi)  does  not  occur  before  Pliny  and  Lucan. 

454 


VARIA 

19 

Marius  :  *  Synecdoche  '  comes  abont  when  an  utterance 
expresses  more,  or  less,  than  the  minimum  of  meaning  which 
necessity  demands  .  .  . 

The  king  began  to  stretch  both  across  the  ditch. 

Here  '  hands  '  is  understood. 

20 

Porphyrio,  on '  didae  per  carmina  soiies  '  in  Horace  :  Answers 
were  made  in  hexameters  by  .  .  .  — 

Pheraonoe  to  Burrus !  I  hear  the  Epirote  in  purple 
clad." 

21-2 

Orosius,  on  the  battle  of  Heraclea,  280  b.c.  :  But  as  for  the 
atrocity  of  the  slaughter  which  Pyrrhus  sustained  in  this 
campaign,  he  bore  witness  to  it  before  his  own  gods  and 
before  mankind  by  fixing  up  in  the  temple  of  Jupiter  of 
Tarentum  a  notice  in  which  he  wrote  these  words —  ' 

Best  father  of  Olympus,  men  in  war 
Unbeaten,  beat  I  them,  by  them  was  beaten. 

And  when  his  allies  angrily  asked  why  he  who  had  beaten 
his  enemies  said  he  was  himself  beaten,  he  is  stated  to  have 
answered,  '  Sure  it  is  that  if  I  beat  them  again  in  the  same 
manner  I  shall  return  to  Epirus  without  a  single  soldier.' 

23 
Festus  :    '  Pronged  spears '  are  so  called  because  they  are 
poLoted  as  it  were  with  prongs.    Ennius  '  in  the  tenth  book — 

Oftentimes  five  hundred  castings  of  a  pronged 
spear. 

'  Orosius  gives  what  is  probably  a  prose  translation  which, 
being  not  far  from  poetry,  was  emended  later  to :  Qui 
invidi  antefuere  viri,  pater  oplume  Olympi  hos  et  ego  in  pugna 
vici  I'ictusque  sum  ab  i»iem  (Paul.  Diac.) ;  cf.  St.,  pp.  23&-7. 

'  But  the  phrase  comes  from  Lucretius,  IV,  409;  all  other 
phrases  which  Lucretius  borrows  from  Ennius  are  in  some  way 
remarkable,  but  this  is  not. 

455 


ENNIUS 

24 

Diomedes,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  447,  4  K  :    '  Parhomoeon  '  fit  cum 
verba  similiter  incipiunt,  ut — 

Machina  multa  minax  minitatur  maxima  muris 


25 

Nonius,  418,  3  :    '  Urgere  '  est  premere,  cogere.  .  .  .  Varro 
Antiquitate  Rerum  Humanarum — 

*  Qua  murum  fieri  voluit  urgemur  in  unum.' 


26 

Glossa  in  cd.  Adm.,  472,  Wim.  Stud.  (J.  Huemer),  II,  305  : 
Albus  est  tabula  ubi  scribebantur  nomina  illorum  qui  ad 
militiam  recipiebantur,  et  si  contigisset  ut  aliquis  eorum 
fuisset  interemptus,  apponebatur  super  nomen  illius  theta 
littera,  quae  mortem  significat.  .  .  .  Ennius  versificatur 
optimus — 

O  multum  ante  alias  infelix  littera  theta! 

Cp.  Isid.,  Ofig.,  I,  3,  8  (.  .  .  de  qua  quidam  0  e.  q.  s.) ;  Schol., 
ad  Pers.,  S.,  IV,  13)  (.  .  .  quidam  ait  0  e.  q.  s.). 


27 

Barth,  ad  Achill.  Tat.,  I,  558  ('  Schd:  ad   A.T.,  I,  558) 
•  Carbasus  '  navis,  a  velo,  ut  Ennius — 

Carbasus  alta  volat  pandam  ductura  carinam. 

Cp.  Vergil.,  G.,  II,  445  pandas  .  .  .  carinas. 


**  minitatur  V         minatur  cdd. 


VARIA 

24 

Diomedes  :  '  Parhomoeon  '  comes  about  when  words  begin 
with  the  same  letter ;  for  example—  " 

A  most  mighty  menacing  machine  menaces  much 
the  muniments. 

25 

Nonius :  '  Urgere  '  means  to  press,  to  force.  .  .  .  Varro, 
in  Human  Antiquities — 

Where  he  has  willed  the  wall  to  be,  therein  are 
we  squeezed  in  a  mass.* 

26 

A  gloss  :  '  Album  '  means  a  tablet  in  which  were  written 
the  names  of  those  who  were  recruited  for  military  service; 
and  if  it  so  happened  that  any  one  of  them  had  been  killed, 
the  letter  theta  was  added  above  his  name.  .  .  .  That  most 
excellent  verse-writer  Ennius  '  has — 

O  theta,  you  letter  unluckier  far  than  others ! 


27 

Barth  professes  to  quote  a  scholiast  :  '  Carbasus,'  a  ship, 
derived  from  its  use  as  a  sail ;  for  example,  Ennius —  "^ 

High  flits  the  flaxen  sail,  that  will  lead  on  the 
curved  keel. 

"  Surely  invented  by  the  grammarian.  It  has  been  referred 
to  Marcellus  at  Syracuse — V.,  in  Sitzungsber.  B.  Aknd.,  1899, 
269  ff. 

*  Possibly  from  the  outburst  of  Remus  against  Romulus. 

'  Possibly ;  but  Isidore  and  a  scholiast  on  Persius  attribute 
the  fr.  to  quidam.  The  Greek  letter  0  (for  eavaro?,  '  death  ') 
occurs  on  Roman  gravestones. 

"  See  p.  448,  n.  n ;   Norden,  78. 

457 


ENNIUS 

28 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  33  :   Ennius  scribit  .  .  .  una — 

trabes  remis  rostrata  per  altum. 
Ennius  (Med.,  246-7). 

29 
Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  23  :— 

Ferme  aderant  ratibus  repentibus  aequore  in  alto. 

Aequor  mare  appellatum.  .  .  . 

30 
Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  46 :  Apud  Ennium  .  .  .  cata  acuta  ...  — 
Tunc  coepit  memorare  simul  cata  dicta 
aceipienda  acuta  dicta. 

31 

Earth,  Advers.,  XXVIII,  15  ('  ex  m.  s.  optima  ')  :  Bonus  et 
liberalis  eo  diversi  sunt  quod  bonus  est  qui  per  naturara  suara 
non  nocet;  liberalis  qui  libenter  prodest.  .  .  .  Ennius  in 
teof— 

quod  bonus  et  liber  populus 


32 

Bartb,  Advers.,  XXIII,  13  {ex  m.s.  gloss.  Vergil,  ad  Aen. 
XII,  19):  '0  praestans  animi  iuvenis '  .  .  .  est  vero  ex 
f  seno  f  Enni  translatum. 


"  Varro's  words  suggest  that  he  takes  his  illustrations  of 
una  trabes  from  different  sources,  as  he  does  just  before  in 
the  case  of  una  canes. 

458 


VARIA 

28 

Varro  :  Ennius  writes  .  .  .  ('  canes '  fern.  sing. ;  see  pp. 
432-3)  '  trabes  '  feminine — 

with  oars  through  the  deep  a  beaked  bark  "... 

Then  follows  Ennius,  Med.,  246-7. 

29 

Varro  : — 

They  were  well-nigh  at  hand  in  their  ships  that 
came  creeping  over  the  level  deep.** 
'  Aequor  '  is  a  term  used  of  the  sea  .  .  . 

30 

Varro :  In  a  passage  of  Ennius  .  .  .  '  cata '  means  sharp. 
...  In  the  line  '  which  runs — 

Then  at  the  same  time  he  began  to  speak  poinfed 
words 
by  '  cata  dicta  '  we  are  to  understand  '  acuta  dicta.' 

31 

Barth  claimed  to  have  found  a  fr.  of  Ennius  in  a  '  very 
good  MS.' :  A  '  good  '  and  a  '  free  '  man  differ  in  that  a  good 
man  is  one  who  through  his  very  nature  does  no  harm,  and  a 
'  free  '  man  is  one  who  gives  benefits  in  a  '  free '  way.  .  .  . 
Ennius —  ■* 

which  a  people  good  and  free 

32 

Barth  claimed  to  have  had  access  to  a  MS.  note  on  Virgil's 
*  0  youth  of  foremost  valour ':...'  it  is  further  taken  from 
Ennius ' — ' 

*  Or,  '  high  seas.'    This  fr.  sounds  like  Ennius. 
'  Probably  from  Ennius,  since  it  comes  between  two  frs. 
of  his  Annah. 
■'  See  p.  448,  n.  a. 
'  Ibid. 

459 


ENNIUS 

33-6 

Ausonius,  Technopaegn.,  XIV,  3-4  : 

Ennius  ut  memorat  replet  te — 

laetificum  gau, 

livida  meus  hominum  concretum  felle  coquat  pus. 

Ausonius,  Technopaegn.,  XIV,  17-19  : 

Unde  Rudinus  ait — 

divum  domus  altisonum  cael 

et  cuius  de  more  quod  adstruit — 

endo  suam  do 

et  de  fronde  loquens  cur  dicit — 

populea  frus 

Cp.  Charis.,  ap.  O.L.,  I,  278,  24  K  :  Diomed.,  ap.  I,  441, 
34'K:  etc. 

37 

Commentator  Cruguii,  ad  Hor.,  Ep.,  I,  13,  10  :  '  Lamas  ' 
lacunas  maiores  continentes  .  .  .  pluviam  .  .  .  Ennius — 

Silvarum  saltus  latebras  lamasque  lutosas 

38 

Festus,  468,  29  :  '  Sagaces  '  appellantur  multi  ac  soUertis 
acuminis.  .  .  .  Lucretius  lib.  II  (840) :  Nee  minus  haec  animum 
cognoscere  *  *  *  *  etiam  eanem  *  *  *  — 

Invictus  can<^is  nare  sagax  et  vi)>ribus  fretus 

*^"*  Cp.  Homer.,  //.,  I,  533  :  els  dAa  aXro  PaOeiav  air''  aly- 
XTJevTOS  ^OXvfiwou,  Zevs  8e  eov  npos  Sajfia.  II.,  I,  426  :  Aioy 
irorl  x^'^Xxo^ares  8tD  al.  Cp.  II.  VIII,  564,  al.  :  Kpl  XevKov. 
Vergil.,  Aen.,  X,  101  :  deum  domus.  Varrc,  B.R.,  Ill, 
17,  10  :  ille  endo  suam  domum.  Cp.  Vergil.,  Aen.,  V,  134  : 
populea  velatur  fronde.     Aen.,  X,  190. 

°  Some  do  not  believe  that  Ennius  wrote  these  phrases, 
and  Ausonius  alone  attributes  them  to  him.    They  may  have 

460 


VARIA 

33-6 

Ausonius  :  As  Ennius  •  says — 

happy-making  joll 

fills  you;  let  the  jaundiced  minds  of  men  distil  gall-clotted 
pus.     And  again  :  How  is  it  that  the  man  of  Rudiae  says — 

home  of  the  gods,  high-sounding  heav. 

and  after  whose  manner  is  the  phrase  which  he  adds — 

into  his  dom 

or  again,  in  speaking  of  a  leaf,  why  does  he  say — 

poplar-fol 

37 

From  a  scholiast  referred  to  by  Cruquius  :   '  Lamas,'  pools 
of  the  bigger  sort  containing  .  .  .  raLa- water.  .  .  .  Ennius — 

Glades  and  lurking-holes  and  muddy  pools  in  the 
forests 

38 

Festus  :   '  Sagax  '  is  a  term  applied  to  persons  who  possess 
plenty  of  sharp  cunning  .  .  .  even  a  hoimd  ...  — 

a  matchless  hound,  cunning  of  nostril,  trusting 
too  in  his  strength  * 

come  in  the  Satires,  in  which  case  we  might  translate  '  merry- 
making gladder,'  '  high-soimding  hewer,'  '  into  his  digs ' 
or  the  like.  But  '  endo  suam  do  '  looks  like  a  borrowing 
from  Homer  where  words  like  this  occur  (see  opposite). 
In  No.  36  /rw-s  is  fruns  (Oscan — cf.  fr.  241)  and  is  probably 
genuine,  though  some  read  fros.  Any  attempt  at  translating 
these  frs.  makes  one  inclined  to  associate  them  with  the 
Satires  and  not  with  Annals. 

*  This  fragment  has  long  been  attributed  to  Ennius,  but 
his  name  does  not  appear  in  Festus'  defective  text. 

461 


ENNIUS 

39 

Censorinus,   ap.  G.L.,  VI,    615,    18    K :    Duodecasyllabos 
spondiazon — 

OUi  crateris  ex  auratis  hauserunt. 


40 

Diomedes,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  447,  16  K  :  Homoeoptoton  fit  cum 
oratio  excurrit  in  eosdem  casus  et  similes  fines,  ut  Ennius — 

maerentes  flentes  lacrumantes  commiserantes 

Cp.  Chans,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  282,  13  K,  etc. 

41 

Auctor,  ad  Herenn.,  IV,  13,  18  :  Compositio  .  .  .  con- 
servabitur  ...  si  non  utemur  continenter  similiter  caden- 
tibus  verbis  hoc  modo — 

flentes  plorantes  lacrumantes  obtestantes 

42 

Columna,  498  :  ex  antiq.  gloss,  affert  tanquam  Enniana — 

regredi  gressum 

43 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  25  :  Cornua  a  curvore  dicta,  quod  pleraque 
curva — 

Musas  quas  memorant  nosces  nos  esse  <(Camenas). 

Camenarum  priscum  vocabulum  ita  natum  ac  scriptura  est 
alibi.     Carmenae  ab  eadem  origine  sunt  declinatae. 

*'  Musas  S  ac  quas  Varr.  nosce  Varr.  nosces  nos 
esse  (Camenas)  Jordan  supjdoid.  potius  Casmenas  vd 

Carmenas        Musas  quas  memorant  nos  noscimus  Casmenas 
coni.  St.  trib.  Enn.  S,  Naev.  Mr. 

462 


VARIA 

39 

Ceusorinus  :   A  spondaic  hexameter  "  of  twelve  syllablea — 
Deep    they    drank    their    draughts    from    gold- 
encrusted  wine-bowls. 
40 

Diomedes  :  '  Homoeoptoton  '  comes  about  when  the  words 
all  finish  in  the  same  case  and  have  a  like  ending ;  for  example, 
Ennius —  * 

mourning,  sobbing,  weeping,  pitying 

41 

The  author  of  To  Herennius  :  '  Good  composition  '  .  .  . 
will  be  preserved  ...  if  we  do  not  use  a  continuous  series  of 
words  which  end  in  a  like  sound,  in  this  way — 

sobbing,  imploring,  weeping,  protesting 

42 

Colonna  professes  to  quote  a  fragment  of  Ennius  from  an 
ancient  commentator  :— 

To  restep  one's  step 

43 

Varro :  '  Comua '  is  a  term  derived  from  crookedness, 
because  most  '  comua  '  are  crooked — 

You  shall  know  that  we  whom  men  call  the  Muses 
are  Camenae.*^ 

This  is  the  origin  of  the  archaic  word  Camenae,  and  we  find 
it  spelt  elsewhere  by  writers.  The  form  Carmenae  is  derived 
from  the  same  original. 

"  Invented  by  Censorinus  ? 

*  This  fr.  is  probably  an  invention.    Cf.  V.,  p.  103. 

«  This  has  been  taken  as  the  second  line  of  the  Annals 
(Y.,  p.  1  and  CXLVI-CXLVII),  and  as  the  second  line  of 
Xaevius'  Bellum  Punicum.  It  is  clear  from  Varro  that  we 
must  supply  Casmenaa  or  Carmenas  and  take  the  words  as 
prose  (?)  of  unknown  authorship.    St.,  p.  234. 

463 


ENNIUS 

44 

Donatus,  ap.  G.L.,  IV,  401,  14  :  '  Tmesis  '  unius  conpositi 
aut  simplicis  verbi  sectio,  una  dictione  vel  pluribus  interiectia, 
ut  .  .  .— 

Massili  portabant  iuvenes  ad  litora  tanas 

hoc  est  .  .  .  '  Massilitanas.' 

Cp.  Pompei.,  ap.  G.L.,  V,  310,  3  K. 

"  Probably  an  invention.  It  follows  '  cere  comminuit  brum  ' 
of  Ennius  (see  p.  451).  I  remember  that  when  I  was  still  a 
schoolboy  I  said  to  myself — I  would  have  written  '  Portabant 


464 


VARIA 


ii 


Donatus  :  '  Tmesis '  is  the  splitting  up  of  one  simple  or 
composite  word  by  thrusting  in  one  or  more  utterances;  for 
example  .  .  . — • 

Massili-  by  young  men  were  transported  to  the 
beach  -tans  " 

that  is,  '  Massilitans.' 

iuvenes  ad  litora  Massilitanas.'  So  would  Ennius  the  man 
unless  he  did  it  in  a  Satire.  Pompeius  says  that  by  Massil- 
itantie,  '  Is^onae '  (bottles)  are  meant.  Perhaps  the  bottles 
were  empty  and  broken. 


465 
VOL.  1.  H  H 


CAECILIUS    STATIUS 


HH  2 


CAECILIUS    STATIUS 

AETHRIO 
1 

Festus,  202,  18  :   '  Orao  '  extremae  partes  terrarum. 
Caecilius  in  Aethrione  usus  est  pro  initio  rei  cum  ait — 

Oram  reperire  nullam  qua  expediar  queo. 


NoniusJ  536,  8  :  '  Prosumia,' navigii  genus.    Caecilius.  . 
Aethrione — 

De  nocte  ad  portum  sum  provectus  prosumia. 


Festus,  602,  8  :    '  Sentinare,'  sat  agere,  dictum  a  sentina, 
quam  multae  aquae  navis  cum  recipit  periclitatur  ...  — 

Cum    Mercuric  capit  consilium   postquam   sentinat  I 

satis. 

Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  503,  3. 


^  quaSpengel       qua  me  Carrie       quamcd.        expediar  W 
expediam  cd. 

*  a  portu  Quich.        profectus  Lu.  al.        provectus  rell. 

468 


CAECILIUS    STATIUS 

THE  ETHEREAL" 
1 

Festus  :  '  Orae '  is  a  term  applied  to  the  outermost  parts  of 
lands.  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  The  Ethereal  used  the  term  '  ora '  for 
the  outset  of  a  thing  when  he  wrote — 

I  can't  find  a  shore  to  start  from. 


Nonius :     '  Prosumia,'   a   kind  of  ship.     Caecilius  ...  in 
The  Ethereal- 
ly night  I  was  carried  on  my  spy-boat  into  port. 


Festus :  '  Sentinare,'  to  have  one's  hands  full.  It  is  a 
term  derived  from  'sentina'  (bilge- water);  when  a  ship  that 
gathers  *  much  water  takes  in  bilge,  it  is  in  danger  ...  — 

After  he  was  sick  of  trying  '  all  hands  to  the 
pjiimp  '  "^  he  took  advice  with  Mercury. 

"  Possibly  a  play  in  which  Jupiter  and  other  gods  (Mercury  ? 
fir.  3)  were  introduced  as  characters.     Cf.  Plautus'  AmpMtruo. 

*  multae  aquae  may  mean  '  of  large  tonnage,'  '  low  in  the 
water.' 

'  Paulus  explains  sentinare  as  '  sat  agere,  derived  firom  a 
ship's  bilge  which  one  strives  to  empty  out  to  ease  the  ship  of 
water.' 

469 


CAECILIUS 


Diomedes,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  386,  17  K  :  Apud  veteres  reperimus 
t  id  quod  nolumus,  non  vultis  f  ut  est  in  Aethrione  apud 
Caecilium — 

-  actutum,  voltis,  empta  est ;  noltis,  non  empta  est. 


Festus,  178,  5  :    Panurgus  Antonius  haec  ait :    '  Numero  ' 
nimium  cito,  celeriter  nimium.  ...  — 

(A)   Ei  perii!      (B)    Quid  ita?      (A)  Numero  venit. 
(B)   Fuge  domum ! 


ANDRIA 

6 
Nonius,152, 18  :  '  Putidum,' putre.  .  .  .  Caecilius  Andria — 
Conducit  navem  putidam. 

ANDROGYNOS 


Festus,  548, 19  :  '  Taenias '  Graecam  vocem  sic  interpretatur 
Verrius  ut  dicat  omamentum  esse  laneum  capitis  honorati, 
ut  sit  apud  Caecilium  in  Androgyne — 

sepulchrum  plenum  taeniarum  ita  ut  solet. 

Diamed.  386  id  quod  non  vultis  noltis  edd.  vlt.  Caeci- 
lium Statium  co7ii.  Becker  Lucilium  activiim  cdd.  (ac- 
tutum Monac.  m.  2)        sedud.  activiim  edd. 

*  peril  vulg.  peri  cd.  domum  cd.  modo  coni. 
Kiessling 

Non.  152  Andreia  Dziatsko  andrea  cdd.  fortasse  recte 

•  putidam  Flor.  2  (3  ?),  edd.        putridam  cdd. 

470 


PLAYS 


Diomedes :  In  the  works  of  old  writers  we  find  '  noltis  ' ; 
for  example,  the  passage  in  The  Ethereal  of  the  works  of 
Caecilius — 

Quick,  gentlemen!  Will  ye? — Done!  She's 
bought.     Nill  ye  ?     She's  not. 


Festus  :    Pannrgus  Antonius  writes  as  follows  :  '  Xumero,' 
very  quickly,  very  swiftly  .  .  .  — 

(A)  Hey !     I'm  done  for !     (B)  ^\hy  so  ?     (A)  He  has 
come  so  \ery  quickly."     (B)  Run  away  home ! 

THE  ANDRIAN*  WOMAN 

6 

Nonius  :  '  Putidum,'  the  same  as  '  putre.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in 
The  Andrian  Woman — 


He  hires  a  rotten  ship. 


THE  MAN-WOMAN" 

7 

Festus  :  '  Taeniae,'  a  Greek  word,  is  explained  by  Verrius 
to  mean  a  woollen  adornment  of  an  honoured  head,  as  is  the 
case  in  a  passage  of  Caecilius  in  The  Man-Woman — 

a  tomb  covered  with  headbands,  as  is  the  custom. 

"  '  Numero  '  here  may  have  its  other  meaning  of  '  at  this 
very  moment,'  '  just  now.' 

*  Probably  from  Menander's  play  'AvSpi'a,  but  it  is  not  certain 
whether  the  title  is  Aiidria  or  Andreia  {'  Bravery '). 

■^  From  Menander's  'AvSpoywos  ? 


CAECILIUS 


Festus,  460,  12:  '  Stolidus,' stultus.  .  .  .  Caecilius  ...  in 
Androgyne — 

Sed  ego  stolidus ;  gratulatum  med  oportebat  prius. 


ASOTUS 

9 
Nonius,  517,  10  :    '  Desubito.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  Asoto — 

Nam  ego   duabus   vigiliis  transactis   duco  desubito 
domum 

10 

Nonius,  258, 11:'  Callet '  etiara  dictum  a  callositate.  ...  — 

Tu  iam  callebis,  ille  festus  desidet. 

11 

Nonius,  471,  11  :   '  Populat.'  Est  et  passivum  popu- 

latur.  ...  — 

iamdudum  depopulat  macellum 

12-13 
Nonius,  474,  2  :   '  Mutuet,'  mutuum  suraat.  ...  — 

(A)   Ad   amicos   curret   mutuatum.     (B)    Mutuet 
mea  causa. 

Fest.  460  Androgyno  Augustin.        Andronico  cd, 

*  med  oportebat  Bothe  tibi  me  oportebat  Umpfenbach 
(oportebat  Augustin.)        me  *  ♦  *  oporteat  cd. 

•  nam  cdd.         earn  S         duco  cdd.         ducor  quid.  ap.  ed. 
Bos. 

*•  tu  ed.  princ.  tun  Ribb.  turn  cdd,  festum 

Palmer.  (Spic.)        fessus  Bothe 

472 


PLAYS 


Festua :   '  Stolidus,'  silly.  .  .  .  Caecilius  ...  in  The  Man- 
Woman — 

But  I'm  a  blockhead  I     I  ought  to  have  wished  you 
joy  before  now. 

THE  DEBAUCHEE" 

9 
Xonios  :   '  Deaubito.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  The  Debauchee — 

For  I  took  her  home  on  a  sudden  when  the  second 
watch  was  done 

10 

Nonius  :    '  Callet.'     This  word  also  has  a  meaning  derived 
from  callosity  ...  — 

You  will  now  become  a  hardened  sinner  and  he 
will  sink  low  *  by  his  merry-making. 

11 

Nonias :     '  Populat.'     There    is    also    a    deponent    form 
'  populator.'  ...  — 

He  has  long  been  pillaging  the  butchers'  shops. 

12-13 
Nonius :  '  Mutuei,'  let  him  take  as  a  '  mutuum,'  or  loan. . .  — 

(A)  He'll  run  to  friends  to  get  a  money-loan.     (B) 
Let  him  get  a  loan  for  me. 

"  Cp.  'AacoTos  of  Timostratus  and  'Aaon-oi  of  Antiphanes 
and  of  Eutyches. 

*  sc.  in  morals.     Cp.  desidentes  mores,  Livy,  praef.,  9. 

is-is  mutuet  causa  mea  Quich. 

473 


CAECILIUS 

14 

Nonius,  507,  5  :   '  Edim  '  pro  edam.  ...  — 

Parasifus 
Nihilne  nihil  tibi  esse  quod  edim  ? 

15 
Nonius,  474,  35  :   '  Opino  '  pro  opinor  .  .  .  (475,  6)  .  .  .  — 
Nil  fore  opino  inter  me  atque  ilium. 

16 
Nonius,  139, 18  :  '  Meritissimo.'  .  .  . — 
Meritissimo  hie  me  eiecit  ex  hac  decuria ! 

CHALCIA 

17 

Nonius,  464,  21  :    '  Parere  '  etiam  viros  dici  posse  Caecilius 
auctor  est  Chalciis — 

Ait  hie  vicinus  se  eas  peperisse  et  vobis  datum. 

Id  prudenter  mutuatum  ab  Homero  :  avrap  rXavKos  eTiKrev 
dfivfiova  BeXXepo<f>6in-rjV  (II.,  VI,  155), 

18 

Nonius,  491,  23  :    '  Soniti '  et  '  sonu  '  pro  sonitus  et  sono. 
.  .  .  Caecilius  Chalciis — 

Num  quidnam  fores  fecere  soniti  ? 

Non.  464  Chalciis  Spengel         Calchis  cdd. 

1 '  ait  Grauert  sat  cdd.  at  Spengel  at  ait  Mr. 

scit  Havet  se  eas  peperisse  lun.  se  has  Buecheler 

asses  olim  Ribb.  peperisset  Ribb.  se  asperisse  cdd. 

(asperasse  Par.  7666,  Lugd.,  Bamb.)  et  cdd.  id  Mr.  it 
coni.  Linds.        alii  alia  :  cf,  Ribb.,  Com,  Fr.,  38-9 

474 


PLAYS 
14 

Nonius  :   '  Edim  '  for  '  edam.'  ...  — 

Sponger 
What,  you've  got  nothing,  nothing  for  me  to  eat  ? 

15 
Nonius  :  '  Opino  '  for  '  opinor.'  ...  — 
There'll  be  nothing  doing,  I  think,  between  him 
and  me. 

16 
Nonius  :   '  Meritissimo.'  ...  — 

He's  chucked  me  out  of  that  tithing  and  it  serves 
me  jolly  well  right ! 

THE  COPPERSMITHS'  HOLIDAY" 

17 

Nonius  :  '  Parere.'    That  this  verb  can  be  used  of  a  man  we 
have  the  authority  of  Caecilius  in  The  Coppersmiths^  Holiday — 

This  neighbour  of  yours  says  he  gave  birth  to  them, 
and  the  gift  has  been  made  to  you.* 

This   usage   is   skilfully    borrowed    from    Homer :     *  But 
Glaucus  gave  birth  to  blameless  Bellerophon.' 

18 

Nonius  :    *  Soniti,'  genitive,  for  '  sonitus  '  and  '  sonu  '  for 
*  sono.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  The  Coppersmiths'  Holiday — 

Has  there  been  any  knocking  at  the  doors  ? 

■  Cf.  Menander's  XoAjceia.    The  scene  would  be  Athens. 
*  An  obscure  fragment ;  the  readings  are  uncertain. 

^*  num  Grauert        nam  cdd.        nam  quid  Bo  the        nam 
quid  iam  vel  n.  q.  nunc  Spengel 

475 


CAECILIUS 


CHRYSION 

19-21 

Gellius,  VI,  17,  3  5.:  Quis  adeo  tarn  linguae  Latinae  ignarus 
est  quin  sciat  eum  dici  '  obnoxium  '  cui  quid  ab  eo  cui  ease 
obnoxiusdiciturincommodariet  noceripossit.  .  .  (13)  Caecilius 
...  in  Chrysio  ...  — 

[Coquus] 

.  .  .  quamquam  ego  mercede  hue  conductus  tua 
advenio,  ne  tibi  me  esse  ob  earn  rem  obnoxium 
reare ;   audibis  male  si  male  dicis  mihi. 


DARDANUS 

22 

Nonius,    392,     15 :      *  Spissum '    significat    tardum.  .  .  . 
Caeciliua  Dardano — 

Nihil  Spei  credo :  omnis  res  spissas  facit. 


DAVOS 

23 

Festus,    284,    24 :     '  Probrum,'   stuprura,   flagitium.  .  .  . 
Caecilius  in  Davo — 

Ea  tum  compressa  parit  huic  puerum,  sibi  probrum. 


*^  dixis  ed.  Gronov.  {rede  ?) 

**  nihil  ego  spei  credo  LuG.  Harl.  2  al. 
Bern.  83  al.         nil  re  ego  spe  credo  Mr. 
Lands. 

476 


nihil  rei  e.  c.  Gen. 
nihil  spei  ego  credo 


PLAYS 

CHRYSION  '^ 

1&-21 

Gellius :  Who  is  so  very  ignorant  of  the  Latin  language 
that  he  does  not  know  that  '  obnoxius  '  is  a  term  applied  to  a 
man  to  whom  some  disadvantage  or  hurt  can  be  caused  by 
the  man  to  whom  he  is  said  to  be  '  obnoxius.'  .  .  .  Caecilius 
in  Chrysion  ...  — 

[Cook] 

Although  your  wages  hired  me  to  come  here, 

Do  not  supfwse  that  puts  me  at  your  mercy. 

Call  me  bad  names — vou'U  hear  bad  names  from 


me 


DARDANUS « 

22 

Nomas :      '  Spissum '    means     slow.   .   .   .  Caecilius     in 
Dardanus — 

I've  no  belief  in  Hope;  she  befogs  everything. 


DAVUS  «* 

23 

Festus :     '  Probrum,'    disgrace,    shame.  .  .  .  Caecilius   in 
Davus — 

She  then  was  forced  and  bore,  to  him  a  son,  to 
herself  disgrace. 

"  A  woman's  name.     There  is  no  corresponding  Greek  title, 
but  cp.  XpiHTij  of  Antiphanes. 

*  Or, '  if  you  give  me  a  bad  character,  you'll  get  one  too.' 

'  From  Menander's  AdpSoj'oj. 

■'  Davo  may  be  a  corruption  of  Dardano. 

477 


CAECILIUS 

DEMANDATl 

24 

Nonius,  123,  33  :  '  Icit '  significat  percutit,  ab  ictu.  .  .  • 
(124,  7)  Caecilius  Demandatis — 

Si    umquam    quisquam    vidit    queni    catapulta    aut 
balista  icerit, 

EPHESIO 

25-6 

Nonius,  1,2:  '  Senium '  est  taedium  et  odium.  .  .  . 
Caecilius  in  Ephesione — 

Turn  in  senectute  hoc  deputo  miserrimum, 
sentire  ea  aetate  eumpse  esse  odiosum  alteri. 

Cp.  Cic,  de  Sencct.,  8,  25. 

EPICLEROS 

27-8 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  354,  7  K  :  Apud  antiquos  hie  et 
haec  memoris  it  hoc  memore  profercbatur,  in  quo  testis  est 
Caper  antiquitatis  doctissimus  inquisitor.  Ostendit  enim 
Caecilium  in  Epiclero  sic  protulisse — 

Itane  Antipho  est  inventus  profluvia  fide .'' 
Itanest  inmemoris,  itanest  raadida  memoria  ? 

Cp.  Prise.,  ap.  235,  13  K. 

Non.  1  Ephesione  tum  cdd.  Ephesio  nae  tum  Spengel 
Hephaestione  lun. 

^^  tum  <equidem>  in  s.  Ribb.        senecta  Cic. 

^*  eumpse  esse  o.  Fleckeisen  ipsum  esse  odiosum  Bothe 
eumpsum  coni.  Linds.  eum  ipsum  esse  o.  Non.  esse 

odiosum  se  vel  sim.  cdd.  Cic. 

478 


PLAYS 

THE  WARDS 

24 

Nonius  :  '  Icit '  means  '  strikes,'  derived  fix>m  '  ictus.  .  . 
Caecilius  in  The  Wards — 

If  anyone  has  ever  seen  a  man 
Struck  by  a  balister  or  catapult, 

EPHESIO  « 

25-6 

Nonius :  '  Senium '  means  loathing  and  dislike.  .  .  . 
Caecilius  in  Ephesio — 

And  then  this  is  what  I  think  is  the  >\Tetchedest 
thing  in  old  age — when  a  man  feels  that  at  that  time 
of  life  he  himself  is  an  object  of  loathing  to  his 
neighbour. 

THE  HEIRESS" 

27-8 

Priscianus  :  In  the  works  of  archaic  writers  we  find  '  memor  ' 
usefl  in  the  form  '  memoris,'  masculine  and  feminine  singular, 
and  '  memore  '  neuter.  In  this  we  have  a  witness  in  Caper, 
a  most  learned  researcher  into  archaic  lore ;  for  he  shows  that 
Caecilius  used  this  form  in  The  Heiress — 

Is  this  true  ?  Is  Antipho  found  to  be  a  slippery 
customer?  Is  he  really  so  unremembering ?  Is  his 
memory  so  sodden  ? 

"  From  Menander's  'E^e'aior  ?  But  the  nominative  Ephesio 
suggests  another  play. 

*  Several  Greek  writers  wrote  a  play  having  this  title. 

*'  est  inventus  Bo  the  inventus  cdd.  354,  235  in- 
venitur  Spengel  ex  cdd.  duobua  354 

479 


CAECILIUS 

29 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  514,  15  K  :   Invenitur  tamen  etiam 
claudeo.  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  Epiclero — 

An  ubi  vos  sitis,  ibi  consilium  claudeat  ? 

Cp.  Thes.  nov.  Lat.  ap.  Mai,  Class.  And.  VIII,  107,  142. 

EPISTATHMOS 

30 
Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  334  :    '  Hie  '  et  '  haec  celer  '  vel 
celeris  '  et 'hoc  celere.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  Epistathmo — 

Si  properas,  escende  hue  meam  navem ;  ita  celeris  est. 

EPISTULA 

31-2 
Festus,  100,   3  :    '  Mantare  '  saepe   manere.     Caecilius  in 
Epistola — 

(A) 
lamne  adeo  ?     Manta ! 

(B) 
lam  hoc  vide ;  caecus  animum  .  .  . 
.  .  .  adventus  angit. 

33 
Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  229,  10  K  :    '  lovis '  nominativo 
quoque  casu  invenitur.     Caecilius  in  Epistula — 

nam  novus  quidem  iam  deus  repertus  est  lovis 

*•  an  u.  V.  s.  i.  Prise.        an  ut  sciatis  ubi  Thes.  107        vos 
nescitis  ubi  Thes.  142 

Prise.  334  Epistathmo  Spengel         episathomo  vel  sim.  cdd. 

^*  escende  vel  exscende  Gulielmus         extende  cdd. 

*^  iamne  cd.        iamauo  Bothe        iam  me  Aid.        caecu's 
coni.  Ribb. 

*^-^  lacun.  viginti  fere  litt.  swpfl.  Leo  :   incertat  metus  ten 
patris        fortasse  i.  a.  m.  i.  h.  v.  |  c.  a.  a.  a. 
480 


PLAYS 

29 

Priscianus  :   The  form  '  claudeo  '  is  found.  .  .  .     Caecilius 
in  The  Heiress — 

Is  it  really  true  that  wherever  you  happen  to  be, 
there  falters  all  wise  counsel  ? 

THE  QUARTERMASTER" 

30 
Priscianus  :    '  Celer  '  or  '  celeri*  '  masctdine  and  feminine, 
celere  '  neuter.  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  The  Quartermaster — 

If  you  are  in  a  hurry,  climb  up  here  on  board  my 
ship,  she  is  so  fast. 

THE  LETTER* 

31-2 

Festus  :  '  Mantare '   often   means   '  manere.'     Caecilius  in 
The  Letter— 

(A) 
WTiat,  so  soon  ?    Wait !    Wait ! 

(B) 
Look  at  that  now !     Blind  in  his  wits.  .  .  .  His 
approach  chokes  him. 

33 

Priscianus :  '  lovis '  is  also  found  a«  a  nominative  case. 
Caecilius  in  The  Letter — 

for  there  was  found  then  a  new  god  Jove  '^ 

"  Or,  '  The  Loflger.'     Cp.  "ErriaTa^/ios  of  Poseidippus. 

*  Cp.  Alexis'  EttiotoA^. 

*  Or,  '  Jove  was  then  indeed  found  to  be  a  new  god.' 


"  novus  quidem  cdd.  iam  add.  Brugmann  nobis 

equidem  Ribb.  (equidem  Osann)        nobis  quidem  novos  re- 
pertu's  lovis  deus  olim  Ribb. 

481 
VOL.  I.  II 


CAECILIUS 

EXHAUTUHESTOS 

34^5 

Donatus,  ad  Ter.,  Adelph.,  IV,  5,  34  :  '  Praesens  praesenti 
eripi.'  Adiuvant  significationem  haec  ex  abundant!  addita 
...  sic  Caecilius  in  Exhautuhestoti — 

.  .  .  haec  caterva  plane  gladiatoria 
cum  suum  sibi  alius  socius  socium  sauciat. 

EXUL 

36 

Xonius,  75,  21  :  '  Abscondit '  pro  abscondidit.  Caecilius 
Exule — 

nam  hie  in  tenebris  intus  sese  abscondit. 

37 

Nonius,  369,  29  :  '  Putare,'  animo  disputare.  .  .  .  Caecilius 
Exule — 

-  non  haec  putas,  non  haec  in  corde  versantur  tibi  ? 

FALLACIA 

38-9 
Nonius,  51 1,27:  '  Aliquantisper.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  Fallacia — 

Nam  si  illi,  postquam  rem  paternam  amiserant, 
egestate  aliquantisper  iactati  forent, 

Ex  Hautu  Estos,  i.e.  'E|  avroC  iarm  (non  'Ektos  av.  e.) 
Spengel  Donat. :  Caelius  vel  Celius  cdd.  Exhautuhestoti 
Spengel  Eratosthene  vulg.  in  exatostoti  Garul 

mexato  scoti  Dr.         in  hesatoshetim  Lugd. 

**  plane  Lindenbrog         plena  cdd. 

Xo7i.  75  abscondidit  p.  abscondit  Flor.  1 

482 


PLAYS 

WISE   IX  HIS  OWN  CONCEIT « 

34-5 

Donatus,  on  '  In  person  snatched  from  him  in  person '  in 
Terence  :  These  words,  added  redundantly,  reinforce  the 
meaning  ...  so  Caecilius  in  Wise  in  his  orcn  Conceit — 

This  is  plainly  a  crowd  of  gladiators,  where  each 
ally  wounds  his  own  ally. 


THE   EXILE* 

36 

Nonius  :     '  Abscondit '    for    '  abscondidit.'     Caecilius   in 
The  Exile— 

for  this  fellow  hid  himself  away  inside,  in  the 
darkness. 

37 

Nonius  :   '  Putare,'  to  dispute  in  the  mind  .  .  .  Caecilius  in 
The  Exile— 

Hayen't  you  a  thought  for  all  this.-     Don't  you 
turn  it  oyer  and  oyer  in  your  heart } 


THE  FRAUD « 

38-9 
Nonius  ;   '  Aliquant isper.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  Th£  Fraud — 
For  if  they  were  to  be  flung  about  for  a  while  by 
Want  after  they  had  sqaundered  their  heritage, 

"  This  title  is  uncertain;    but  I  adopt  Spengel's  reading. 
"E^  avTov  eoTtis.     This  might  mean  The  Self-made  Man. 
*  Cp.  Alexis'  Ouyds  and  Philemon's  "AnoXis. 
'  Several  Greek  writers  composed  a  KarailievSofievos- 


'*  abscondidit  Lu.  '*  amisenmt  coni.  Ribb. 

483 

ii2 


CAECILIUS 

40-1 

Nonius,  512,  1  :   '  Duriter  '  pro  dure.  ...  — 

(A)  Nam  quam  duriter 
vos  educavit  atque  asperiter ! 

(B)  Non  negat. 

42 

Nonius,  127,  22  :   '  Incursim  '  pro  celeriter.  ...  — 

NuUus   sum   nisi   meam   rem   iam   omnem    propero 
incursim  perdere, 

43-4 

Nonius,  430, 10  :  '  Iniuria  '  a  contumelia  hoo  distat ;  iniuria 
enim  levior  res  est  ...  — 

Facile  aerumnam  ferre  possunt  si  inde  abest  inuria; 
etiam  iniuriam,  nisi  contra  constant  contumeliam. 

45-6 

Nonius,  511,  27  :  Aliquantisper.  .  .  . — 

(A)  Velim  paulisper  te  opperiri. 
(B)  "Quantisper  ? 

(A)  Non  plus  triduum. 

47 
Nonius,  147,  24  :   '  Ossiculatim,'  ut  si  minutatim.  ...  — 
Ossiculatim  Parmenonem  de  via  liceat  legant. 

**~i  nam.   q.   d.   v.   e.   cdd.  atque  asperiter   Bothe 

aspereque    S  atque    aspere    cdd.  atque    aspere    vos 

educarit  Grauert        nam  quin  d.  v.  educarit  Bothe 

"  possunt  cdd.        possum  Mr. 

484 


PLAYS 

40-1 

Nonius  :   '  Duriter  '  for  '  dure.'  ...  — 

(A)  But  how  sternly  and  harshly  he  brought  you 
up ! 

(B)  He  doesn't  deny  it. 

42 
Nonius  :   '  Incursim  '  for  quickly  ...  — 

It's  all  up  with  me,  unless  I  make  haste  and 
squander  all  my  wealth  now  by  leaps  and  bounds. 

43-4 

Nonius  :  '  Iniuria  '  differs  firom  '  contumelia  '  in  this — • 
injury  is  the  slighter  hurt  ...  — 

Men  can  easily  bear  hardship  if  there  is  no  injury 
with  it ;  and  they  can  bear  even  an  injury,  unless 
they  have  to  face  insults  also. 

45-6 
Nonins  :   '  Aliquantisper.'  ...  — 

(A)  I  should  like  you  to  wait  a  while. 

(B)  How  long  a  while  ? 

(A)  Not  more  than  three  days. 

47 
Nonius  :  '  Ossieulatim,'  as  it  were  '  minutatim.'  ...  — 

Give  them  a  chance  to  pick  up  Parmeno 
Bonemeal  out  of  the  road. 


*•  constant  LuG  2  al.  Harl.  3  constat  rdl.  con- 

tumeliam    cdd.         contumelia    Bothe         si    citra    constat 
contumeliam  C.  Fr.  Hermann 

485 


CAECILIUS 

48 
Nonius,  514,  7  :   '  Pugnitus  '  pro  pugnis.  ...  — 
nisi  quidem  qui  sese  malit  pugnitus  pessum  dari. 

GAMOS 

49 

Festus,  536,  18  :  '  Toxicum  '  dicitur  cervari<um  venenum, 
quo>  quidam  perungere  8agitta<8  soliti  8unt>.  Caecilius 
Gamo — 

ut  hom^inem  .  .  .)  toxico  transegerit. 


HARPAZOMENE 

50 

Nonius,  155,  18  :    '  Pulchritas  '  pro  pulchritudo.     Caecilius 
Harpazomene — 

Di  boni !     Quid  illud  est  pulchritatis ! 


51 

Nonius,  200,  16  :   '  Collus  '  masculino  ...  — 

hunc  collum  Ludo  praecidi  iube  ! 

*8  sese  Guietus,  Bothe        se  cdd.        nisi  quis  est  qui  sese 
Madvig 
**  hominem  miserum  S         h.  amoris  Spengel 


486 


PLAYS 

48 
Nonius  :   '  Pugnitus  '  for  '  pugnis,'  with  fists  ...  — 
unless  one  who  prefers  a  knock-out  to  perdition. 

THE  MARRIAGE" 
49 

Festus  :  '  Toxicum  '  is  a  term  applied  to  a  poison  obtained 
from  the  deer- wort;  with  it  some  tribes  have  long  been 
accustomed  to  smear  their  arrows.  Caecilius  in  The 
Marriage — ■ 

so  that  he  shot  the  fellow  through  with  arrow- 
poison. 

THE  ABDUCTED   MAIDEN* 

50 

Nonius  :  '  Pulchritas  '  for  '  pulchritudo.'  Caecilius  in  The 
Abducted  Maiden — - 

Good  heavens !    WTiat  beauteousness  is  that ! 

51 

Nonius  :   '  Collus  '  in  the  masculine  ...  — 

Order  a  cutlet  of  that  neck  to  be  carved  for 
Sport ! 

"  Ta/ioj  was  the  title  of  plays  written  by  Antiphanes, 
Diphilus,  and  Philemon. 

*  From  Philemon's  Apwa^o/xeVij  (-o/ievos). 

487 


CAECILIUS 

52-3 

Charisius,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  144,  19  K  :  '  Schema  '  quasi  mono- 
ptoton  sit,  proinde  declinasse  Caecilium  in  ' Apna^oixev^ 
denotatur — 

Utinam  f  tescioli  t  te  schema  sine  cruribus 
videam.  .  ,  . 

pro  schemate. 

54-5 

Nonius,  10,  10 :  '  Inlex '  et  '  exlex '  qui  sine  lege 
vivat  ...  — 

Quid  narras  barbare  cum  indomitis  moribus, 
inlitterate  inlex  ? 

56 
Nonius,  128,  12  :   '  Ineptitude  '  pro  ineptia  ...  — 
Qui,  homo  ineptitudinis  cumulatus,  cultum  oblitus  es  ? 

57-8 

Donatus,  ad  Ter.,  Eun.,  IV,  4,  4  :  '  Quid  vestis  mutatio.' 
.   .  .  Caecilius  ' Ap-rra^onevri — 

Quid  tibi  aucupatiost 
argumentum  aut  de  meo  amore  verbificatiost  patri  ? 

Charts.  144: '  Ap-rra^ofievcu  cd. 

^^  piseiculi  Ribb.  bestiolae  Maehly  to  schema  Ribb. 
te  sine  schema  ed.  pr.  te  servoli  schema  Buecheler 

utinam  inquit  tescioli  schemata  sine  cd.  te  sciole  istac 
schema  olim  Ribb. 

^*  cum  indomitis  cdd.         indomitis  cum  Ribb. 

*'  inlex  hist  (hi  sunt)  Par.  7666  Lugd.  Bamb.  Tur.  inlex 
hes  Lu.  1  inlex  Sisenna  Hist.  Mr.         sequitur  Sisenna  lib. 

IV        illex  es  Spengel 

**  qui  cdd.  quid  Mercier  equi  (ecqui)  Ribb.  qui 
tu  Mr.         cultum  cdd.         cultrum  Bothe 

488 


PLAYS 

52-3 

Charisias  :  '  Schema.'  Caecilius  in  The  Abduded  Maiden 
is  observed  to  have  inflected  this  word  as  though  it  were  an 
indeclinable  noun.     He  says — 

I  wish  I  could  see  you  without  legs,  in  the  shape 
of  a  little  .  .  . 

where  •  *  schema '  stands  for  '  schemate.' 


54-5 

Nonius  :  '  Inlex  '  and  '  exlei '  are  terms  applied  to  a  man 
who  lives  without  the  law  .  .  .  — 

What's  that  you  make  such  a  savage  tale  of.  you 
fellow  of  untamed  manners,  unlettered  and  un- 
lawed  ? 

56 

Xonius  :   '  Ineptitudo  '  for  '  ineptia.'  ...  — 

You  mound  of  ineptitude,  how  came  you  to  forget 
good  manners  ? 

57-8 

Donatus,  on  '  What's  the  meaning  of  this  change  of  dress ' 
in  Terence:  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  The  Abducted  Maiden — 

Why  should  you  be  hawking  after  a  proof?  Why 
this  wordification  from  your  father  about  my  love- 
affair  ? 

*  schema  in  the  quotation  is  really  ablative  feminine  singular. 


Donat.  CeUus  cdd. 

*•  argumenti  Par.  Lugd.        argumentum  rdl.        de  meo 
amore  cdd.  {om.  meo  Gand.) 

489 


CAECILIUS 

HYMNIS 

59-60 

Diomedes,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  383,  10  K  :  Quod  vulgo  '  obsepio  ' 
dicimus  veteres  obsipio  dixerunt.     Caecilius  in  Hymnide — 

Habes 

Miletida ;  ego  illam  huic  despondebo  et  gnato  saltum 

obsipiam. 

61 

Nonius,  135,  2  :  '  Luculentitatem  '  a  luculento.  Caecilius 
Hymnide— 

.  .  .  Vide  luculentitatem  eius  et  magnificentiam ! 

62-3 

Nonius,  78,  30  :  Blaterare.  .  .  .  Blandities  ...  — 

sine  blanditie  nihil  agit 
in  amore  inermus. 

64 

Cicero,  de  Fin.,  II,  7,  11  :  Reperiemus  asotos  .  .  .  ita 
mortem  non  timentes  ut  illud  in  ore  habeant  ex  Hymnide — 

Mihi  sex  menses  satis  sunt  vitae ;    septimum  Oreo 
spondeo. 

•"  Miletida  Bothe  mulierculam  edd.  vett.  miletidam 
cdd.  et  gnato  (nato  vulg.)  Spengel  et  ex  nato  vel  tanto 
cdd. 

Non.  78  Blaterare.  .  .  .  <BIandities>  nov.  lemm.  Onions 
non.  prob.  Linds.  imnide  sine  Lu.  1  Flor.  2  Harl.  1  imnis 
desine  GH2LS  Hymnide  Bentin.  blanditie  Harl. 

blanditiae  rell.  sine  blaterare  Victor  sine  blandirier 

Stowasser         desine  blanditias  blaterare  Osann 

490 


PLAYS 

HYMNIS  « 

59-60 

Diomedes  :  '  Obsepio,'  commonly  used  by  us,  was  '  obsipio ' 
in  the  speech  of  antiquity.     C'aecilius  in  Hymnis — 

You've  got  a  Milesian  girl.  I  am  going  to  betroth 

her  to  this  fellow  and  hedge  my  son  in — he  shan't 
be  out  of  the  wood.* 

61 

Nonius  :  '  Luculentitas  '  from  '  luculentus.'  Caecilius  in 
Hymnis — 

Look  at  her  gorgeosity,  her  magnificence ! 

62-3 
Nonius :  '  Blaterare '  (to  blather)  .  .  .  '  Blandities '  .  .  .  — 

A  man  in  love,  when  he  is  all  unarmed, 

Gets  nothing  done  without  some  blandishment. 

64 

Cicero  :  We  shaU  find  that  debauchees  .  .  .  are  so  unafraid 
of  death  that  they  always  have  on  the  tip  of  their  tongues  that 
phrase  from  Hymnis — 

For  me  six  months  of  life  are  enough ;  the  seventh 
I  pledge  to  Death.*' 

"  From  Menander's  'T/ivij.  For  Lucilius  on  this  play  see 
Bergk.  Phil.,  XIV,  390.  Hymnis  is  a  woman's  name.  Lines 
62-3  were  probably  spoken  by  a  bawd ;  59-60,  67-9  by  a 
father ;  and  64-6,  (69)-70  by  his  son. 

*  This  is  our  saying.  For  the  Latin,  cf.  Plaut.,  Cos.,  V,  2, 
43  (922),  uhi  ilium  saltum  video  d>saeptum.  Men.,  V,  6,  25 
ex  hoc  saltu  .  .  .  ut  educam. 

'  Lucilius  has  a  reminiscence  of  this  line.  See  Remains, 
etc..  Vol.  III. 

491 


CAECILIUS 

65 

Festus,  188,  7  :    '  Nictare  '  et  oculorum  et  aliorum  mem- 
brorumnisusaepealiquidconari  dictum  est  abantiquis  .  .  . — 

Garruli  sine  dentes  iactent,  sine  nictentur  perticis. 


Festus,  502,  30  :    '  Senium,'  a  senili  acerbitate  et  vitiis 
dictum,  posuit  Caecilius  in  Hymnide — 

Sine  suam  senectutem  ducat  usque  ad  senium  sovbilo. 


67 

Festus,     284,    19 :      '  Prodegeris,'     consumpseris,     perdi- 
deris  ...  — 

Prodigere  est  cum  nihil  habeas  te  inriderier. 


68-70 

Nonius,  134,  11  :   '  Licitari,'  congredi,  pugnare  ...  — 

[Pater]  Quae 
narrare  inepti  est  ad  scutras  ferventis. 

[Filius]  Quin  machaera 
licitari  adversum  ahenum  coepisti  salens. 

**  garruli  sine  dentes  S        garrulis  medentes  cd. 

'*  usque  Bentley  utique  cd.  sorbilo  Bentley  sor- 
bito  Spengel         sonticum  Grauert         sorbitio  cd. 

*'  et  Ribb.  est  cdd.  te  inriderier  Dacier  ted  i. 

Nevius         te  inridicr  cd. 

••  ad  supjd.  Ribb.  (est  ferventi  scutra  olim)  alii  alia 

cf.  Bibb.,  Com.  Fr.  46 

492 


PLAYS 

65 

Festus  :  '  Nictare  '  (to  blink)  by  a  twitch  of  the  eyes  or  some 
other  part  of  the  body,  is  a  term  often  used  by  old  writers 
for  '  to  try  to  do  '  something.  ...  — 

Let  the  babblers  ply  their  jaws,  let  them  jerk 
along  with  their  sticks. 


66 

Festus :    '  Senium,'  a  term  derived  from  the  sourness  and 
faults  of  old  age,  is  used  by  Caecilius  in  Hymnis — 

Let  him  draw  out  his  old  age  to  dotage  drop  by 
drop. 


67 

Festus:  '  Prodegeris,' you  have  wasted,  squandered  .  .  . — 

To  be  a  spendthrift  is  to  be  laughed  at 
When  you  have  nothing  left. 

68-70 

Nonius  :   '  Licitari,'  to  come  to  blows,  to  fight  ...  — 

[Father]  It's  a  climisy  clo\ni's  game,  telling  all 
this  to  boiling  dishes.  [Son]  Rather  have  you 
begun  to  make  a  bid  against  bronze  with  a  sword — 
and  you  know  it." 

"  Presumably  the  father  complains  that  it  is  useless  to 
argue  with  his  son,  who  replies  that  they  are  quarrelling  on 
equal  terms.    Cp.  our  '  pot  calling  kettle  black.' 

493 


CAECILIUS 

HYPOBOLIMAEUS  (SUBDITROS)  vel 

HYPOBOLIMAEUS  CHAERESTRATUS  vel 

HYPOBOLIMAEUS  RASTRARIA 

Varro,  R.R.,  II,  11,  11  :  Neque  non  quaedam  nationes 
harum  (sc.  caprarum)  pellibus  sunt  vestitae  .  .  .  cuius  usum 
apud  antiques  quoque  Graecos  fuisse  oportet,  quod  in  trag- 
oediis  senes  ab  hac  pelle  vocantur  8i(f>6fplai,  et  in  coraoediis 
qui  in  rustico  opere  morantur,  ut  apud  Caecilium  in  Hypo- 
bolimaeo  habet  adulescens,  apud  Terentium  in  Hautonti- 
morumeno  senex. 

Cicero,  pro  Rose.  Atner.,  16,  46 :  Ecquid  tandem  tibi 
videtur,  ut  ad  fabulas  veniamus,  senex  ille  Caecilianus  minor- 
is  facere  Eutychum  filium  rusticum,  quam  ilium  alteram 
Chaerestratum  ?  Nam  ut  opinor  hoc  nomine  est.  Alteram 
in  urbe  secum  honoris  causa  habere,  alteram  rus  supplicii 
causa  relegasse  ? 

71 

8chol.  Gronov.,  ad  loc. :  Apud  Caecilium  comoediographum 
inducitur  pater  quidam  qui  habebat  duos  filios,  et  ilium,  quern 
odio  habebat,  secum  habebat,  quem  amabat,  ruri  dedit. 

Festus,  536,  4 :  <Tugu>ria  a  tecto.  Caecilius  in 
Hypobolimaeo — 

Habita^bat  *  *  *  *  tugurio  pau)  perculo 

'1  habitabat  in  tuguriolo  pauperculo  Ribb.  tugurio  sine 
operculo  Ursinus  t.  nullo  o.  0.  Mr. 


"  It  will  be  seen  from  the  following  quotations  that  all 
these  titles  probably  belong  to  one  play  adapted  from 
Menander's  'YnopoXifiatos  ^  'AypoiKos,  whereas  The  Changeling 
Aeschinus  (see  603)  was  another  play  altogether. 

*  sc,  a  play  about  country-life. 

«  See  note  e. 

"*  nom.  sing.  8i<f>dfpias 

494 


PLAYS 

THE  CHANGELING"  or 

THE  CHANGELING  CHAERESTRATUS  or 

THE  CHANGELING,  A  PLAY  OF  THE  HOE  " 

Chaerestratus  '  country-bred  : 

Varro  :  There  are  too  some  nations  who  clothed  themselves 
in  the  skins  of  goats  .  .  .  and  this  custom  must  have  existed 
among  the  ancient  Greeks  also,  because  in  tragedies  old  men, 
and  in  comedies  men  who  pass  their  time  in  rustic  tasks,  are 
called  '  leather-coated  '  •*  from  the  use  of  this  kind  of  skin. 
In  scenes  of  Caecilius'  Changeling,  for  example,  a  young  man 
wears  one,  and  in  scenes  of  Terence's  Self-putiisher,  an  old  man. 

The  father  of  Chaerestratus  and  Eutychus  : 

Cicero  :  Well  now,  to  take  an  example  from  plays,  do  you 
really  think  that  your  old  man  in  Caecilius  thinks  less  highly 
of  Eutychus  his  countrified  son  than  his  other  son  Chaeres- 
tratus ?  That  is  his  name,  I  believe.'  Do  you  think  he  kept 
one  of  them  at  home  with  him  in  town  as  a  token  of  favour 
and  packed  the  other  one  off  to  the  country  to  punish  him  ? 

71 

Gronovius'  Scholiast  on  the  preceding  :  In  a  play  of  the 
comedy- writer  Caecilius  there  is  brought  on  the  stage  a  certain 
father  who  had  two  sons,  and  the  one,  whom  he  disliked,  he 
kept  at  home  with  him  and  the  one  whom  he  loved  he  consigned 
to  the  country./ 

From  the  prologue  ? 

Festus :  '  Tuguria,'  from  '  tectum.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  The 
Changeling — 

He  was  dwelling  in  a  poor  little  hut 

'  I  conclude  from  Festus,  186,  1  ff.  and  also  from  Quintil., 
I,  10,  18  that  Cicero  has  interchanged  the  names,  and  that 
the  country-reared  son  was  Chaerestratus,  and  the  town-reared 
son  Eutychus.     See  pp.  496,  500. 

The  scholiast  in  all  probability  does  no  more  than  conclude 
this  from  Cicero's  words.  Yet  the  scholiast's  words  odio 
habebat  and  the  rest  soimd  rather  like  a  septenarius. 

495 


CAECILIUS 

72 

Nonius,  147,  6  :  '  Obsorduit,'  obsolevit.    Caecilius  Hypo- 
bolimaco  Rastraria — 

Obsorduit  iam  haec  in  me  aerumna  miseria. 


73-4 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  199,  17  K  :  'Schema  '  pro  '  sche- 
mate.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  Hypobolimaeo — 

.  .  .  filius  ...  in  me  incedit  satis 
hilara  schema. 

75 

Festus,  460,  12  :  '  Stolidus,'  stultus.  .  .  .  Caecilius  in 
Hypobolimaeo — 

Abi  hinc  tu,  stolide ;  vis  ille  ut  tibi  sit  pater. 

76 

Nonius,  178,  14 :  '  Tetulit,'  tulit.  .  .  .  Caecilius  Hypo- 
bolimaeo— 

.  .  .  aerumnam  pariter  tetulisti  meam. 

Quintilianus,  1, 10, 18  :  Apud  Menandrum  in  Hypobolimaeo 
senex  reposcenti  filium  patri  velut  rationem  impendiorum 
quae  in  educationem  contulerat  opponens  psaltris  se  et 
geometris  multa  dicit  dedisse. 

'''  obsorduit  cdd.  obsurduit  (in  lemm.  quoque)  Ribb. 

me  cdd.  mea  Fleckeisen,  recte  ?  iuvene  Bothe 

Prise,  199  Hypobolimaeo  Stephanus         hippo  vel  sim.  cdd. 

73-4  Filius  meus  eccum  incedit  in  me  sat  vel  f.  m.  in  me 
incedit  eccum  s.  Ribb.  filius  in  med  incedit  Bothe  hilari 
Bamb.  Amien.  hilaria  Par.  7496  schema  Par.  7496 

scema  rdl.  recte  ? 

'*  vis  vel  visne  suppl.  Ribb.  die  Buecheler  ille  Bothe 
iUic  Augustin.  illi  cd. 

496 


PLAYS 

72 

Chacrestratus  wants  to  return  to  his  real  father  i" : 

Nonius :  '  Obsorduit,'  has  worn  out.  Caecilius  in  The 
Changeling,  A  Play  o/  The  Hoe — 

By  now  within  me  has  this  hardship  mouldered 
Through  very  misery. 

7a-4 

Aged  peasant,  guardian  of  the  changeling  Chaeresiratus  : 

Priscianus :  '  Schema  '  for  '  schemate.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  The 
Changeling — 

Here  comes  my  son  towards  me  in  merr\-  shape. 

75 
He  is  angry  at  Chaeresiratus^  desire  to  leave  him  ?  : 
FestuB  :  '  Stolidus,' silly.  .  .  .  C&eciMu&m  The  Changeling — 
You  get  away  from  here,  blockhead.     It's  he  you 
want  to  be  your  father. 

76 

Chaeresiratus  is  not  ungrateful  ?  : 

Nonius  :  '  Tetulit,'  the  same  as  '  tulit.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in 
The  Changeling — 

You  have  borne  my  hardships  equally  with  me. 

Seltlemenl  between  the  peasant  and  the  real  father  : 

Quintilian  :  In  a  scene  in  Menander's  Changeling  an  old 
man  "  puts  before  a  father,  when  he  asks  to  have  his  son  back, 
a  kind  of  account  of  the  expenses  which  he  had  incurred 
towards  the  boy's  education,  and  says  he  has  given  many  a 
fee  to  musicians  and  geometricians. 

"  sc.  not  the  son's  father  (senex  ille  Caecilianus  in  Cic.  p.  494), 
but  the  peasant  who  was  responsible  for  the  upbringing  of 
Chaerestratus. 

497 

VOI  .1.  K  K 


CAECILIUS 

77 

Nonius,  40,  1  :  '  Rabere  '  dictum  est  a  rabie.  .  .  .  Caecilius 
Hypobolimaeo  Rastraria — 

Rabere  se  ait. 

78 
Nonius,  514,  31  :   '  Iracunditer.'     Caecilius  Subditivo — 
Quaeso  ne  temere  hanc  rem  agas  ne  iracunditer. 

79 

Nonius,    89,    14  :     '  Coepere,'    incipere.     Caecilius    Hypo- 
bolimaeo Rastraria — 

Ere,  obsecro,  hercle,  desine,  mane  ;  coepiam. 

80 

Nonius,  16,  14  :  '  Lactare  '  est  inducere  vel  mulgere,  vellere, 
decipere.  .  .  .  Caecilius  Hypobolimaeo  Rastraria — 

Quod    prolubium,    quae    voluptas,    quae    te    lactat 
largitas  ? 

Cp.  Ter.,  Adelph.,  V,  9,  28. 

81-2 

GeUius,  XV,  9,  1  :    Vere  ac  diserte  Caecilius  hoc  in  Sub- 
ditivo scripsit— 

Nam   hi   sunt   inimici   pessumi   fronte   hilaro   corde 

tristi 
quos  neque  ut  adprendas  neque  uti  dimittas  scias. 

Cp.  Non.,  205,  1-2. 


'*  et  ne  cdd.         et  seclud.  ed.  princ. 

'*  obsecro  Spengel         obscuro  cdd. 

*"  adprendas  Non.  adprehendas  Gell.  uti  dimittas 

Spengel  ut  mittas  Gell.  (dimittas  Mon.)  ut  vitare  Flor 
3  Non.         vitare  rell.  Non. 

498 


PLAYS 

77 

Nonius  :  '  Rabefe  '  is  a  term  derived  from  '  rabies.'  .  .  . 
Caecilius  in  The  Changeling,  A  Play  of  the  Hoe — 

He  says  he's  raving. 

78 

Nonius  :   '  Iracunditer.'     Caecilius  in  The  Changeling — 

Please  don't  dispatch  this  business  heedlessly,  no, 
nor  angrily. 

79  ^ 

A  slave  is  forced  to  speak  out : 

Nonius  :  '  Coepere,'  to  begin.  Caecilius  in  The  Changeling, 
A  Play  of  the  Hoe— 

Oh,  sir!  Oh  my!  Please,  stop  it!  Wait" — I'll 
begin. 

80 

Nonius  :  '  Lactare  '  means  to  lead  on  or  coax,  fleece,  cheat. 
.  .  .  Caecilius  in  The  Changeling,  A  Play  of  the  Hoe — 

What  whim,  what  pleasure,  what  openhandedness 
is  it  that's  diddling  you  ? 

81-2 

Gellius :  Correct  and  elegant  is  the  passage  of  Caecilius  in 
The  Changeling — 

For  the  worst  of  foes  are  those  that  have  bright 
faces,  gloomy  hearts, 

You  don't  know  how  to  hold  'em  and  you  cannot 
let  'em  go.* 

"•  Possibly  the  master's  reply — '  Stay  there !  I'm  only 
just  going  to  begin  !  ' 

*  Gellius  proceeds  to  comment  on  frons  used  in  the  mas- 
culine gender, 

499 
KK  2 


CAECILIUS 

83 

Nonius,  176,  6  :    '  Singulatim  '  et  '  singillatim  '  a  singulis. 
Caecilius  Hypobolimaeo  Rastraria — 

Hos  singulatim  sapere,  nos  minus  arbitror. 


84 

Nonius,  505,  29  :    '  Man  tat '  pro  manet.     Caecilius  Hypo- 
bolimaeo Rastraria — 

In  voltu  eodem,  in  eadem  mantat  malitia. 


85 

Charisius,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  132,  4  K  :    '  Hebem.'     Caecilius  in 
TnoPoXtfiaia) — 

subito  res  reddent  hebem. 


86 

Festus,   376,    29:     '  Ravim  '  ...<...  Caeciliu>8    in 
Hypo  bolimaeo — 

prius  <[quam  *  *  ad  ravim  **>...  citam  feceris. 


87 

Festus,  186,  1  :  '  Noxa  '  peccatum  aut  pro  peccato  poena. 
.  .  .  Caecilius  in  Hypobolimaeo  Chaerestrato — 

Nam  ista  quidem  noxa  muliebre  est  magis  quam  viri. 

*^  nos  s.  s.  non  Bothe 

**  reste  reddent  ed.  princ.        res  te  Bothe 

*'  istaec  Grauert  muliebre  est  Bothe  muliebris  est 
Ursinus  muliebrist  0.  Air.  mulierist  Grauert  mulie- 
brem  et  cd.        mulieris  magis  quam  viri  est  Meineke 

500 


PLAYS 

83 

Nonius  :    '  Singulatim  '  and   '  singillatim,'  from   *  singuli.' 
Caecilius  in  The  Changeling,  A  Play  of  the  Hoe — 

Taken  one  by  one  "  they  are  all  wise,  I  think,  but 
we  are  not. 


84 

Nonius:  'Mantat'for'manet.'    C&ecilmava  The  Changeling, 
A  Play  of  the  Hoe- 
In  the  same  look  he  keeps,  in  the  same  malice. 


85 
Charisius  :   '  Hebem.'     Caecilins  in  The  Changeling — 
The  facts  will  promptly  blunt  his  ardour. 

86 
Festus  :   '  Ravim.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  The  Changeling — 
before  you  cause  ...  to  hoarseness. 


87 

Festus  :   '  Noxa,'  a  sin  or  a  penalty  for  sin.  .  .  .  Caecilius 
in  The  Changeling  Chaerestratus — 

For  that  sort  of  harm  is  a  thing  more  natural  in  a 
woman  than  in  a  man.* 

"  Or,  possibly  '  they  are  singularly  wise,  we  are  not.' 
*  Cp.  Menand.,  Hyp.,  frs.  8  and  9. 


501 


CAEGILIUS 
AESCHINUS 

SIVE 

HYPOBOLIMAEUS  AESCHINUS 

88 

Gellius,  XV,  14,  5  :  Sese  pecunias  inquit  (sc.  Q.  Metellus 
Numidicus)  maximas  exactos  esse.  .  .  .  Caeciliusque  eadem 
figura  Hypobolimaeo  Aeschino  usus  videtur — 

Ego  illud  minus  nihilo  exigor  portorium. 

Id  est :  nihilo  minus  exigitur  de  me  portorium. 

Cp.  Non.,  106,  22. 

IMBRII 

89 

Nonius,  159,  5  :  '  Pecua  '  et  '  pecuda  '  ita  ut  pecora  veteres 
dixerunt  .  .  .  (19)  Caecilius  Imbriis— 

et  homini  et  pecubus  omnibus 

90 

Festus,  220,  25  :   '  Obstipum,'  obliquum  ...  — 
Resupina  obstipo  capitulo  sibi  ventum  facere  tunicula. 

91-2 
Nonius,  188,  11  :   '  Uter  '  pro  uterus  ...  — 

nunc  uter 
crescit,  non  potest  celari. 

8»  pecubus  vel  pecudis  Spengel  pecudibus  cdd.  et 

et  hominibus  et  pecudis  Grauert 

»••  tunicula  Ursinus        cunicula  cdd. 

502  ^ 


PLAYS 
AESCHINUS 

OR 

THE  CHANGELING  AESCHINUS  « 


Gtellius :  Quintus  Metellus  Xumidicus  says  that  they  had 
been  exacted  very  large  sums  of  money.  .  .  .  Caecilius  seems 
to  have  used  the  same  idiom  in  The  Changeling  Aeschinus — 

I  none  the  less  am  exacted  that  customs-due. 

That  is, '  none  the  less  the  customs-due  is  exacted  from  me.'  * 


THE  IMBRL\NS^ 

89 
Xonius :    '  Pecua  '  and  '  pecuda  '  are  terms  used  by  old 
writers  in  the  same  ways  as  '  pecora.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  The 
Imbrians — 

To  man  and  all  cattle 

90 
Festus  :   '  Obstipum,'  slanting.  ...  — 
Lying  on  her  back,  her  little  head  aslant,  she  fans 
herself  with  her  little  tunic. 

91-2 
Nonius  :   '  Uter  '  for  '  uterus.'  .  .  . — 
Now  her  womb  swells.     It  can't  be  hidden. 

»  Clearly  not  the  same  play  as  the  preceding.  It  is  natural 
to  suppose  that  if  Caecilius  wrote  several  plays  on  the  subject 
of  changeling  children,  he  distinguished  them  in  their  titles. 

*  Compare  our  '  He  was  given  a  book  by  me  '  for  '  a  book 
was  given  him  by  me.' 

'  Cp.  Menander's  'l/ijSpiot,  which  was  a  play  about  two 
poor  men  of  Imbros  who  married  twin  sisters  (Oxyr.  Pap., 
1235). 


CAECILIUS 

93 
Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  231,  13  K  :   '  Hie  puerus  '  .  .  .  — 

Age  age  i  puere,  due  me  ad  patrios  fines  decoratum 
opipare ! 

Cp.  Thes.  Nov.  Lat.  ap.  Mai,  CI.  Auct.,  VIII,  390,  407. 

94-6 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  512,  24  K  :  '  Expergiscor '  exper- 
rectum  facit  ...  — 

Surdo  mihi 
suadet    ut    earn    quisquam    dormitum  ?     Et    si    ego 

obdormivero, 
tute  idem  ubi  eris  experrectus  ? 

97 

Nonius,  194,  7  :  '  Balneae  '  generis  feminini.  .  .  .  Caecilius 
in  Imbris — 

Quid  ?     Mihi  non  sunt  balneae  ? 

98 

Nonius,  524,  18  :  '  Turbam  '  et  '  turbas.'  .  .  .  Nos  .  .  . 
invenimus  .  .  .  indiscrete  positum  et  pro  turbis  turbam.  .  .  . 
(525,  3)  Caecilius  in  Imbriis — 

Mirum  adeo  nisi  frater  domi  ebriatus  turbam  aliquam 
dedit. 

•3  age  age  i  puere  Carolir.,  Lugd.  Bat.  Orut.,  Sang.,  Vind. 
Prise.  om.  i  rdl.  Thes.  390,  407  age  age  puer  Thes.  390 
puere  puere  407  due  Spengel  ex  uno  cd.  duce  rell. 
Prise.         deduc  Thes.  390,  407 

**~*  surdo  mihi  Fleckeisen  mihi  surdo  vel  dum  sorbilo  eoni. 
Ribb.  sobrio  Buecheler  sordi  vel  sordo  edd.  pier. 

sordido  ed.  Ven.  1  sordida  Lips.  1  dormitum  suadet  ut 
earn  quisquam  et  s  i  ego  obdormivero  vel  sim.  edd.  dormitum 
ut  e.  q.  suadet  Ribb. 


PLAYS 

93 

Priscianus  :   '  Puerus,'  nominative  masculine  ...  — 

Come  come ,  boy ,  get  along !  Escort  me ,  smartened 
up"  gorgeously,  to  the  bounds  of  my  father's  estate! 

94-6 

Priscianus  :  '  Expergiscor  '  .  .  .  makes  its  perfect  '  exper- 
rectus  '  .  .  .  — 

Is  anyone  coaxing  me  (I  turn  a  deaf  ear)  to  retire 
to  sleep  ?  And  in  case  I  do  fall  asleep,  when  will 
yoti  wake  up,  you  ? 

97 

Nonius:  '  Balneae,' of  the  feminine -gender.  .  .  .  Caecilius 
in  The  Imbrians —  * 

WTiat's  that  ?     Haven't  I  got  baths  ? 

98 

Nonius  :  '  Ttirba '  and  '  turbae  '  .  .  .  We  have  found  .  .  . 
the  terms  used  without  distinction  and  '  turba '  put  for 
'  turbae.'  .  ,  .  Caecilius  in  The  Imbrians — 

It  will  be  just  wonderful  if  my  brother  in  a  drunken 
frolic  has  not  raised  a  riot  at  home. 

"  Or,  '  so  that  I  can  smarten  up  '  .  .  . 
*  Or    possibly   we    should    accept    the  correction  in  the 
Florentine  MS.  which  attributes  their,  to  Sy^nephebi  (p.  537). 


Non.  194  infoebis  (=  Synephebis)  Flor.  3  Harl.  1        inimbris 
rdl. 

**  ebriatus  Buecheler         ebrius  cdd.         alii  alia 


OAEGILIUS 

99 

Nonius,  463,  1  :  '  Grundire '  .  .  .  etiam  homiaum  esse 
grunditum  Caecilius  Imbriis  designavit — 

cruento  ita  ore  grundibat  miser. 

Cp.  Diomed.,  ap.  Q.L.,  I,  387,  22  K. 

KARINE 

100-1 

Festus,  388,  28  :  '  Reluere,'  resolvere,  repignerare.  Cae- 
cilius in  Carine — 

.  .  .  ut  aurum  et  vestem,  quod  matris  fuit, 
reluat,  quod  viva  ipsi  opposivit  pignori. 

102-3 

Festus,  460,  8  :  '  Stalagmium  '  genus  inaurium  videtur 
significare  Caecilius  in  Karine  cum  ait — 

turn  ex  aure  eius  stalagmium 
domi  habeo. 

Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  461,  2. 

KRATINUS  ? 

104-5 

Priscianus,  ap.  G.L.,  II,  282,  UK:  '  Concors,  concordis.' 
Antiquissimi  tamen  solebant  genetivo  similem  proferre 
nominati\Tim.     Caecilius  in  Cratino — 

Modo  fit  obsequens  hilarus  comis 

communis  concordis,  dum  id  quod  petit  potitur. 

^•^  ipsa  Augustin.        opposivit  S        opposuit  cd. 
Prise.    282    Carine    Meineke         Carino    Bothe         crastino 
Amien.,  Sang.         cratino  rell. 

506 


PLAYS 


99 


Nonius :    '  Grundire.'.  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  The  Imbrians  has 
indicated  that  grunting  can  be  used  even  of  men — 

so  loudly  was  the  poor  wretch  grunting  with  his 
mouth  all  bloody. 


THE  KEENER" 

100-1 

Festus :  '  Reluere,'  to  release,  to  redeem  from  pledge. 
Caecilius  in  The  Keener — ■ 

that  he  may  redeem  the  gold  and  clothing  which 
belonged  to  her  mother  and  which,  before  she  died, 
she  deposited  with  me,  no  other,  as  a  pledge. 

102-3 

Festus :  '  Stalagmium.'  By  this  word  Caecilius  in  The 
Keener  seems  to  mean  a  kind  of  ear-rings  when  he  writes — 

and  again  I  have  at  home  an  ear-drop  from  her  ear. 

CRATINUS  ? 

104-5 

Priscianus  :  '  Concors,'  gen.  'concordis.'  But  the  most 
archaic  wTiters,  in  such  compounds  as  these,  used  to  employ 
the  same  form  for  the  nominative  as  for  the  genitive. 
Caecilius  in  Cratinus'^ — 

Sometimes,  when  he  is  getting  what  he  wants. 
He's  cheery,  kind,  compliant,  sociable. 
Agreeable. 

•  '  The  Carian  Woman.^  From  Menander's  or  from  Anti- 
phanes'  Kaplvrj.  The  name  was  used  particularly  of  a  woman 
hired  to  sing  funeral  songs  called  KapiKo.  fifXt}. 

'  Meinecke  reads  Carine,  and  this  may  be  right. 


CAECILIUS 

MERETRIX 

106 

Nonius,  536,  68 :  '  Prosumia,'  navigii  genus.  Caecilius 
Meretrice— 

Cypro  gubernator  propere  vertit  prosumiam. 

107 
Nonius,  202,  12  :  '  Candelabrum  '  .  .  .  masculini  ...  — 
.  ,  .  memini  ibi  candelabrum  ligneum  ardentem. 

NAUCLERUS 

108 

Nonius,  505,  35  :  '  Audibo  '  pro  audiam.  .  .  .  Caecilius 
Nauclero — 

Nunc  abeo ;  audibis  praeterea  si  dicis  *  filia  redeat.' 

109 
Nonius,  126,  27  :  '  Infelicent '  .  .  .  — 
Ut  te  di  omnes  infelicent  cum  male  monita  memoria  ! 

110 

Nonius,  12,  21  :  '  Suppilare  '  est  involare  vel  rapere,  a 
piloruniraptu,  undeetfurtumpassi  conpilatidicuntur.  .  .  . — 

.  .  .  subpilat  vestem  atque  ornamenta  omnia. 

^''*  Cupro  Buecheler  cum  ultro  Ribb.  cui  pro  cdd. 
(om.  pro  Par.  7665,  Montepess.,  Ox.) 

^"^  ibi  <fuisse>  Ribb.  (vel.  <videre>)         illic  Grauert 

^"^  ab  eo  Buecheler  dicis  cdd.  ditis  Ribb.  dices 
Buecheler  si  eius  redeat  filia  olim  Ribb.  sed  vin  redeat 
filia  ?  Grauert 

Non.  126  ^infelicent  Guietus  infelicitent  cdd.  molita 

Par.  7665-6,  Montepess.,  Ox.,  Lugd.,  Turic.,  Bamh.  monita 
rell,         infelicent  male  moenita  Spengel 

508 


PLAYS 

THE  HARLOT 

106 
Nonius  :    '  Prosumia,'   a  kind  of  ship.     Caecilios  in  The 
Harlot — 

The  helmsman  hurriedly  put  about  the  spy-boat 
from  Cyprus. 

107 

Nonius  :   '  Candelabrum  '  ...  of  the  masculine  gender  ...  — 
I  remember  a  M*ooden  chandelier  burning  there. 

THE  SHIPMASTER* 

108 

Nonius :     '  Audibo  '   for   '  audiam.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in   The 
Shipmaster — 

Now  I'm  going.     You'll  hear  later  on  if  you  say 
'  let  the  daughter  come  back.'  * 

109 
Nonius  :   '  Infelicent '  .  .  .  — 

Well,  may  all  the  gods  unbless  you,  ill-informed 
memorj'  and  all  I 

110 
Nonius  :   '  Suppilare  '  means  to  make  seizure  of  or  snatch ; 
derived  from  the  idea  of  pulling  out  '  pili '  (hairs).     Whence 
to  those  who  have  sufiFered  a  theft  the  term   '  conpilati ' 
(plucked,  fleeced)  is  applied  ...  — 

The  clothes  and  all  the  ornaments  he  plucks  away. 

"  From  Menander's  NaufcAijpos  ? 

*  The  metre  is  anapaestic,  apparently;    but  the  words  si 
dicis  are  doubtful. 

11"  subpilat  vestem  vel  s.  v.  aurum  Onions        suppilatum 
est  aurum  coni.  Bothe  suppilatum  est  aurum  argentum 

atque  Maehly  (vestis  atque  coni.  Ribb.)  subpilatum  est 

eum  atque  cdd. 


CAEGILIUS 

NOTHUS  NICASIO 
111 

Nonius,  97,  25  :    '  Decollare,'  ex  coUo  deponere.     Caecilius 
Notho  Nicasione — 

Habes,  vide  ;  tibi  tradidi ;  in  tuo  collo  est.     Decolles 
cave. 

112 
Nonius,  324,  34  :  '  Iiico,'significatstatim,  mox  .  .  . — 
Ilico  ante  ostium  hie  erimus. 

113 
Nonius,  325,  6  :   '  Ilico,'  in  eo  loco  ...  — 
manete  ilico ! 

OBOLOSTATES  vel 
FAENERATOR 

lU 

Nonius,  508,  7  :    '  Reperibitur  '  pro  reperietur.  .  .  .  Cae- 
cilius Obolostate — 

Nunc    enimvero    est    cum    meae    morti    remedium 
reperibit  nemo. 

115-16 
Nonius,  279,  24  :   '  Deponere  '  est  desperare  ...  — 

depositus  modo 
sum  anima,  vita  sepultus  sum. 

1^^  vide  <em>  vel  viden  coni.  Ribb.        habes  quidem  Mr. 
Non.  508  Obolostate  Mercier        obolo  cdd. 
11*  animo   coni  Ribb.        vita  cdd.        vivos  Mr.        sum 
scclud.  Ribb.         alii  alia 


PLAYS 

THE  BASTARD   NICASIO  « 

111 

Nonius :  '  DecoUare,'  to  put  down  from  the  neck  or 
'  collum.'     Caecilius  in  The  Bastard  Nkasio — 

It's  yours,  look!  I've  given  it  up  to  you;  it's 
on  your  neck.     Mind  you  don't  unneck  it. 

112 
Xonius  :   '  Ilieo  '  means  at  once,  soon  ...  — 
Straightway  we'll  be  in  front  of  the  door,  here . 

113 
Nonius  :   '  Ilico,'  the  same  as  '  in  eo  loco.'  ...  — 
Stay  all  of  you  on  that  very  spot  I 

THE   MONEY-LENDER* 

114 

Nonius :  '  Reperibitur  '  for  '  reperietur.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in 
The  Money-Lender — 

Now  is  the  time  indeed  when  none  shall  find 
A  remedy  against  my  death. 

115-16 
Nonius  :   '  Deponere  '  means  to  despair  of  .  .  .  — 
Lately,  though  breathing,  I  have  been  laid  out,'' 
Though  living,  have  been  buried. 

"  Possibly  from  Philemon's  Nd^oj.  The  title  suggests  that 
Caecilius  wrote  another  play  entitled  simply  '  The  Bastard.'' 

*  The  two  frs.  assigned  to  The  Hunter  ?  (pp.  544-7)  ought 
perhaps  to  be  included  in  this  play. 

*■  *c.  for  burial.  This  is  what  Caecilius  means,  in  spite  of 
Nonius'  interpretation. 

5" 


CAECILIUS 

117-18 

Nonius,  149,  27 :  '  Peniculamentum '  a  veteribus  pars 
vestis  dicitur.  .  .  .  Caecilius  Feneratore — 

Volat  exsanguis,  simul  anhelat 
peniculamentum  ex  pallio  datur. 

119 

Nonius,  543,  20  :  '  Pelvis,'  sinus  aquarius  in  quo  varia 
pelluuntur  ...  — 

Pelvim  sibi  poposcit. 

120 

Festus,  416,  18  :  <'  Silicemium  '  dicitur  cena  fu>nebris, 
quam  <Graeci  .  .  .  TreplSeiTrvov  vo>cant.  .  .  .  <Caecilius 
Ob>olostate — 

Credidi  silicernium  eius  me  esse  esurum 
Cp.  Paul.,  ex  F.,  417,  6. 

121-3 

Nonius,  277,  28  :  '  Delica '  est  aperi  et  explana.  .  .  . 
Caecilius  Obolostate — 

? 

Si  linguas  decern 
habeam,  vix  habeam  satis  te  qui  laudem,  Lache. 

Laches 
Immo  vero  haec  ante  solitus  sum. 

lies  delicat. 
Cp.  Non.,  98,  7. 

'^'  exsanguis  Bothe        sanguis  cdd. 

1^*  ex  Linds.  e  Buecheler         et  pallio  datur  cdd.        et 

palliolatur  lun.  tenet  |  palliolatim  Ribb.  c/.  Com.  Fr., 

corollar.  XXIV-XXV 

Fest.,  416  sujypl.  ex  Paid. 

^21  decern  Bentin.         dete  cdd. 

512 


PLAYS 

117-18 

Nonius  :  '  Peniculamentum  '  is  a  term  used  by  old  writers 
for  part  of  a  garment.  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  The  Monty-Lender — 

Pale  as  a  corpse  he  flies  and  puffing  too ; 
A  cloth  trails  out  behind  his  cloak. 

119 

Nonius :  '  Pelvis,'  a  water-bowl  in  which  varions  things 
are  washed,  or  '  pelluuntur,'  "  hence  its  name  ...  — 

She  demands  a  wash-basin  for  her  use. 

120 

Festus  :  '  Silicemium  '  is  a  term  used  of  a  funeral  supper, 
which  the  Greeks  .  .  .  call  irfpiS^nrvov  ....  Caecilius  in 
TAe  Money-Lender — 

I  was  sure  I  was  going  to  eat  his  funeral-feast 

121-3 

Nonius :  '  Delica '  means  make  clear  and  explain.  .  .  . 
Caecilius  in  The  Money-Lender — 


Even  if  I  had  ten  tongues,  I  would  hardly  have 
enough  to  praise  you  with,  Laches. 

Laches 
Not  at  all,  surely.     I've  often  done  the  same  before. 

That's  clear  from  the  facts. 

"  Of  course  this  derivation  is  wrong. 
^**  Lache  Mercier         ache  cdd.         ^*'  res  add.  ex  98 

VOL.  I.  L  L 


CAECILIUS 

124-5 
Nonius,  154,  10  :   '  Populatim.'     Caecilius  Obolostate — 
Ego  perdidi  te,  qui  omnes  perdo  servolos 
populatim.     Quaeso,  ne  ad  malum  hoc  addas  malum. 


PAUSIMACHUS 

126 
Nonius,  515,  24  :   '  Rarenter.'     Caecilius  Pausimacho — 
Edepol  voluntas  homini  rarenter  venit. 

127 

Nonius,  548,  16  :  '  Molochinum,'  a  Graeco,  color  flori  similis 
malvae  ...  — 

carbasina  molochina  ampelina 

128-9 
Nonius,  127,  13  :   '  lamdiu  '  pro  olim  ...  — 

[Meretrix] 
libera  essem  iam  diu 
si  istoc  habuissem  ingenio  amatores  mihi. 

130-1 
Nonius,  334,  2  :  '  Limare  '  etiam  dicitur  conixmgere  ...  — 

[Pater] 

Hoc  a  te  postulo, 
ne  cum  meo  gnato  posthac  limassis  caput. 

^**  perduo  Bothe  T)erdito  coni.  Ribb.  perdo  servolos 
Mr. 

^^*  voluptas  Palmer.  ((Sptc.)         ^**  libera  lun.        liher  cdd. 

*"  s.  i.  h.  i.  Onions  (si  isto  Mercier)  si  ston  habuissem 
ingenio  Flor.  3  om.  h.  i.  Lu.  h.  i.  siston  G.Harl.  2 

Lu.  3  h.  i.  si  sto  L  si  stoc  Roth  si  isto  Mercier 


PLAYS 

124-5 
Nonius  :  '  Populatim.'     Caecilius  in  The  Money-Lender — 
I've    ruined  you,  as  I  ruin  all  my   little  slaves 

in  tribes.     Please  don't  add  this  trouble  also  to  my 

troubles. 

MAKEPEACE  « 

126 

From  the  prologue  ?  : 

Nonius  :   '  Rarenter.'     Caecilius  in  Makepeace — 
By  heaven  it  is  rarely  that  >villingness  comes  to  a 
man. 

127 
Dress  of  a  courtesan  : 

Nonius  :   '  MolocLinum,'  from  a  Greek  word;   a  colour  like 
the  mallow-flower.  ...  — 

dresses  of  flax,  mauve  and  vine-hued 

128-9 
She  speaks  to  a  father  about  his  son  : 
Nonius  :   '  lamdiu  '  for  once  upon  a  time  ...  — 

[Courtezan] 
Free  woman  would  I  long  ago  have  been 
If  such  had  been  the  nature  of  my  lovers. 

130-1 
The  father  addresses  her  : 
Nonius  :  '  Limare  '  is  also  used  for  to  join  ...  — 

[Father] 
This  I  demand  of  you — do  not  from  now  on  rub 
heads  with  my  son. 

Probably  a  proper  name  {'  Stop-the-fight '),  but  poasibly 
m  epithet. 

LL  2 


CAECILIUS 

PHILUMENA 

132 

Nonius,    197,    24 :     '  Corbes.'     '  Corbulas '    Varro   de    Re 
Rustica  lib.  I  .  .  .  Caecilius  Philumena — 

qui  panis  solidi  corbulam 

133 

Nonius,  304,  24  :    '  Factio  '  iterum  significat  opulentiam 
abundantiam  et  nobilitatem.  .  .  .  Caecilius  Philumena — 

.  .  .  ita  eorum  famam  occultabat  factio. 


PLOCIUM 

This  play  was  based  on  Menander's  nAo'/ctov,  The  Little 
Necklace,  and  appears  to  have  had  roughly  the  following  plot : 
The  daughter  of  a  poor  peasant  was  outraged  one  night  by  a 
kinsman ;  neither  recognised  the  other,  and  the  girl  kept  her 
secret.  The  youth  became  betrothed  to  the  girl  whom  he  had 
outraged.  Near  the  beginning  of  the  play  the  guilty  youth's 
father  complains  about  Crobyle,  his  rich  but  ugly  wife,  to  a 
neighbour.  By  her  orders  he  had  been  forced  to  sell  a  pretty 
handmaiden  whom  his  wife  suspected  of  being  his  mistress. 
Meanwhile  the  daughter,  who  was  with  child  secretly,  was 
attacked  by  birth-pangs  on  the  eve  of  her  wedding  with  her 
betrayer.  Parmeno,  a  good  slave  of  her  father's,  heard  her 
cries  and  wondered  because  it  was  now  ten  months  since  his 
master  had  moved  in  from  the  country  and  it  was  thought  she 
had  known  no  man  since  the  move.  He  discussed  the  mystery 
with  a  friend.  Inevitably  the  secret  was  revealed  (though  the 
author  of  the  girl's  shame  remained  unknown),  and  her 
father  took  Parmeno  into  his  confidence.     The  youth,  not 


"2  quid  y  coni.  Mr,  solidi  Ribb.  soli  cdd.  (recte  ? 
gen.) 

Non.  304  Philumena  ita  eorum  Grauert  lata  lun, 
altam  Bothe  filium  in  alta  eorum  cdd.  (filumina  ita  Bern 

83)  fortasse  Caecilius  Philumena  *  *  *  *  idem  Plocio 


PLAYS 

THE  FIANCEE 

132 

Nonius  :   *  Corbes.'     Varro  has  '  corbulae  '  in  the  first  book 
on  Farming.  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  The  Fiancee — 

who  brought  a  little  basket  of  hard  bread 

133 

Nonius :  '  Factio  '  again  means  opulence,  abundance  and 
nobility.  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  7'he  Fiancee — 

so  well  did  their  set  "  hide  their  bad  report. 

THE   LITTLE  NECKLACE 

knowing  that  his  betrothed  was  the  girl  he  had  himself  ruined 
and  that  the  baby  was  his,  decided  to  repudiate  her,  and  the 
wedding  was  stopped,  but  the  girl's  father  decided  to  bring  the 
matter  into  court.  Then  came  the  denouement — through  a 
necklace  the  girl  and  the  youth  recognised  each  other  as  the 
parents  of  the  baby;  the  betrothal  was  renewed,  and  Parmeno 
was  made  free. 

In  the  fragments  of  Caecilius  we  can  distinguish  the  follow 
ing  characters : 

(A)  the  guilty  youth's  father,  husband  of  Crobyle.  (B)  an 
elderly  neighbour  of  (A).  (C)  a  friend  of  the  slave  Parmeno  ? 
(see  below).  (D)  a  poor  peasant,  father  of  the  betrayed  girl. 
Parmeno,  slave  of  (D).  Crobvle,  wife  of  (A).  (Of.  Allinaon, 
Menander,  p.  432,  407  K.) 


"  This  quotation  might  be  an  inaccurate  reproduction  of  a 
line  from  another  play — The  Little  Necklace  (see  below).  The 
quotation  from  The  Fiancee  illustrating  a  usage  of  factio 
may  have' dropped  out  together  with  the  title  The  Little 
Necklace  presumably  prefixed  to  the  quotation  given  here  in 
Nonius'  t«xt.  It  is  possible,  however,  that  The  Fiancee  is 
the  same  play  as  The  Little  Necklace,  into  which  the  first  fr. 
of  The  Fiancee  could  fit. 


CAECILIUS 

134-5 

Nonius,  468,  20  :    '  Auspicavi '  pro  auspicatus  sum.  .  . 
Caecilius  Plocio — 

Insanuni  auspicium !     Aliter  histrionium  est 
atque  ut  magistratus  publice  cum  auspicant. 

Gellius,  II,  23,  4  :  Libitum  et  Menandri  quoque  Plocium 
legere,  a  quo  istam  comoediam  verterat.  Quantum  stupere 
atque  frigere  quantumque  mutare  a  Menandro  Caecilius  visus 
est !  .  .  .  Accesserat  dehinc  lectio  ad  eum  locum  in  quo 
niaritus  senex  super  uxore  divite  atque  deformi  querebatur 
quod  ancillam  suam,  non  inscito  puellam  ministerio  et  facie 
haut  inliberali,  coactus  erat  venundare  suspectam  uxori  quasi 
paelicem.  .  .  .  Menander  sic  : 

(A)     Itt'  afjuftorepa  vvv  rj  ^itIkXt/joos  i?  KaXrj 

fieXXei  KaOevS'jaeiv.     KareipyaaraL  fieya 

Koi  Tiepi^OTfov  epyov  ix  rfjs  oiKias 

e^€j9aAe  rrjv  Xvnovaav  ijv  i^ovXero, 

iv'  airo^Xenwai  ■navTf.s  fiy  to  Kpco^vXrfS 

npocrcoTTOv  ^  t'  evyvcDoros  ova'  ip.r]  yvvrj 

Se'airoii'a*   Kal  rfjv  otpiv  rjv  €KrrjawTO 

ovos  iv  ttlOt^kois  tovto  8y]  to  Xeyofievov 

eoTiv.  aLcondv  ^ovXofiai  rr^v  vvKra  rrjv 

TToXXd>v  KaKojv  ap^rjyov.     o'noi  KpoijSuArjv 

Xa^etv  €fi'  exKaiSeKa  TaXavra  npolKa  koi 

TTiv  ptv'  e^ovaav  tttjx^o};.     elr'  earl  to 

<{>pvayp,a  ttojs  viroaraTov  ;  /ta  rov  Ai'a 

rov  'OXvfXTTiov  Kol  Tr}v  'AOrjvdv,  ovSap-cos- 

TraihiGKapiov  OepanfimKov  8e  Bel  Xoyov 

rdxiov  dndyeadai.  f  .   .   .  (Allinson,  Men.,  p.  428) 

Caecilius  autem  sic — 

"*  auspicium  <num>   aliter  coni.  Linds.  <haud> 

aliter  Spengel         histrionium  Quietus         istrionum  cdd. 

^*'  aeque  Mr.  publice  cum  cdd.  p.  quoque  Spengel 
quando  Bothe  publicitus  cum  Maehly  publicae  rei 

cum  Ribb.        auspicant  cum  publice  Mr. 

»  So  I  take  it.  Compare  some  of  Plautus'  and  Terence's 
prologues. 

5t8 


PLAYS 

134-5 

From  the  prologue  ;  Caecilius  "  to  his  audience  ?  : 
Nonius  :   *  Auspicavi '  for  '  auspicatus  som.'  .  .  .  Caeciliu* 
in  The  Little  NecHace — 

It's  an  unhealthy  augury ;  quite  different  is  the 
actors*  augury  from  that  of  a  magistrate  when  he 
takes  the  auspices  for  the  state. 

The  father  of  the  guilty  youth,  after  a  soliloquy,  converses  vrilh 
a  neighbour  about  troublesome  wives  : 

Gellius  :  We  had  a  fancy  to  read  also  The  Little  NecLlace 
of  Menander,  which  Caecilius  had  adapted  for  his  comedy. 
.  .  .  How  dull  and  stiff  was  Caecilius  revealed  right  from  the 
beginning !  ^^^lat  great  alterations  he  made  in  Menander's 
material!  .  .  .  Our  reading  in  due  course  had  reached  the 
passage  in  which  an  old  husband  was  making  a  great  to-do 
about  his  wife,  who  was  rich  and  ugly,  complaining  that  he 
had  been  forced  to  put  up  for  sale  a  handmaid  who  rendered 
skilled  service  and  was  verj'  good-looking;  his  wife  suspected 
her  of  being  his  mistress.  .  .  .  Menander  writes  thus  : 

(A)  So  now  my  lovely  heiress  *"  can  go  to  sleep  on  both 
cheeks.  She  has  done  a  doughty  deed  which  will  make  a  big 
noise  everywhere ;  she  has  cast  out  of  the  house  the  girl  she 
wanted  to,  one  who  provoked  her,  so  that  the  whole  neighbour- 
hood may  gaze  on  the  face  of,  why — Crobyle,  and  that  she, 
my  illustrious  wife,  may  be  a  tjTant  over  me.  As  for  the 
looks  which  she  got  herself,  well,  she's  an  ass  amongst  apes, 
as  the  saying  is.  I'd  rather  say  nothing  about  the  night  which 
was  the  prime  cause  of  many  troubles.  Oh  !  Damn  it  ! 
That  I  should  have  chosen  to  marry  Crobyle  with  a  dowry  of 
sixteen  talents  and  a  nose  a  yard  long  !  And  besides,  is  her 
snortiness  by  any  means  to  be  put  up  with  ?  Xo  !  By  Zeus 
in  heaven  and  by  Athena,  not  at  all !  And  the  little  serving 
girl  must  be  led  away  before  you  can  say  a  word. 

But  Caecilius  writes  thus' — 

*  sc.  his  rich  wife  Crobyle. 

*  The  following  verses  have  been  variously  arranged. 
The  first  four  are  anapaestic.  Cf.  Ribbeck,  Com.  Fr.,  58-62, 
and  corollar.,  XXV-XXIX. 


CAECILIUS 

136-50 

(A) 

Is   demum  miser   est   qui   aerumnam  suam   nesciat 

occultare 
foris ;    ita  me  uxor  forma  et  factis  facit,  si  taceam, 

tamen  indicium, 
quae  nisi  dotem  omnia  quae  nolis  habet.     Qui  sapiet 

de  me  discet, 
qui  quasi  f  ad  hostis  f  captus  liber  servio  salva  urbe 

atque  arce. 
Quae  mihi  quidquid.  placet  eo  privatum  it  me  ser- 
vatam  velim  ?  140 

Dum   ego   eius   mortem   inhio,   egomet  inter   vivos 

vivo  mortuus. 
Ea  me  clam  se  cum  mea  ancilla  ait  consuetum ;   id 

me  arguit, 
ita  plorando  orando  instando  atque  obiurgando  me 
optudit 
cam  uti  venderem.     Nunc  credo  inter  suas 
aequalis  cognatas  sermonem  serit :  145 

'  Quis  vostrarum  fuit  integra  aetatula 

quae  hoc  idem  a  viro 
impetrarit  suo,  quod  ego  anus  modo 
efFeci,  paelice  ut  meum  privarem  virum  ?  ' 
Haec    erunt    concilia    hocedie ;     difFerar    sermone 
mis  ere.  150 

Cp.  Non.,  502,  12  (147). 


isft-150  c/.  Bibb.  Com.  Fr.  58  s.  corollar.,  XXV  s. 
^^*  nesciat  Ribb.        non  potis  Fleckeisen        nescit  Thysius 
nesquit  Bum.  nequit  rell. 

^*'  foris  Ribb.        efiferre  Spengel        fere  edd.        ferre  cdd. 
1*0-1  iranspos.  Ribb. 

530 


PLAYS 

136-150 
(A) 
A  poor  wretch  is  he  surely  who  doesn't  know  how 
he  can  hide  his  troubles  out  of  doors.  You  see, 
my  wife,  even  if  I  say  nothing,  gives  the  shoM*  away 
by  her  looks  and  by  her  acts — she  who  has  every 
thing  you  wouldn't  Mant  her  to  have  except  a  doA\Ty. 
He  who'll  be  a  wise  man  will  learn  a  lesson  from  me 
■ — I'm  free  but  still  a  slave  to  the  will  of  enemies, 
though  yet  my  to^\Ti  and  stronghold  are  safe.  What, 
am  I  to  wish  long  life  to  the  woman  who  is  always 
going  to  rob  me  of  whatever  gives  me  joy  }  While  I 
gape  for  her  death,  I  am  a  living  corpse  among  the 
living.  She  says  that  unknown  to  her  there  is 
intimacy  between  me  and  my  handmaid.  That's 
what  she  accuses  me  of;  and  so  by  ruoaning  and 
groaning  and  bothering  and  pothering  she  thumped 
me  into  selling  her.  And  now  I  believe  she's  sowing 
this  sort  of  gossip  among  her  cronies  and  kinsfolk : 
'  Of  all  you  women  who  is  there,  who,  in  the  tender 
flower  of  her  age,  got  out  of  her  husband  what  I, 
an  old  woman,  have  lately  accomplished — robbed  my 
husband  of  his  wench  ?  '  That's  the  sort  of  mothers' 
meetings  there'll  be  these  days.  I  shall  be  damnably 
torn  to  pieces  by  gossip. 

^*'>  quae  cdd.  quaen  Ribb.  privatum  it  me  servatam 
Ribb.  (p.  i.  m.  servatum  Thysius)  alii  alia  privatu  vim 
me  servatum  vel  privatum  in  me  servat  vel  sim.  cdd. 

^*^  d.  e.  e.  Non.  am.  ego  cdd.  Gell.  inibo  cdd.  Non. 

inter  vivos  vivo  mortuus  Ribb.         vivo  m.  i.  vivos  cdd. 

"^  aequalis  atque  vel  et  cdd.         aequalis  cognatas  Ribb. 

^**  nostrarum  cdd.  nonnulli 

1^  convitia  ilaehlj-  hocedie  Bergk  hodie  cdd. 

dififerar  Ribb.  differor  cdd.  misere  Ribb.  miser  cdd. 
alii  alia 

521 


CAECILIUS 

151-5 

Gellius,  II*  23,  1 1  :  Praeter  venustatem  autem  rerum  atque 
verborum  in  duobus  libris  nequaquam  parem  in  hoc  equidem 
soleo  animum  attendere,  quod  quae  Menander  praeelare  et 
apposite  et  facete  scripsit,  ea  Caecilius  ne  qua  potuit  quidem 
conatus  est  enarrare,  sed  quasi  minime  probanda  praeter- 
misit  et  alia  neacio  quae  mimica  inculcavit  et  illud  Menandri 
de  vita  hominum  media  sumptum  simplex  et  verum  et 
delectabile  neseio  quo  pacto  omisit.  Idem  enim  ille  maritus 
senex  cum  altero  seno  vicino  coUoquens  et  uxoris  locupletis 
superbiam  deprecans  haec  ait : 

(A)  'Ex<^  S'  aTTiKXrjpov  Adfuav  ovk  f'prjKO.  aot, 
tovt',  elr  dp'  ov^i- ;  Kvpiav  rijg  oi/cia? 
Kal  Tcov  aypojv  kul  rtov  aTTavrtov  dvrtKpvs 
e;^o/i6v,  ' AttoXXov ,  (Ls  x'^AeTrcDi'  )(€XeTTunaTov, 
dnaai  6'  dpyaXea  'crriv  ovk  efiol  fiovw, 

vlu),  TToXv  fidXXov  dvyarpi. 

(B)  npdyii   dfiaxov  Xeyeig. 
(A)     €v  ol8a.     (Allinson,  Men.,  pp.  428,  430.) 

Caecilius  vero  hoc  in  loco  ridiculus  magis  quam  personae 
isti  quam  tractabat  aptus  atque  conveniens  videri  raaluit. 
Sic  enim  haec  corrupit — 

(B)     Sed  tua  morosane  uxor  quaeso  est  ?     (A)      Va  ! 

Rogas  ? 
(B)  Qui  tandem  ?     (A)  Taedet  mentionis  quae  mihi 
ubi  domum  adveni,  adsedi,  extemplo  savium 
dat  ieiuna  anima.      (B)  Nil  peccat  de  savio ; 
ut  devomas  vult  quod  foris  potaveris. 

Cp.  Non.,  233,  12  (152-4). 

an 

1*^  Va  !     Rogas?     Ribb,  (coni.  quam,  rogas?)  q  Bolt. 

quam  erogas  Eeg.  q.  errogas   Vat,  quam  erogaa 

coni.  Spengel 

^"  qui  Ribb.         qui  quia  Reg.         quas  qui  Rott. 

"  So  I  take  it.  (A)  uses  the  phrase  in  the  sense  of '  breath  that 
makes  you  want  to  vomit,'  '  nauseous   breath,'  and   means 

522 


PLAYS 

151-5 

Gellius  goes  on  :  Quite  apart  from  charm  of  ideas  and 
diction,  which  is  by  no  means  the  same  in  the  two  works, 
I  am  generally  impressed  by  the  fact  that  where  Menander 
wrote  brilliantly  and  wittily  and  to  the  point,  Caecilius  has 
not  tried  to  reproduce  even  where  he  might  have,  but  has 
passed  them  over  as  not  in  the  least  worthy  of  approbation, 
and  has  crammed  in  some  farcical  tricks,  and  in  some  way  or 
other  has  altogether  missed  that  simple  and  delightful  effect 
of  Menander's,  which  is  so  true  to  nature  and  is  taken  from 
the  very  heart  of  human  life.  For  that  same  old  husband,  in 
conversation  with  a  second  person,  another  old  man,  calls 
down  curses  on  the  haughtiness  of  his  wealthy  wife  in  these 
words: 

(A)  I've  got  an  heiress-witch.  Haven't  I  told  you  this? 
Haven't  I  really  then  ?  Well,  as  the  mistress  of  the  house  and 
fields  and  absolutely  everything,  we  have,  by  Apollo,  a  thing 
most  tiresome  of  the  tiresome.  She's  a  nuisance  to  everyone, 
not  only  to  me,  but  her  son  too  and  much  more  to  her  daughter. 

(B)  There's  no  fighting  with  that  kind  of  thing. 
(A)  Don't  I  know  it  well ! 

But  Caecilius  in  this  passage  preferred  to  act  the  buffoon 
rather  than  fit  and  accommodate  himself  to  the  character  he 
was  dealing  with.  For  this  is  the  way  in  which  he  has  spoiled 
all  that  passage — 

(B)  But  tell  me,  please,  is  your  wife  moody?  (A) 
Wow  !     What  a  question  ! 

(B)  Well,  how  about  it  ?  (A)  I  don't  like  to  talk 
about  it.  Whenever  I  have  come  home  and 
sat  down  beside  her,  first  thing  she  gives  me 
a  kiss  with  fasting  breath."  (B)  She  makes 
no  mistake  about  that  kiss ;  she  wants  you  to 
belch  up  what  you  have  been  drinking  out  of 
doors. 

his  wife's.  But  (B)  thinks  of  the  phrase  in  the  meaning  of 
'  with  a  starved  soul.'  The  wife  wants  to  smell  (A's)  breath. 
Nonius  gives  most  of  this  paasage  to  illustrate  aninui  in  the 
sense  of  alitus  oris  et  odor. 

523 


CAECILIUS 

156 
Nonius,  314,  21  :   Et  graviter  multum  inteUegitur.  ...  — 

(B) 

Placere  occepit  graviter,  postquam  emortuast. 

Gellius,  II,  23,  14  :  Quid  de  illo  quoque  loco  in  utraque 
comoedia  posito  existimari  debeat  manifestum  est,  cuius 
loci  haec  ferme  sententia.  Filia  hominis  pauperis  in  per- 
vigilio  vitiata  est.  Ea  res  clam  patrem  fuit.  Et  habebatur 
pro  virgine.  Ex  eo  vitio  gravida  mensibus  exactis  parturit. 
Servus  bonae  frugi,  cum  pro  foribus  domus  staret  et  propin- 
quare  partum  erili  filiae  atque  omnino  vitium  esse  oblatum 
ignoraret,  gemitum  et  ploratum  audit  puellae  in  puerperio 
enitentis;  timet  irascitur  suspicatur  miseretur  dolet.  Hi 
omnes  motus  eius  affectionesque  animi  in  Graeca  quidem 
comoedia  mirabiliter  acres  et  illustres,  apud  Caecilium  autem 
pigra  istaec  omnia  et  a  rerum  dignitate  atque  gratia  vacua 
aunt. 

157-8 

Gellius,  III,  16,  3  :  Hoc  idem  tradit  etiam  Menander  poeta 
vetustior,  humanarum  opinionum  vel  peritissimus.  Versus 
eius  super  ea  re  de  fabula  Plocio  posui : 

yvvT)  Kvet  SeKa  fjLrjvas  *  *  *  *  ged  noster  Caecilius  cum 
faceret  eodem  nomine  et  eiusdem  argumenti  comoediam  ac 
pleraque  a  Menandro  sumeret,  in  mensibus  tamen  genitalibus 
nominandis  non  praeterraisit  octavum,  quem  praeterierat 
Menander.     Caecilii  versus  hice  sunt — 

Parmeno 
Soletne  mulier  decimo  mense  parere  ? 

^**  emortuast  Ribb.  emortuas  Lu.  1,  Gen.,  Bern,.  83 
emortua  Harl.  1  est  mortua  rell.  ^*'  vide  p.  526 

"  The  rest  of  Menander's  lines  have  dropped  out. 


PLAYS 

156 
The  neighbour  on  his  tmje  : 
Nonius  :   By  '  graviter  '  also  is  understood  '  much  '  .  .  .  — 

(B) 
She  began  to  please  me  mightily  after  she  was 
dead  and  gone. 

Parmeno  is  puzzled  at  the  girl's  childbirth  : 

Gellius  :  It  is  quite  clear  what  opinion  we  ought  to  hold  on 
that  scene  also — it  occurs  in  both  comedies — of  which  the 
following  is  more  or  less  the  purport.  The  daughter  of  a 
poor  man  was  outraged  during  a  sacred  vigil.  The  occurrence 
was  kept  secret  from  her  father,  and  she  was  still  taken  for  a 
virgin.  Made  big  with  child  by  that  outrage  she  gave  birth 
when  the  sum  of  months  was  past.  A  slave  of  good  character, 
while  he  was  standing  before  the  doors  of  the  house,  not 
knowing  that  his  master's  daughter  was  approaching  delivery, 
and  being  quite  unaware  that  she  had  suffered  outrage,  heard 
the  cries  and  entreaties  of  the  girl  in  the  throes  of  childbirth. 
He  is  frightened,  angry,  suspicious,  full  of  pity,  and  sad. 
All  these  emotions  and  feelings  of  his  mind  are,  at  any  rate  in 
the  Greek  comedy,  wonderfully  vivid  and  clear.  But  in 
Caecilius'  play  all  this  is  dull  and  void  of  all  the  dignity  and 
grace  of  expression  which  the  occasion  demands. 

157  S 
Gellius  again  :  The  same  thing  is  recorded  by  the  older  poet 
Menander,  a  man  very  well  informed  about  the  general 
opinion.  I  have  added  here  some  lines  on  that  subject 
from  the  play  The  Little  Necklace.  '  A  woman  is  with  child 
for  ten  months.'  ..."  But  our  poet  Caecilius,  though  he 
wrote  a  comedy  having  the  same  title  and  the  same  plot  and 
took  most  of  his  material  from  Menander,  did  not,  in  stating 
the  months  of  pregnancy,  leave  out  the  eighth,  which 
Menander  had  passed  over.     Caecilius'  lines  are  as  follows — 

Parmeno 
Does  a  woman  usually  give  birth  in  the  tenth 
month  ? 

525 


CAECILIUS 

(C)? 

Pol  nono  quoque 
etiam  septimo  atque  octavo. 

159-60 
Nonius,  209,  13  :   '  Insomnium  .  .  .  feminini.  ...  — 
(D)  Consequitur  comes  insomnia ; 
ea  porro  insaniam  afFert. 

161 

Nonius,    153,     12  :      '  Properatim,'    id    est    properanter. 
Caecilius — 

(A)  Properatim  in  tenebris  istuc  confectum  est  opus. 

Cp.  Non.,  155,  4  (.  ,  .  Caecilius  Plocio). 

162 
Noiiius,  84,  3  :   '  Comraemoramentum  '  .  .  .  — ■ 

Parmeno 
Pudebat  credo  commemoramentum  strupri. 

163-6 

Gellius,  II,  23,  20  :  Post  ubi  idem  servus  percontando  quod 
acciderat  repperit,  has  apud  Menandrum  voces  facit : 

nAPM.    tS  rpls  KaKo8aifiwv  oaris  ojv  vevqs  ya/iet 
jcai  TraiSoTTOici.     cos  aAoyiordy  eW  a.vqp, 
OS  fJ,i]Te  <f>vXaKrjv  raiv  dvay/cai'cov  exei, 
fjLrjT   av  drvx^aas  eij  ra  Koiva  roD  ^lov 
ina^jL^Uaai,  SuVotTO  rovro  -j^prj fiaaiv , 
d/\A'  eV  aKoXvTTTco  Koi  TaXanrdtpa)  /Sioj 
Xeifxa^ofievos  Kv>  ■''">''  M^*'  aviapaiv  l^'"*' 
TO  fifpos  a-ndvTOiv,  rGiv  S'  dyaQoiv  ovhkv  fiepos' 
VTrep  yap  ivos  dXyojv  aTravras  vovdtrw. 

(AUinson,  Men.,  p.  430.) 

^*'  soletne  olim  Hertz         iiisuetne  Bothe         insoletne  cdd, 
526 


PLAYS 

(C)? 
'Gad,  yes ;    or  the  ninth  or  even  the  seventh  or 
eighth. 

159-60 
The  girl  has  confessed  to  her  father,  who  takes  Parmtno  into 
his  confidence  ;  the  half-drunken  youth  : 

Nonius:  '  Insomnium  '  .  .  .  ofthe  feminine  gender  .  .  . — 
(D)  There  followed    a  companion   to   it  "—sleep- 
lessness ;  and  this  further  brought  on  madness. 

161 

How  he  outraged  the  girl : 

Nonius  :  '  Properatim,'  that  is,  the  same  as  '  properanter.' 
Caecilius — 

(A)  Hastily,  in  the  dark — that's  how  yonder 
business  was  done. 

162 

The  girVs  secrecy  : 

Nonius  :  '  Commemoramentum '  •  .  .  — 

Parmeiio 

I  expect  she  was  ashamed  to  make  any  mentioning 
of  her  disgrace. 

16a-6 

Parmeno's  comments  : 

Gellius :  Afterwards  when  the  same  slave  by  inquiring 
had  found  out  what  had  happened,  in  Menander  he  makes 
the  following  speech : 

Parmeno.  Oh !  Thrice  unhappy  is  he  who  though  poor 
yet  marries  and  gets  children.  How  improvident  is  the  man 
who  keeps  no  watch  over  his  necessities,  and,  when  he  has 
been  unlucky  in  the  common  run  of  life,  could  not  wrap  it  up 
in  a  cloak  of  money,  but  lives  a  storm-tossed,  unprotected 
and  unhappy  life,  and  gets  a  share  of  all  the  grievous  mis- 
fortunes, but  no  share  of  the  blessings.  Of  course,  when  I 
grieve  like  this  for  one,  I'm  warning  all  men. 

»  sc.  too  much  drinking. 

5*7 


CAECILIUS 

Ad  horum  sinceritatem  viritatemque  verborum  an  aspiraverit 
Caecilius  consideremus.  Versus  sunt  hi  Caecili  trunca 
quaedam  ex  Menandro  dicentis  et  consarcinantis  verba  tragici 
tumoris — 

Parmeno 

Is  demum  infortunatust  homo 
pauper  qui  educit  in  egestatem  liberos, 
cui  fortuna  et  res  nuda  est  continuo  patet ; 
nam  opulento  famam  facile  occultat  factio. 

Cp.  Non.,  304,  36  ? 

167-9 

Cicero,  de  SenecL.  8,  25  :  Melius  Caecilius  de  sens  alteri 
saeculo  prospiciente  quam  illud  idem— 

(D) 
Edepol,  senectus,  si  nihil  quicquam  aliud  viti 
adportes  tecum,  cum  advenis,  unum  id  sat  est 
quod  diu  vivendo  multa  quae  non  volt  videt. 
Cp.  Non.,  247,  4  (Caecilius  Plocio). 

170 
Nonius,  97,  13  :   '  Danunt,'  dant  ...  — 
Patiere  quod  dant,  quando  optata  non  danunt. 

171 
Donatus,  ad  Ter.,  Andr.,  IV,  5,  10  :    '  Quando  ut  volumus 
non  licet '  .  .  .  — 

Vivas  ut  possis  quando  nee  quis  ut  velis. 

"*  infortunatust  Spengel  infortunatus  est  edd.  vett. 

e.  i.  cdd. 

168  nuda  (ut  ut  oZim)  Ribb.         ut  cdd.       res  est  ut  Spengel 

1"  si  Cic.        ut  si  Non.        etsi  Bothe        ut  Onions 

1*8  quod  diu  cdd.         diu  quis  Manutius 

i'"  potire  ohm  Ribb.  potiere  Bothe  (vel  patere  quod  di 
dant) 

528 


PLAYS 

Now  let  us  consider  whether  Caecilius  bad  enough  inspira- 
tion to  attain  the  sincerity  and  truth  of  these  words.  Here 
are  Caecilius'  lines ;  he  reproduces  some  tatters  from  Menander 
and  patches  them  up  with  words  swelling  with  tragic 
bombast — 

Parmeno 

He's  surely  an  unlucky  fellow  who  is  poor  yet 
brings  up  children  to  neediness.  WTien  a  man's 
fortune  and  estate  are  bare,  he  is  exposed  at  once ; 
but  with  a  wealthy  man  his  set  keeps  hid  his  bad  report 
with  ease. 

167-9 

Comments  of  the  father  ?  : 

Cicero  :  A  better  effect  is  produced  by  Caecilius  when  he 
speaks  about  the  old  man  whose  mind  is  looking  forward  to 
another  age  (see  line,  200)  than  he  does  with  the  following — 

(D) 
Ah !     By  heaven,  Old  Age,  if  there's  no  other 
mischief  which  you  bring  with  you  when  you  come — 
well — this  one's  quite  enough — that  a  man  by  living 
long  sees  many  things  he  doesn't  want. 

170 
Parnuno  to  the  father  ?  : 

Nonius  :   '  Danunt,'  the  same  as  '  dant.'  ...  — 
You  will  put  up  with  what  the  gods  grant,  since 
they  do  not  grant  all  you  long  for. 

171 
Donatus  on  '  since  we  can't  as  we'd  like '  in  Terence :  .  .  .  — 
Live  as  you  may,  since  you  can't  as  you'd  like. 


^'^  ne  quis  Ribb.         non  quis  Fabric.        nequit  ed.  Med, 
nequitur  Spengel  nequis  cdd. 


MM 


GAEGILIUS 

172 
Noniu8,  297,  35  :   '  Extollere,'  differrc  ...  — 

(D) 
Abi  intro  atque  istaec  aufer;   tamen  liodie  extollat 
nuptias. 

173 
Nonius,  484,  24  :  '  Sumpti '  pro  sumptus  ...  — 

Quid   hoc   futurum   obsonio  est  ubi  tantura  sumpti 
factum  ?   . 

174 
Nonius,  164,  21  :  '  Rarenter  '  pro  rare  ...  — 

Crobyla  ? 

Tu  nurum  non  vis  odiosam  tibi  esse  quam  rarenter 
videas  ? 

Cp.  Men.  (Allinson,  p.  430  (929  K)) :  KpufivXri  rjj  (iTjTpl 
neidov  Kai  yci/uet  ttjv  avyyevrj. 

175 
Nonius,  513,  1  :   '  Publicitus  '  pro  publico  ...  — 

(D) 
Ibo  domum ;  ad  plebem  pergitur ;  publicitus  defen- 
dendum  est. 

^'*  aufer  viilgo  aufert  ccld.  auferto  Bothe  {rede  ?) 

aufer  si  Ribb.         adfer  tamen  ut  hodie  Mr.  extollet  ami. 

Ribb. 

^^'  est  Bothe        et  cdd. 

^'*  ibo  domum  cdd.  domum  ibo  Grauert  ibi  demum 
Bothe  pergitur  cdd.  peragetur  coni.  Ribb.  peragitur 
vel  peragitor  Mr.         pergitor  Spengel 

530 


PLAYS 

172 

The  wedding  will  not  take  place  : 

Nonius  :   '  Extollere,'  to  postpone  ...  — 

(D) 
Away  with  you  inside  and  clear  off  those  dishes; 
let  him  put  off  the  wedding  to-day  in  spite  of  all. 

173 

The  wedding  fare  : 

Nonius  :   '  Sumpti '  for  '  sumptus.'  ...  — 

What's  to  be  done  with  this  meat  after  all  that 
expense  on  it  ? 

174 

Effort  to  persuade  the  youth  to  relent  : 
Nonius  :  '  Rarenter  '  for  *  rare.'  ...  — 

Crobyle  ?  « 

Surely   you   don't   want   the   young   lady,   whom 
you  see  so  rarely,  to  become  a  thing  of  hate  to  you  ? 

175 
The  girVa  father  decides  to  go  to  law  about  his  jilted  daughter  : 
Nonius  :   '  Publicitus  '  for  '  publice.'  ...  — 

(D) 
I'll  go  home ;    the  case  will  go  before  the  com- 
moners ;  it  must  be  defended  publicly. 

"  Probably.     Or  the  words  may  be  spoken  to  Crobyle,  not 
by  her.    Cf.  the  fr.  of  Menander  quoted  opposite. 

531 

M  M  2 


CAECILIUS 

176 
Nonius,  220,  4  :   '  Paupertas  '  .  .  .  neutri  .  .  .  -— 

(D) 
Ibo  ad  forum  et  pauperii  tutelam  geram. 

177-8 
Nonius,  146,  11  :   '  Opulentitas  '  pro  opulentia  .  .  .  — 

Crobyla  ? 

opulentitate  nostra  sibi  iniuriam 
fact  am. 

179 
Nonius,  124,  24  :   '  Inibi  '  pro  sic  et  mox  ...  — 

(C) 
Liberne  es  ? 

Parmeno 
Non  sum  liber,  verum  inibi  est  quasi. 


POLUMENI 

180 
Nonius,  114,  15  :   '  Floces,'  faex  vini.     Caecilius — 
At  pel  ego  neque  florem  neque  floces   volo  mihi ; 
vinum  volo. 
Cp.  Gell.  XI,  67, 6  (floces  .  .  .  aput  Caecilium  in  Polumenis). 

^'*  pauperii  Ribb.  pauperio  Spengel  pauperie  Bo  the 
pauperi  cdd. 

^"~*  sibi  <esse>  i.  Ribb.  s.  <eam>  i.  Mr.  alii 
alia         factam  Mercier  faciam  cdd. 


PLAYS 

176 
Nonius  :   '  Paupertas  '  ...  of  the  neuter  "  gender  ...  — 

(D) 
I'll    go    to    court    and   champion    mv    cause — it's 
Poverty's  brief. 

177-8 
The  whole  truth  has  come  to  light  : 
Nonius  :   '  Opulentitas  '  for  '  opulentia  '  .  .  .  — 

Crohyle  ? 
that  it  was  through  our  wealthiness  that  the  out- 
rage was  committed  against  her. 

179 
Parmeno  is  freed  from  slavery  : 
Nonius  :   '  Inibi '  for  '  thus  '  and  '  soon.'  ...  — 

.    (C) 
Are  you  a  free  man  .■' 

Parmeno 

No,  I'm  not  free,  but  I'm  there  or  thereabouts,  as 
you  might  say. 

MEN  FOR  SALE" 

180 
Nonius  :  '  Floces,'  lees  of  wine.    Caeciliua — 

But  by  god  I  want  neither  leaves  nor  lees,  please ; 
what  I  want  is  wine. 

"  pauperii  is  really  old  genitive  oi pauperies. 
*  Cp.  Menander's  TlcoXovfievot. 

^''*  liber  Flor.  3  om.  cdd.        quasi  Flor.  3  om.  cdd. 

533 


CAECILIUS 

PORTITOR 

181 

Nonius,  118,  23  :   *  Gerrae,'  nugae,  ineptiae.  .  .  .  Caecilius 
Portitore — 

Cur  depopulator  ?     Gerrae  ! 


PROGAMOS 

182 

Nonius,  346,  13  :    *  Moliri,'  retinere,  morari  ac   repigrare. 
Caecilius  Progamo — 

Ita  quod  laetitia  me  mobilitat,  maeror  molitur  metu. 


PUGIL 

183-4 

Festus,  188,  7  :    Quidam  '  nictationem,'  quidam  '  nictum,' 
ut  Caecilius  in  Pugile — 

Turn     inter     laudandum     hunc     timidum     tremulis 

palpebris 
percutere  nietu  ;  hie  gaudere  et  mirarier. 

SYMBOLUM 

185 

Nonius,  279,  43  :    '  Destitui '  rursum  statui.  .  .  .  Caecilius 
in  Symbolo — 

Destituit  omnes  servos  ad  mensam  ante  se. 

1*1  fur  d.  —  gerrae  !     Kiessling        f.  d.  gerro  Rest 
1*2  laetitia  Palmer  (Spic.)        letale  Grauert        letiale  cdd. 
1"  luctandum  Ribb.       ludendum  Fruter.       laudandum  cd. 
Non.  279  Symbolo  Mercier        sembono  vel  embono  cdd. 

534 


PLAYS 

THE  CARRIER 

181 

Nonius  :  *  G^errae,'  nonsense,  ineptitudes.  .  .  .  Caecilins 
in  The  Carrier — 

Why  a  pillager  ?     Bosh ! 

WEDDING-PRELIMINARIES  « 

182 

Nonius :  '  Moliri,'  to  keep  back,  delay  and  slacken. 
Caecilius  in  Wedding-Preliminaries — 

Yes,  because  gladness  sets  me  all  agog,  and  sorrow 
sets  me  all  aclogged  with  dread. 

THE  BOXER 6 

183-4 

Festus  :  Some  writ*  '  nictatio,'  some  *  nictus,'  for  example 
Caecilius  in  The  Boxer — 

Then  in  the  midst  of  his  complimenting,  while  that 
fellow's  eye-lids  quiver  in  mortal  funk,  he  knocks 
him  out  with  a  wink.     He's  pleased  and  surprised. 

THE  TOKEN 

185 

Nonius  :  '  Destitui '  means  also  the  same  as  '  statni.'  .  .  . 
Caecilius  in  The  Token — 

He  set  down  all  the  slaves  in  front  of  him  at  table. 

•  Probably  from  Menander's  Tlpoya/ioi  or  Upoyafiia,  a  sacri- 
fice before  a  wedding. 

*  Cp.  TlvKTtjs  by  Timotheus  and  another  by  Timoclea. 

535 


CAECILIUS 

186 
Nonius,  246,  9  :   '  Auscultare  '  est  obsequi.  ...  — 
Audire  ignoti  quom  imperant  soleo  non  auscultare. 


SYNARISTOSAE 

187-8 

Gellius,  XV,  15 :  Veteres  dixerunt  '  expassum,'  non 
'  expansum.'     Caecilius  in  Synaristosis — 

heri  vero  prospexisse  eum  se  ex  tegulis, 
haec  nuntiasse  et  flammeum  expassum  domi. 
Cp.  Non.,  370,  17. 

SYNEPHEBI 

189-99 

Cicero,  de  Nat.  Deor.,  Ill,  29,  72  :  lUe  vero  in  Synephebis 
Academicorum  more  contra  communem  opinionem  non 
dubitat  pugnare  ratione,  qui — 

In  amore  suave  est  summo  summaque  inopia 
parentem  habere  avarum  inlepidum,  in  liberos 
difficilem,  qui  te  nee  amet  nee  studeat  tui. 
Atque  huic  incredibili  sententiae  ratiunculas  suggerit — 
Aut  tu  ilium  fructu  fallas  aut  per  litteras 
advertas  aliquod  nomen  aut  per  servolum 

^**  quom  Ribb.         quae  Bo  the        quod  cdd. 

^**  haec  nuntiasset  cdd.  h.  nuntiasse  vulg.  eenunti- 
asse  et  Hertz        et  nuntiasse  Bergk 

^**  i.  a.  s.  e.  8.  s.  i.  |  p.  Bothe  in  amore  summo  sum- 
maque inopia  suave  esse  dicit  parentem  Cic. 

*•*  fructu  cdd.        furto  Buecheler 

"  From  Menander's  SwapiaTwaai. 


PLAYS 

186 
Nonius  :   '  Auscultare  '  means  to  comply  with  ...  — 
When   persons   I   don't  know  give  commands,   I 
am  accustomed  to  hear,  not  to  heed. 

LADIES  AT  LUNCH" 

187-8 

Gellius :  The  old  ^Titers  used  the  form  '  expassum,'  not 
'  expansum.'     Caecilius  in  Ladies  at  Lunch — 

but  that  yesterday  he  looked  in  at  him  from  the 
roof-tiles ;  he  brought  news  of  this  and  then  the 
bridal  veil  was  spread  out  at  home. 

COMRADES  IN  YOUTH* 

189-99 

Cicero  :  But  the  well-known  character  in  Comrades  in  Youth, 
after  the  manner  of  the  Academics,  does  not  hesitate  to  fight 
against  the  general  opinion  with  the  weapon  of  reason.  He 
says — 

When  one  is  deep  in  love  and  deep  in  poverty,  it  is 
a  nice  thing  to  have  a  father  who  is  stingy  and  dis- 
agreeable and  troublesome  towards  his  children, 
who  neither  loves  you  nor  takes  interest  in  you. 

And  he  brings  a  poor  sort  of  reasons  to  support  this  incredible 
opinion — 

You  must  either  diddle  him  out  of  some  profit  or 
misappropriate  some  item  of  debt  by  a  forged  docu- 
ment or  by  '^  help  of  a  slave-boy  strike  terror  into 

"  From   Menander's    Iwit^-q^oi  ?     We   ought   perhaps   to 
add  to  this  play  fr.  97  of  The  Imbrians  (pp.  ^4-5). 
'  He  means  bv  sending  him  a  slave  with  bad  news. 

537 


CAECILIUS 

percutias  pavidum ;  postremo  a  parco  patre 

quod  sumas  quanto  dissipes  libentius  I  195 

Idemque    facilem    et   liberalem    patrem    incommodum    esse 
amanti  filio  disputat — 

Quern  neque  quo  pacto  fallam  nee  quid  inde  auferam 
nee  quern  dolum  ad  eum  aut  machinam  commoliar 
scio  quicquam  ;  ita  omnes  meos  dolos  fallacias 
praestrigias  praestrinxit  commoditas  patris. 

200 

Cicero,  de  Senecf,  7,  24  :  Nemo  est  tam  senex  qui  se  annum 
non  putet  posse  vivere;  sed  idem  in  eis  elaborant,  quae 
sciunt  nihil  omnino  ad  se  pertinere — 

Serit  arbores  quae  saeclo  prosint  alteri, 

ut  ait  Statins  noster  in  Synephebis.     Nee  vero  dubitat  agri- 
cola,  quamvis  sit  senex,  quaerenti  cui  serat  respondere.  .  .  . 

Cf.  Cic.,  Tusc  Disp.,  I,  14,  31. 

201-4 

Cicero,  de  Nat.  Deor.,  I,  6,  13:  Convocandi  omnes  videntur  j 
qui  quae  sit  earum  {sc.  sententiarum)  vera  indicent.  ... 
Itaque  mihi  libet  exclamare,  ut  est  in  Synephebis — 

Pro  deum  popularium  omnium  omnium  adulescentium  i 
clamo  postulo  obsecro  oro  ploro  atque  inploro  fidem ;  , 

1**  nee  quid  inde  Schoemann        neque  qui  inde  Heindorf  j 
neque  quid  Bothe  nequid  inde  vel  neque  ut  inde  vel  sim, 

(neque  aliquid  Glog.)  cdd. 

^^^  praestrigias  Buecheler  praestigias  (infra  quoque 
praestigiae  praet.  Vindoh.)  cdd.  (rede  ?) 

2""  saeclo  prosint  alteri  Spengel  serit  |  a.  q.  a.  saeculo 
prosient  Hermann  (prosint  Bergk)         a.  saeculo  prosint  cdd.  . 

538 


PLAYS 

him.  My  last  word  is — how  much  more  fun  it  is  to 
squander  what  vou  have  screwed  out  of  a  stingj' 
father ! 

And  that  same  person  argues  that  an  easy-going  and  generous 
father  is  a  disadvantage  to  a  son  in  love — 

...  A  man  whom  I  know  not  in  the  least  in  what 
way  I  can  cheat  or  rob ;  nor  do  I  know  any  artful 
dodge  or  contrivance  which  I  can  bring  to  bear  upon 
him.  So  utterly  has  the  generosity  of  my  father 
trumped  "  all  my  tricks  and  dodges  and  juggleries. 

200 

Cicero  :  No  one  is  so  old  that  he  does  not  believe  he  can  live 
for  a  year.  But  these  same  men  spend  all  their  labour  on 
things  which  they  know  have  no  application  to  them — 

He  sows  the  seed  of  trees  that  they  may  be  a  profit 
to  another  age, 

as  our  Statius  says  in  Comrades  in  Youth.  Nor  too  does 
the  husbandman,  even  though  he  be  an  old  man,  hesitate 
to  answer  the  person  who  inquires  for  whose  sake  he  is 
sowing.  .  .  . 

201^ 

Cicero  :  It  seems  to  me  that  I  must  invite  all  mankind  to 
judge  which  of  these  opinions  is  the  true  one  .  .  .  and  so  I 
should  like  to  exclaim,  as  we  read  in  Comrades  in  Youth — 

Oh !  I  shout,  wail  and  bewail,  I  beg,  treat  and 
entreat  for  the  help  of  the  gods  and  all  my  countr}Tnen, 
all  our  youths ; 

"  '  taken  the  edge  oflF.' 

*°*  omnium  omnium  Manutius        omnium  cdd.  pier. 

539 


CAECILIUS 

non  levissima  de  re,  ut  queritur  ille — 

...  in  civitate  fiunt  facinora  capitalia, 
nam  ab  amico  amante  argentum  accipere  meretrix 
noenu  volt. 

205 

Nonius,  200,  16  :    '  Collus  '  masculino.  .  .  .  Caecilius.  .  .  . 
Synephebis — 

(A)    Ad    restim    res    redit.     (B)    Immo   collus,   non 
res,  nam  ille  argentum  habet. 


SYRACUSII 

20G 

Nonius,  176,  29 :  '  Similitas,'  similitudo.  Caecilius 
Syracusiis — 

Vide  Demea,  hominis  quid  fert  morum  similitas  ? 

207 
Nonius,  96, 27  :  '  Dulcitas,' '  dulcitudo  '  pro  dulcedo.  ...  — 
tanta  hinc  invasit  in  cor  Davi  dulcitas. 

208 
Nonius,  391,  28  :   '  Stare  '  iterum  horrere  significat.  ...  — 
Hie  amet,  familiae  fame  pereant,  ager  autem  stet 
sentibus. 

'"'^  fieri  Cic.        fieri  in  civitate  Orelli 

'"*  nam  suppl.  Ribb.  noenu  volt  Bergk  (nunc  nevolt 
olim,  nevolt  Wolf)  non  vult  cdd.  (nuult  Leid.  63)  abs 
amico  amante  meretrix  accipere  argentum  nevolt  coni,  olim 
Mayor 

**"  fert  edd.         feret  cdd. 

*"'  tanta  Flor.  3  Harl.  1  tantam  rell.  tantan  Mercier 
hinc  Victor  liuic  cdd.        in  cor  Davi  Mercier        i.  c. 


PLAYS 

on    a    matter   of   very    weighty   import,    according    to    his 
complaint — 

Capital  crimes  are  being  committed  in  this  State ; 
for  there's  a  whore  who  doesn't  want  to  take  money 
from  a  love-sick  sweetheart. 

205 

Noniua :  '  C!oIlus '  in  the  masculine.  .  .  .  Caecilius  ,  .  . 
in  Comrades  in  Youth — 

(A)  This  business  comes  to  the  gallows.  (B)  A 
neck  rather,  not  the  business.  For  he  has  got  the 
money. 

THE  SYRACUSANS" 

206 

Xooias  :  '  Similitas,'  the  same  as  similitude.  Caecilius  in 
The  Syjocusans — 

Look,  Demea,  what's  the  import  of  the  similarity 
in  this  fellow's  conduct  ? 

207 
Nonius  :   '  Dulcitas  '  and  '  dulcitudo  '  for  '  dulcedo.'  ...  — 

So    much    sweetness    has    entered    Davus'    heart 

because  of  this. 

208 
Nonius  :   '  Stare  '  again  means  to  bristle  ...  — 
Let  him  love,  let  his  households  perish  with  hunger 

and  his  fields  stand  thick  with  thornbushes. 

"  Alexis  wrote  a  play  called  IvpaKoaios. 

dandi  Buecheler        in  corollam  Ribb.        in  corda  in  cdd. 
forta-sse  tanta  invasit  huic  in  corda  indulcitas  in  cor 

damni  dulcitas  Bothe 

**•*  fame  familiae  Mr.        alii  alia 

541 


GAECILIUS 

TIITHE 

209-10 

Nonius,  258,  37  :  '  Contendere  '  significat  conpararc.  .  .  . 
Caecilius  Titthe — 

Egon  vitam  meam 
Atticam  contendam  cum  istac  rusticana  Syra  ? 

211 
Nonius,  196,  5  :  '  Compita  '  .  .  .  masculine  ...  — 
adiacentem  compitum 

212-13 

Nonius,  183,  '2'3:  •  Utrasque'  pro  utrimquc  vel  utro- 
bique.  ...  — 

.  .  .  atque  hercle  utrasque  te  cum  ad  nos  venis 
subfarcinatam  vidi. 

214-15 
Nonius,  118,  9  :   '  Gravidavit,'  implevit  .  .  . — 

Per  mysteria 
hie   inhoneste  .  .  .  gravidavit  probro. 

216 
Nonius,  483,  1  :   '  Lacte  '  nominativo  casu  ...  — 
Praesertim  quae  non  peperit  lacte  non  habet. 

2^"  atticam  cdd.  asticam  Bergli  rusticana  tua  Syra 
Bergk,  Quich.  rustica  dura  (vel  vana)  Spengel  rustica 
Syra  C.  F.  W.  Mr. 

*^^  ubi  adicientem  cdd.  seclud.  ubi  Ribb.  (natum  ex 
initio  praeced.  ex  Varr.  citationis  videtur)  adiacentem  quid, 
ap.  Steph.         ubi  adi  ad  adiacentem  Spengel 

212-13  te   Mercier  et   cdd.  subfarcinatam   Mercier 

subfraginatam  cdd. 

542 


PLAYS 

THE  W^T-NURSE  « 

209-10 

Nonius :    '  CJontendere  '  means  to  compare.  .  .  .  Caecilius 
in  The  Wd-Nurse— 

What,  am  I  to  compare  my  Attic  ^  life  with  that 
countrified  Syrian  life  of  yours  ? 

211 
Nonius  :   '  Compita  '  ...  in  the  masculine  ...  — 
The  roadsmeet  that  lay  near. 

212-13 
Nonius  :  '  Utrasque '  for  '  utrimque '  or  '  utrobique '  .  .  .  — 
and  by  God  when  you  came  to  our  house  I  could 
see  you  were  stuffed  out  both  times. 

214-15 
Nonius  :  '  Gravidavit,'  has  filled  ...  — ■ 
During  the  Mysteries  this  man  dishonourably  got 
her  heavy  by  lewdness. 

216 
Nonius  :   '  Lacte,'  a  form  in  the  nominative  case  ...  — 
She  especially  who  has  not  given  birth  does  not 
have  milk. 

"  Several  Greek  writers  wrote  a  play  on  this  theme. 
^  Perhaps,  however,  we  should  read  asticam  and  take  SjTa 
as  the  name  of  a  slave,  in  the  vocative  case. 


*i*  inhoneste  <inceste>  ilr.         inhoneste    <honestam> 
Bothe 

543 


CAECILIUS 

217 

Nonius,  270,  5  :  '  Concedere,'  recedere  vel  cedere.  .  .  . 
Caecilius  Titthe — 

.  .  .  Hie  dum  abit,  hue  eoncessero. 

TRIUMPHUS 

218 

Gellius,  VI,  7,  9  :  '  Adprobus  '  tamen,  quod  significat  valde 
probus  non  infitias  eo  quin  prima  syllaba  acui  debeat.  Cae- 
cilius in  comoedia  quae  inscribitur  Triumphus  vocabulo  isto 
utitnr — 

Hierocles  hospes  est  mi  adulescens  adprobus. 

219-20 
Festus,  442,  25  :    '  Succenturiare  '  est  explendae  centuriae 
gratia  supplere,  subicere.  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  Triumpho — - 

Nunc  meae  militiae  Astutia 
opus  est.     Subcenturia ! 
Cp.  Paul,  ex.  F.,  443,  8. 

VENATOR  ? 

221-2 
Nonius,  483,  18:    '  Quaesti '  vel  '  quaestuis  '  dictum  pro 
quaestus.  .  .  .  CaecUius  Venatorc — 

(A)  Satine  huic  ordini 
etsi  nihil  ego  egi,  quaesti  ?     (B)  Quaesti  ?     (A)  Quia 
sunt  aemuli. 

219-20  malitiae  Paul.  militiae  Fest.  astutiam  0.  Mr. 
astutiae  Kiessling  subcenturia  Fest.  succenturia 

Paul.  subcenturiare  0.  Mr.  subcenturiari  Bergk 

subcenturiata  Buecheler         est  succenturiata  opus  Bothe 

Non.  483,  18  Venatore  cdd.         Feneratore  Spengel 

^^^  huic  Bothe         hue  cdd. 

^^^  ego  egi  Ribb.  (egisti  olim)  egi  cdd.  (ego  Escorial. 
1,  Par.  7667)  quaesti  quaesti  Par.  7666  Lugd.  Bamb. 
quaesti  rell.  sunt  aemulae  Aid.         sunemuli  cdd. 

544 


PLAYS 

217 

Nonius  :  '  Concedere,'  the  same  as  '  recedere  '  or  '  cedere.' 
.  .  .  Caecilius  in  The  Wet  Nurse — 

WTiile  he  withdraws,  I'll  step  aside  just  here, 

THE  TRIUMPH 

218 

Gellins  :  In  the  word  '  adprobus,'  however,  which  means 
very  '  probus,'  I  do  not  deny  that  it  ought  to  be  accented  on 
the  first  syllable.  Caecilius  uses  this  word  in  the  comedy 
which  is  called  The  Triumph — 

My  guest  Hierocles  is  a  most  honourable  young 
man. 

219-20 

Festus  :  '  Succenturiare  '  means  to  supply  or  submit  for 
the  purpose  of  filling  up  a  '  century.'  .  .  .  CaecUius  in  The 
Triumph — 

Now  mv  warfare  has  need  of  Dame  Cunning. 
Enlist  her"!  <» 

THE  HUNTER"? 

221-2 

Nonius :  '  Quaesti '  or  '  qnaestuis,'  genitive ;  used  for 
'  quaestus.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  The  Hunter — 

(A)  Although  I  have  done  nothing,  has  this 
society  made  enough  profit  ?  (B)  Profit  ?  (A) 
The  fact  is,  they're  niggards. 

"  I  retain  the  readings  of  the  ilS.  of  Festus,  but  possibly 
malilia  of  the  MSS.  of  Paulus  should  be  accepted. 

*  The  >ISS.  of  Nonius  point  definitely  to  a  play  called 
Venator,  but  it  is  usual  to  correct  them  to  Faeneratore  (se« 
pp.  510-5).  The  first  fragment  given  here  supports  such  a 
correction. 

545 

VOL.  I.  N  N 


CAECILIUS 

223 

Nonius,  42, 19 :  '  Vemiliter '  pro  adulatorie,  a  vernis  quibus 
haec  Vivendi  ars  est.     Caecilius  Venatore — 

Credo,  nimis  tandem  hoc  fit  vemiliter. 


EX  INCERTIS   FABULIS 

224-35 

Cicero,  pro  Caelio,  16,  37  :  Redeo  nunc  ad  te,  Caeli,  vicissim, 
ac  mihi  auctoritatem  patriam  severitatemque  suscipio.  Sed 
dubito  quern  patrem  potissimum  sumam.  Caeciliumne 
aliquem  vehementem  atque  durum  ? — 

Nunc  enim  demum  mi  animus  ardet,  nunc  meum  cor 

cumulatur  ira ; 
aut  ilium — 

O  infelix,  o  sceleste ! 
Ferrei  sunt  isti  patres  ! — 
Egone   quid  dicam  ?     Egon   quid   velim  r     Quae   tu 

omnia 
tuis  foedis  factis  facis  ut  nequiquam  velim. 
Vix  ferenda  diceret  talis  pater ! — 
Cur  in  vicinitatem  istam  meretriciam 
te  contulisti  ?     Cur  illecebris  cognitis 
non  efFugisti  ?  .  .  .  230 

.  .  .  cur  alienam  ullam  mulierem 

nosti dide  ac  disiice 

per  me  licebit  .  .  . 

Non.  42  Venatore  (-i)  cdd.         Feneratore  Spengel 

223  hoc  <hercle>  Ribb.        hocce  vel  tamen  istuc  fit  Bothe 

tandem  hoc  fiet  (vel  fuit)  Spengel         tamen  hoce  olim  Ribb. 
22«  egone  quid  velim  cdd.        am.  quid  velim  Brux.        sedtid. 

egone  Spengel  quae  cdd.        qui  Spengel        fortasse  nae 

546 


PLAYS 

223 
Nonius :      '  Veniilit€r '     for    flatteringly ;      derived    from 
'  vemaer'  to  whom  flattery  is  a  trick  of  their  trade.     Caecilius 
n  The  Hunter — 

My  belief  is  there's  too  much  slavishness  about 
this  business  by  now. 

FRAGMENTS  NOT  ASSIGNED  TO  ANY  PLAY 

224-35 
Cicero  :  I  come  back  to  you,  Caelius;  now  it  is  your  turn. 
And  I  take  upon  myself  a  father's  authority  and  severity. 
I  am  in  doubt,  however,  as  to  what  kind  of  father  I  ought  to 
choose  as  the  best  example.  Shall  it  be  some  father  "  in 
Caecilius,  hot-tempered  and  stem  ? — 

For  now  at  length  my  soul  burns  and  my  heart  is  a 
mountain  of  anger ; 
ar  this  famous  example — 

You  unhappy  boy !     You  rascal ! 
Made  of  iron,  those  fathers  ! — 

What  avi  I  to  say,  you  ask  }  What  are  my  wishes .'' 
Why,  things  which  you,  by  your  dirty  doings,  make 
me  wish  for  in  vain  now. 

Such  a  father  as  this  would  say  things  hardly  to  be  borne — 
\\Tiy  did  you    betake  yourself  to  that  whorish 

neighbourhood?     Why  didn't  you  run  right  away 

when  you    learnt  of  the  allurements  there .''... 

Why  did  you  get   to  know  any  strange  woman.'' 

.  .  .  Scatter   and   squander  your  money  for  all  I 
<•  Cp.  Quintil.,  XI,  1,  39. 


''*"•  c.  i.  V.  i.  m.  I  t.  c.  Spengel        cur  t.  in  i.  v.  m.  con- 
mlisti  odd.  (civitatem  Brux.)        istam  i.  v.  t.  m.  cur  c.  Ribb. 
''*'*  effugisti  Spengel        refugisti  cdd. 
^'*  cognosti  Spengel 

547 

N  N  2 


CAECILIUS 

...  si  egebis,  tibi  dolebit,  mihi  sat  est 
qui  aetatis  quod  reliquom  est  oblectem  meae.      235 
Cp.  Cic,  de  Fin.,  II,  4,  14. 

236-7 
Cicero,  de  Amicit.,   26,   99  :     Quid  turpius  quam  inludi  ? 
Quod  ut  ne  accidat  magis  cavendum  est — 

Ut  me  hodie  ante  omnes  comicos  stultos  senes 
versaris  atque  inluseris  lautissime. 

Cp.  Cic,  de  SenecL,  12,  36  (quos  ait  Caecilius  comicos  stultos 
senes.  .  .  .). 

238-42 
Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp.,  IV,  32,  68  :   Totus  .  .  .  iste  qui  volgo 
appellatur  amor  .  .  .  tantae  levitatis   est  ut  nihil   videam 
quod  putem  conferendum.     Quern  Caecilius — 

deum  qui  non  summum  putet 
aut  stultum  aut  rerum  esse  inperitum  existumem. 
Cui  in  manu  sit,  quern  esse  dementem  velit, 
quern  sapere,  quern  insanire,  quern  in  morbum  inici 


quern  contra  amari,  quern  expeti,  quern  arcessier. 

Cp.  Eur.,  Auge,  269  N. 

243-4 

Isidorus,   Orig.,   XIX,   4,   5 :     '  Scaphon '  funis   in    prora 
positus ;   de  quo  Caecilius — 

Venerio  cursu  veni,  prolate  pede 
usque  ad  scaphonem. 

''*  si  egebes  seclud.  Spengel 

*'*  quod  mi  est  reliquom  coni.  Ribb. 

^'*  ut  cdd.        tu  Halm 

*"  illuseris  Augustin.  elusseris  Halm  ut  lusserii 

Buecheler  emunxeris  Bentley  iusseris  vel  ut  iusserii 

cdd.  (Iusseris  P  unxeris  Pal.  1) 

238   <ego  vero  Araorem>  deum  coni.  Bentley 


PLAYS 

care  I  ...  If  you  fall  into  want,  iVs  your  funeral; 

/'ve  got  enough  to  keep  me  content  for  the  rest  of 

mv  life. 

236-7 

Cicero  :  What  is  more  humiliating  than  to  be  made  sport 
of?  We  must  be  all  the  more  careful  to  see  that  this  does 
not  happen — 

So  that  to-day  you  have  most  gorgeously  muddled 
me  and  poked  fun  at  me  more  than  all  the  stupid 
old  fools  to  be  found  in  comedies. 

238-42 
Cicero  :    AH  of  him  who  is  commonly  called  love  ...  is 
of  such  paltriness  that  I  see  nothing  which  could,  in  my  belief, 
be  compared  with  him.     Caecilius  speaks  of  him  thus — 

The  man  who  does  not  believe  that  Love  is  the 
greatest  of  gods,  I  should  think  he's  either  a  fool 
or  else  untried  in  worldly  affairs.  It  is  in  his  power 
to  make  mad  whom  he  will,  to  make  him  wise  or 
crazed,  or  cast  him  straight  into  disease  .  .  .  and 
on  the  other  hand  to  make  him,  whom  he  will,  loved, 
sought  out  and  in  demand. 

243-4 
Isidorus  :   '  Scaphon,'  a  rope  fixed  on  a  ship's  prow.     Cae- 
cilius on  this  writes — 

I  came  running  on  Love's  course,  with  mv  sail- 
sheet  hauled  right  to  the  forestay. 


"*  rerum  cdd.  venerum  coni.  Meineke  existumet 

Gud.  Pith.  Reg.  existumem  reU.  existumo  Bentley 

existimat  vulg. 

**•  cui  cdd.        cuii  Ribb.        cuius  Emesti 

-*'  insanire  cdd.  (sanari  cdd.  Ox.  Jan  rectel)  sanire 
Usener  post  241  lac.  un.  vers.  stat.  Bentley 

***  arcessier  Bern.  arcessiri  rell.  (accersiri  aut  accessiri 
Pith.)  **•  fortasse  corsa  Venerio 

549 


CAECILIUS 

245 
Charisius,  ap.  O.L.,  I,  122,  11  :    '  Amantum  '  Caecilius  .  .  . 

quantum  amantum  in  Attica  est. 

246 
Nonius,  101,  23  :  '  Deintegrare,'  deminuere.  .  .  .  Caecilius — 
nomen  virginis,  nisi  mirum  est,  deintegravit. 

247 

Nonius,  197,  28  :  '  Quia  '  et  generi  feminino  attribui  posse 
veterum  auctoritas  voluit.  .  .  .  Caecilius — 

Quaeso  igitur,  quisquis  es  mea  mulier  .  .  . 

248 

Nonius,  119,  14:  '  Gramiae,'  pituitae  oculonim.  Cae- 
cilius— 

grammonsis  oculis  ipsa  atratis  dentibus. 

249 
Paulus,  ex  F.,  559,  13  (21):  Truo  avis  onocrotalus.    Cae- 
cilius irridens  magnitudinem  nasi — 

Pro  di  inmortales  !     Unde  prorepsit  truo  ? 

250 
Gellius,  V,  6,  12  :   '  Civica  corona  '  .  .  .  fuit  ex  iUice,  . 
sicut  scriptum  est  in  quadam  comoedia  Caecilii — 

Advehitur    cum    iligna    corona    et    chlamyde.     Di 
vostram  fidem ! 

2*^  Attica  Ribb.         natica  cd.        riatica  ed.  princ. 

Non.  119  gramae  Buecheler 

"**  gramiosis  Mercier  graminosis  Spengel  dentibus 
Flor.  1         gentibus  cdd. 

*^''  advehitur  Bo  the  advehuntur  vd  adeuntur  cdd. 
advehunt  |  eum  C.  F.  W.  Mr.  iligna  Fleckeisen  ilignea 
cdd. 


PLAYS 

245 
Charisius  :    '  Amantum,'  genitive  plural,  is  the  form  used 
by  Caecilius  ...  — 

As  many  lovers  as  there  are  in  Attica. 

246 
Nonius :    '  Deintegrare,'  to  diminish.  .  .  .  Caecilius — 
I  should  not  wonder  if  he  has  impaired  the  girl's 
fair  name. 

247 
Nonius :    '  Quis.'    The  authority  of  the  old  writers  sanc- 
tions the  attribution  of  this  form  to  the  feminine  gender  as 
well  as  to  the  masculine.  .  .  .  Caecilius — 

I  pray  you  then,  whoever  you  are,  my  dear 
woman  .  .  . 

248 
Nonius :    '  Gramiae,'  phlegm  in  the  eyes.    Caecilius  "  has 
'  grammonsus ' — 

herself  has  phlegmy  eyes  and  blackened  teeth. 

249 

Paulus :  '  Truo,'  a  bird — the  oVox-poraAo?.  Caecilius,* 
making  fun  of  a  big  nose — 

By  the  gods  in  heaven,  from  where  has  the  pelican 
crept  uj)on  us  ? 

250 

Gellius  :  The  civic  crown  .  .  .  was  at  one  time  made  of 
the  leaves  of  the  holm,  .  .  .  as  we  find  in  a  certain  comedy  * 
of  Caecilius — 

He  is  dri\ing  up  all  decked  with  crown  of  holm 
and  cloak  of  state.     Heaven  help  us  ! 

<•  Possibly  in  The  Little  Necklace  (pp.  516  ff.);  the  old  man 
describing  his  wife  Crobyle. 

*  Cf.  preceding  note  and  Menander  quoted  on  pp.  51 8-9. 
'  The  Triiim^  ?  (pp.  544-7). 

55' 


CAECILIUS 

251-3 

Cicero,  de  Oral.,  II,  64, 257  :  Saepe  etiara  versus  facete  inter- 
ponitur  vel  ut  est  vel  paululum  mutatus,  aut  aliqua  pars 
versus,  ut  Statii  a  Scauro  stomachante — 

St !     Tacete !     Quid     hoc     clamoris  ?     Quibus     nee 

mater  nee  pater 
tanta  eonfidentia  estis  ?     Istam  enim  superbiam 
auferte ! 

254 
Cicero,  ad  Fam.,  II,  9  :   Repente  ...  — 
Incessi  omnibus  laetitiis  laetus. 

Cp.  Cic,  de  Fin.,  II,  4,  13  (.  ,  .  ille  Caecilianus  .  .  .). 

255 

Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp.,  Ill,  23,  56 :  Hie  Socrates  commemo- 
ratur,  hie  Diogenes,  hie  Caecilianum  illud — 

Saepe  est  etiam  sub  palliolo  sordido  sapientia. 

Apuleius,  Apolog.,  5  :  Statium  Caecilium  in  suis  poematibus 
scripsisse  dicunt  innocentiam  eloquentiam  esse. 

256 

Isidorus,  Orig.,  X,  40  :  '  Confidens,'  quod  sit  in  cunctia 
fiducia  plenus ;   unde  et  Caecilius — 

Si  eonfidentiam  adhibes,  confide  omnia. 

257 
Symmachus,  Epist.,  IX,  114  :   Recte  Caecilius  comicus — 
Homo  homini  deus  est  si  suum  offieium  sciat. 

*^i  sed  vel  si  cdd.  mater  nee  pater  vel  p.  n.  m.  cdd. 

n.  p.  n.  m.  est  Leo 

*'*  estis  cdd.  seclud.  Schiitz  istam  e.  s.  |  a.  W 

a.  i.  e.  s.  vel  sim.  cdd.  estis  ?  aufertin  superbiam  ?  Leo 

auferte  nunc  i.  s.  ed.  Bom. 

552 


PLAYS 

251-3 

Cicero  :  Often  too  a  line  is  wittily  inserted,  either  as  it 
stands  or  slightly  altered  :  or  else  some  part  of  a  line  like  the 
example  from  Statins  quoted  by  Scaurus  in  a  rage  ...  — 

Sh  !  Quiet,  all  I  What's  all  this  shouting  r  Are 
you  so  bumptious — you  that  can't  boast  of  mother  or 
father  ?     Why,  away  ^^"ith  such  haughtiness  ! 

254 
Cicero  :  Suddenly — 

I  came  strutting  along  as  merry  as  merry  could  be." 

255 

Cicero  :  Now  Socrates  is  quoted,  now  Diogenes,  now  that 
famous  saying  of  Caecilius — 

There's  often  wisdom  even  underneath 
A  shabby  little  cloak. 

Apuleius :  They  say  Statins  Caecilius  wrote  in  his  poems 
that  innocence  and  outspokenness  are  the  same. 

256 

Isidonis :  '  Confidens.'  When  a  man  is  so  called  it  is  on 
the  ground  that  he  is  full  of '  fiducia  '  in  everything.  Whence, 
for  example,  Caecilius — 

If  you  bring  Confidence  with  you,  confide  every- 
thing to  her. 

257 

Symmachus  :   Rightly  does  Caecilius,  a  writer  of  comedies, 
say- 
Man  to  man  is  a  god  if  he  knows  his  job. 

•  I  take  it  that  Cicero  quotes  Caecilius'  own  words. 

»**  o.  1.  1.  incedo  Ribb. 
*^'  homo  inquit  Symm. 

553 


CAECILIUS 

258 
lulius  Rufinianus,  ap.  Q.L.,  19,  43  :  ' \iTo<j>iLvqiLa,  sententia 
reaponsiva,  ut  apud  Caecilium — 

Fac  velis :  perficies. 

259 

Varro,  L.L.,  VII,  103 :  Multa  ab  animalium  vocibus 
tralata  in  homines.  .  .  .  Caecilius — 

tantam  rem  dibalare  ut  pro  nilo  habuerit. 

260 
Festus,  340,  12  :    '  Quisquiliae  '  dici  putantur  quidquid  ex 
arboribus  minutis  surculorum  foliorumque  cadit  velut  '  quid- 
quidcadiae.'     Caecilius — 

(A)  Quisquilias  volantis  venti  spolia  memorant. 

(B)  I  modo ! 
261 
Cicero,  ad  Alt.,  VII,  3, 10  :   Venioad  Piraeea.  .  .  .  Nostrum 
si  est  peccatum,  in  eo  est  quod  non  ut  de  oppido  locutus  sum 
sed  ut  de  loco,  secutusque  sum  non  dico  Caecilium — 

Mane  ut  ex  portu  in  Piraeum  .  .  . 

— mains  enim  auctor  Latinitatis  est — sed  Terentium. 

262-4 
Charisius,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  201,  10  :    'In  mundo  '  pro  palam  et 
in    expedito,    ac    cito.     Plautus  .  .  .  Caecilius   quoque,    ut 
Annaeus  Comutus  ...  — 

profertoque  nobis  in  mundo  futurum 

lectum. 

item  idem — 

namque  malum  in  mundost,  ere. 

**•  tantam  S        tantum  cdd.  ^*''  memoras  S 

***  profertoque  Ribb.        profecto  qui  cd. 

***  namque  cd.  namque  <mihi>  Ribb.  nam  cui  coni. 
Buecheler  num  qui  Lindemann  nam  quia  coni.  KeiJ 
in  mundost  ere  Buecheler  in  mundo  is  ire  cd,  i.  m. 

esse  sciret  coni.  Keil 

554 


PLAYS 

258 
Julius  Rufinianus  :    'AncxfxLvrifjia,  an  aphorism  that  contains 
a  reply ;  for  example,  in  a  play  of  CaeciHus — 

Make  yourself  want  to  :   you'll  make  good." 

259 
Varro  :  There  are  many  sounds  proper  to  animals  which  have 
been  used  figuratively  of  men.  .  .  .  Caecilius — 

to  bleat  abroad  so  great  a  secret,  that  he  surely 
held  it  as  nothing. 

260 

Festus  :  '  Quisquiliae  '  is  believed  to  be  a  term  *  applied  to 
any  little  twigs  and  leaves  which  fall  from  very  small  trees, 
'  quidquidcadiae,'  '  whateverfalls,'  as  it  were.     Caecilius — 

(A)  Floating  what-d'ye-call  'ems,  mere  spoils  of 
the  wind^ — that's  what  all  their  talk  means.  (B) 
Get  along  now  I 

261 

Cicero  :  I  come  '  ad  Piraeea.'  ...  If  I  am  at  fault,  it 
lies  in  the  fact  that  I  spoke  of  Piraeus  as  though  I  were 
speaking  not  of  a  town  but  of  a  region,  and  I  followed  good 
authority,  I  do  not  say  Caecilius — 

in  the  morning  as  from  the  port  into  Piraeus  .  .  . 

— for  he  is  a  bad  authority  on  Latinity — but  Terence. 

262-4 
Charisius  :   '  In  mundo  '  for  openly  and  without  hindrance ; 
also     quickly.     Plautus  .  .  .  Caecilius    also,     according    to 
Annaeus  Comutus  ...  — 

and  bring  you  out  a  bed  that  is  to  be  in  readiness 
for  us. 
The  same  writer  likewise — 

for  there's  hell  all  ready,  master. 

"  Cp.  our  '  Where  there's  a  will,  there's  a  way.' 
*  The  word  is  probably  derived  from  quisque. 

555 


CAECILIUS 

265 

Diomedes,  ap.  Q.L.,  I,  345,  4  :  '  Hiare  '  et '  hietare  '  veteres 
dixerunt.  .  .  .  Caecilius — 

(A)  Sequere  me.     (B)  Peril  hercle  !     (A)  Tu  quid  mi 
oscitans  hietansque  restas  ? 

266 

Servius  auctus,  ad  Verg.,  Georg.,  I,  74 :  '  Quassante,'  quae 
aonet  cum  quassatur.     Caecilius — 

si  quassante  capite  tristes  incedunt. 

267 

Paulus,  ex  F.,  25,  5  :  '  Bardus,'  stultus,  a  tarditate  ingenii 
appellatur.     Caecilius — 

.  .  .  nimis  audacem  nimisque  bardum  barbarum 

Comment.  Cruqui  ad  Horat.  Art.  Poet.,  236-239  :  Pythias 
persona  comica  in  comoedia  CaecUii  quae  induoitur  per 
astutias  accipere  argentum  a  Simone  domino  suo  in  dotem 
filiae. 

Cp.  Pseudoacro  cul  loc. 

268 

Rufinus,  ap.  C.O.L.,  VI.,  556,  7  K  :  Non  nunquam  ab  his 
initium  fit  ut  apud  Caecilium — 

Di  boni !     Quid  hoc  ? 

269 

Fronto,  Epist.,  I,  p.  142,  Haines  :  Igitur  paene  me  opicura 
animantem  ad  Graecam  scripturam  perpulerunt  homines,  ut 
Caecilius  ait — 

incolumi  inscientia 

2*^  praei  hercle  Putschius  periercle  Par.  7494  pehercle 
Par.  7498  quid  Ribb.         qui  cdd.        mi  Spengel         enim 

(vel  nam)  Ribb.  raihi  cdd, 

***  sic  coni.  Ribb. 

Comment.  Criiq. :  Caecilii  Orelli         Lucilii  comment. 

556 


PLAYS 

265 

Diomedes  :  '  Hiare  '  and  '  hietare.'  Both  forms  were  used 
by  old  writers.  .  .  .  Caecilius — 

(A)  Follow  me.  (B)  O  Lord,  I'm  done  for  ! 
(A)  Here  you !  Bless  me,  why  stand  still  and  keep 
yawning  and  gaping  ? 

266 

Servius  (supplemented)  on  '  quassante  '  in  Virgil :  '  Quas- 
sante,'  which  makes  a  noise  when  '  quassatur.'     Caecilius — 

if  they  mournfully  march  on  with  wobbling  heads. 

267 

Paulus  :  '  Bardus,'  applied  to  a  man  who  is  silly,  is  derived 
from  the  slowness  (^paSur^j)  of  his  wits.     Caecilius — 

a  very  bold  and  block-headed  barbarian 

A  commentator  on  a  passage  in  Horace  :  Pythias  is  a  comic 
character  in  a  comedy  of  Caecilius ;  she  is  brought  on  to  the 
stage  as  a  person  who  gets,  by  a  crafty  trick,  some  money  « 
from  her  master  Simo  for  her  daughter's  dowry. 

268 

Rufinus :  Sometimes  it  is  a  b^inning  that  is  made  with 
'  clausula©  ' ;   for  example,  in  a  play  of  Caecilius — 

Good  heavens  I     What's  this  ? 

269 

Marcus  Aurelius  to  Fronto  :  And  so  I  (who  am,  as  one 
might  almost  say,  a  living  barbarian)  have  been  forced  to 
write  in  Greek  by  men — 

of  unimpaired  ignorance 

as  Caecilius  has  it. 

"  A  talent,  says  Psendo-Acro  on  this  same  passage;  he 
adds  that  she  was  a  whore. 

557 


CAECILIUS 

Macrobius,  S.,  Ill,  15,  9  :  Sed  quis  neget  indomitam  apud 
illos  et,  ut  ait  Caecilius,  vallatam  gulam  fuisse  ? 

270 

Cicero,  de  Oral.,  II,  10,  40  :  Hestemo  sermone,  ut  ait 
Caecilius — 

operis  unius  cuiusdam  remigem  aliquem  aut  baiulum, 

nobis  oratorem  descripseras,   inopem  quendam  humanitatis 
atque  inurbanum. 

271 
Donatus,  in  Ter.,  Eun.,  IV,  7,  45  :   '  Domi  '  et  '  foci  '  gene- 
tivi  sunt.     Caecilius — 

Decora  domi 

272 
Nonius,  229,  5  :   '  Tapete  '  generis  neutri.  .  .  .  Caecilius — 
glabrum  tapete 

273 
Diomedes,  ap.  G.L.,  I,  385,  22  :  Caecilius  praeterea — 
si  non  sarciri  quitur 

274 
Festus,  286,  25  :   '  Profesti  dies.'  .  .  .  Caecilius  in  f — 
.  .  .  <^dies  profe)>sti  tantundem 

SPURIA  ? 

275 
Festus,  684, 19 :  '  Taenias '  Graecam  vocem  sic  interpretatur 
Verrius  ut  dicat  omamentum  esse  laneum  capitis  honorati,  ut 
sit  apud  Caecilium  in  Androgyno  .  .  ,  et  alias — 

dum  taeniam  qui  volnus  vinciret  petit. 

2'"  operis  unius  cuiusdam  coniicio  u.  c.  o.  ut  ait  C.  r.  a. 
a.  b.  Cic. 

Non.  229  Turpilius  et  Caecilius  Non.  seclud.  et  Cae- 
cilius Mr. 

^"  sarcire  edd.  vett. 


PLAYS 

Macrobius  :  But  who  would  deny  that  among  those  men 
gluttony  was  unconquerable,  and,  as  Caecilius  writes, 
*  intrenched  '  ? 

270 

Cicero  :  In  the  way  you  talked  yesterday  you  had  described 
to  us  an  orator  who  was  in  the  words  of  Caecilius — 

some  galley-slave  or  porter  doing  one  mechanical 
task, 

someone   who   was   unendowed   with   human   kindness   and 
unmannerly. 

271 
Donatus  :   '  Domi '  and  '  foci '  are  genitives.     Caecilius — 
fineries  of  the  house 

272 
Nonius  :  '  Tapete,'  of  the  neuter  gender.  .  .  .  Caecilius — 
a  smooth  carpet 

273 
Diomedes  :  Caecilius  further  writes  '  quitur  ' — 
if  it  carmot  be  patched 

274 
Festus  :   '  Profesti  dies.'  .  .  .  Caecilius — 
non-festive  days  just  as  much 

SPURIOUS   FRAGMENTS  ? 

275 
Festus :    '  Taeniae,'  a  Greek  word,  is  explained  by  Verrius 
to  mean  a  wooUen  adornment  of  the  head  of  a  person  of  rank, 
as  is  the  case  in  a  passage  of  Caecilius  in  The  Man-  Woman 
.  .  .  and  in  another  passage —  " 

while  he  begged  for  a  headband  to  tie  up  the 
wound. 

•  This  might  imply  '  in  another  author,'  and  the  quotation 
suggests  a  tragedy;  it  might,  however,  come  from  a  comedy 
Vich  as  Naevius'  Aconlizomenos. 

559 


CAECILIUS 

276 

Seneca,  Epist.,  CXIII,  26  :  Hacc  disputamus  adtractis 
superciliis,  fronte  rugosa  ?  Non  possum  hoc  loco  dicere 
illud  Caecilianum — 

o  tristes  ineptias ! 

Bidiculae  sunt. 

277-8 

Nonius,  80,  32  :   '  Bellosum,'  bellicosum.     Caecilius — 

Tantum  bellum  suscitare  conari  adversaries 
contra  bellosum  genus ! 

279 

Servius,  ad  Aen.,  II,  777  :  '  Sine  numine  divum,'  sine  fati 
necessitate.     Ut  enim  Statins  dicit — 

Fata  sunt  quae  divi  fantur. 

vel  quae  indubitanter  eveniunt. 

280 

Gloss.  Terent.  ap.  Barth.  Advers.,  38,  14  :  Aliquid  monstri 
plus  est  quam  aliquid  monstrum  .  .  .  ut  Caecilius — 

Quid  hominis  uxorem  habes  ? 

Senecn,  Ep.  CXIII  cicilianum  vel  celanum  vel  caeciliani  vel 
celiani  odd.  (caelianum  Bamb.  ?) 

Non.  80  cecilius  G.  Harl.  2  Lugd.  3  caelius  rcll.  irib. 
Cad.  Antipat.  edd. 

"*  divi  Bothe 

^^°  uxoremne  Ribb, 


S6o 


PLAYS 

276 

Seneca :  Is  this  the  sort  of  things  we  discuss  with  knitted 
brows  and  wrinkled  forehead  ?  I  cannot  at  this  point  bring 
myself  to  quote  that  famous  passage  in  Caecihus  " — 

Oh  I  what  dismal  fooleries ! 

Ridiculous — ^that's  what  they  are. 

277-8 

Nonius  :    '  Bellosum,'  bellicose.     Caecilius  * — 

The  idea  that  they  should  try  to  stir  up  so  big  a 
war,  as  foes  against  a  breed  so  warrish ! 

279 

Servius,  on  '  without  the  will  of  the  gods '  in  Virgil :  With- 
out the  necessity  caused  by  fate.     As  Statius  '  says — 

Dooms  are  what  the  gods  doom. 

or  they  are  events  which  infallibly  come  to  pass. 

280 

A  gloss  quoted  by  Barth  ** :  '  Aliquid  monstri '  is  something 
more  than  '  aliquid  monatnim  '  ...  as  Caecilius  has — 

What  sort  of  a  human  being  have  yAu  for  a  wife  ? 

"  Probably.     But  the  MSS.  do  not  make  it  certain. 

*  Here  again  the  MSS.  leave  us  in  doubt,  and  the  quotation, 
in  spite  of  its  septenarian  metre,  suggests  the  prose  of  Caelius 
Antipater  the  annalist. 

'  Possibl}'  Papinius  Statius  or  some  other  grammarian. 

''  who  is  not  to  be  trusted. 


S6i 

GO 


WORDS  FROM  ENNIUS  AND  CAECILIUS 
NOT  INCLUDED  IN  THE  TEXT  OR 
THE  NOTES  OF  THIS  VOLUME 

Ennius 

Annah,  Book  XVI :  '  hebes,'  ace.  '  hebem  '  instead  of 
'  hebetem  '  (blunt).     Charisius,  0.  L.,  I,  132,  6. 

Annals,  Incerta  :  '  Anio,'  ace.  '  Anionem  '  instead  of 
'  Anienem  '  (River  Anio).     Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  VII,  683. 

'  haec  abnueram  '  ( ?)  (I  had  refused  this.)  Schol. 
Veron.,  ad  Aen.,  X,  8. 

Tragedies'!,  '  Telamon  '  .•  '  abnuebunt  '  (they  will  deny). 
Diomedes,  G.  L.,  I,  382,  11. 

Holy  History  :  '  gluma  '  (husk).     Varro,  R.  R.,  I,  48,  1. 

Not  assigned  to  any  work 

'  consiluere  '  (they  fell  silent).     Paul.,  ex  F.,  41,  5. 

'  Cretenses  '.  for  '  Cretes  '  (Cretans).  Charis.,  G.  L., 
I,  124,  12. 

'  ambaetus  '  (vassal ;  a  Celtic  word).  Fest.,  4,  2  ; 
Gloss.  Lat.  Grace,  C.  G.  L,,  II,  16,  3. 

'  <philo>logam  '  (learned).     Fest.,  310,  27. 

'  sancti  '  (hallowed)  applied  to  poets.  Cic,  pro  Arch., 
8,  18. 

'  longij'  epithet  of  epic  verses.     Cic,  de  Leg.,  II,  27,  68. 

'  daedala  '  (skilful),  epithet  of  Minerva.  Paul.,  ex  F., 
48,  7.  '  domina,  hera  '  (Lady,  mistress),  applied  to 
Minerva.     Achilles  Tat.,  ad  Cat.,  I,  9. 

562 


WORDS  NOT  INCLUDED  IN   THE  TEXT 

'  Vesper '  (evening  star).  Censoriaus,  de  die  nat., 
24,  4. 

'  sospes  '  in  the  sense  of  saviour.  Fast.,  430,  15;  Paul., 
431,  3. 

'  erebrisuro  '  (stockade).  Paul.,  ex  F.,  41,  23  ('  a 
rampart  fortified  by  "  crebri  suri,"  crowded  stocks  '). 

'  aplustre  '  (stern-streamer  of  a  ship).  Gloss.  Lat. 
Graec,  C.  G.  L.,  II,  48,  33. 

'  corpulentus  '  (corpulent).     Paul.,  ex  F.,  44,  2. 

'  bona  '  (goodly)  for  magna.  Porphyrio,  ad  Hor.,  S., 
I,  1,  61. 

'  repostos  '  (stored — Virg.,  Aen.,  VI,  655)  and '  porgite  ' 
(hold  ye  out — Aen.,  VIII,  274),  examples  of  syncope. 
Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  I,  26. 

'  \-iden  '  (do  you  see  ?).     Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  VI,  779  (780). 

'  solui  '  instead  of  '  solitus  sum  '  (I  was  wont).  Varro, 
L.  L.,  IX,  107. 

'  insexit  '  (from  '  inseco,'  go  on  to  t«ll)  for  '  dixerit.' 
Paul.,  ex  F.,  79,  29. 

'  remorbescat  '  (should  relapse  into  sickness). 
Fest.,  382,  22 ;    Paul.,  383,  9. 

'  redinunt  '  (they  return).  Fest.,  400,  12;  Paul., 
401,  1. 

'  inter  ponendum  '  (in  the  midst  of  placing).  Serv. 
auct.,  ad  Verg.,  Ed.  IX,  23. 

'  insomnia  '  (sleeplessness).     Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  IV,  9. 

'  torrus  '  (firebrand).     Serv.,  ad  Aen.,  XII,  298. 

'  festra  '  (small  window  in  a  shrine).  Macrob.,  S.,  Ill, 
12,8. 

'  tapetae  '  (nom.  pi.  masc;  carpets).     Fest.,  528,  5. 

'  cicur  '  (mild,  tame),  used  of  men.  Hieronym.,  Apol. 
adv.  Rufin.,  II,  11. 

'  locum  '  (nom.  sing,  neuter;  place).  Fr.  Bob.,  G.  L., 
VII,  542,  9. 

563 
o  o  2 


WORDS   NOT  INCLUDED  IN  THE  TEXT 

*  vita  vitalis  '  (life  worth  living).  Cic,  de  Amic,  6. 
22. 

'  bombus  pedum  '  (rumble  of  feet).  Augustin.,  de 
Dialect.,  9. 

'  pede  (?)  ruit  '  (rushes  on  foot).     Fest.,  312,  II. 

'  fidus  '  for  '  foedus '  (treaty).  Varro,  L.  L.,  V,  86 
(from  Ennius  the  grammarian,  not  the  poet?). 

'  acanthus  '  (thorn-tree).  Sciiol.  Bern.,  ad  Verg.,  G.,  II, 
119,  on  the  authority  of  M.  Antonius  Gnipho  in  a  commentary 
on  '  the  tenth  book  of  the  Annals.'' 

'  erumna  '  (for  '  aerumna  ';  hardship).  Charis.,  G.  L., 
I,  98,  12. 

Amials?  ServiuB,  on  Aen.,  XI,  608  ff.  says  that  this 
passage  is  based  on  Ennius. 

Caecilius 

'  Hy mills '  ;  '  nudius  tertius  '  (three  days  ago). 
Charis.,  (r'.  L.,  I,  207,  20.  ' 

'  Pamimachm  '  ;  '  velitatio  '  (petty  quarrelling). 
Nonius,  3,  3. 

'  Plocium  '  ; '  catellae  '  (small  chains).     Nonius,  199,  7. 

'  Progamos '  ;  '  audibo  '   for  '  audiam.'     Nonius,  505,  36. 

Incerla  :  '  facilioreis  *  and  '  sanctioreis  '  for  facilioris, 
sanctioris.      Charis.,  G.  L.,  I,  130,  4. 

'  gnoscit  '  for  '  noscit '  (come  to  know).  Diomedes, 
G.  L.,  383,  18. 

'  Leontium  '  as  a  woman's  name.  Charis.,  G.  L.,  I, 
104,  2. 


564 


CONCORDANCES 


I  GIVE  here  two  concordances  of  Ennius  and  two  of 
Caecilius.  In  the  case  of  both  authors,  Concordance 
I  is  designed  to  help  those  who,  using  a  copy  of  a 
standard  Latin  text,  wish  to  find  information  about 
any  fragment  in  this  volume  ;  while  Concordance  II 
is  designed  to  help  those  who,  using  this  volume, 
■«ish  to  refer  to  a  standard  Latin  text  about  any  frag- 
ment. In  these  concordances,  V^  indicates  the 
numeration  of  lines  in  ^'ahlen's  third  edition  of 
Ennius :  Ribb.2-3  the  second  and  third  editions  of 
Ribbeck's  Comicorum  Romanorum  Fragmenia  (Caecilius 
Statius)  ;  W  the  numeration  in  this  volume  ;  n.  means 
that  the  fragment  is,  in  this  volume,  only  referred  to 
in  a  note ;  and  catal.  means  that  the  fragment  will 
be  found  in  the  catalogue  or  list  of  single  words  which 
precedes  these  concordances. 


ENNIUS 

Concordance  J 

\^ 

W 

YZ 

W 

A  nnalejt 

Annah 

9 

Ex  inc.  scr.  6 

1 

1 

10-12 

Ann.  7-10 

2 

Spur.  ?  43 

13-14 

11-12 

3-4 

Ann.  2-3 

15 

13 

5 

4 

16 

14 

6 

5             1 

17 

15 

7 

vide  p.  430     \ 

18-19 

18-19 

8 

Ann.  6        I 

20 

22-23 

565 


ENNIUS 

V3 

W 

V3 

21 

20 

107-108 

22 

21 

109 

23 

24 

110-114 

24 

25 

115-116 

25 

26 

117 

26-27 

27-28 

118 

28 

29 

119 

29 

59 

120-121 

30-31 

16-17 

122-124 

32 

78 

125 

33 

31 

126 

34 

30 

127 

35-51 

32-48 

128 

52-53 

49-50 

129 

54 

51 

130 

55 

52 

131 

56-57 

53-54 

132 

58 

56 

133 

59 

55 

134 

60 

57 

135 

61 

58 

136 

62-63 

60-61 

137 

64 

62 

138-139 

65-66 

63-64 

140 

67 

67-69 

141 

68 

71 

142 

69 

65 

143 

70-72 

72-74 

144-145 

73-74 

75-76 

146 

75 

77 

147-148 

76 

104 

149 

77-96 

88-100 

150 

97 

101 

151 

98 

105 

152 

99-100 

102-103 

153-154 

101 

107 

155 

102 

79 

156 

103 

Sjnir.  ?  40 

157 

104 

Ann.  Ill 

158 

105 

109 

159 

106 

110 

160 

566 


CONCORDANCE  I 


V3 

161 
162 
163 

164-165 

166 

167 

168 

169 

170 

171 

172 

173 

174 
175-176 

177 

178 
179-181 

182 
183-185 

186 
187-191 
192-193 
194-201 
202-203 

204 
205-206 

207 
208-210 

211 

212 
213-217 
218-219 

220 

221 

222 

223 

224 

225 

226 
227-229 
230-231 


w 

164 

165 

166 
251-252 

167 

170 

506 
Spur.  ?  2 
Ann.  474 

169 

168 

171 

173 
207-208 

178 

172 
174-176 

179 
526-528 

180 

181-185 

Spur.  ?  21-22 

Ann.  186-193 

194-195 

196 
198-199 

197 
200-202 

205 

206 
231-235 
229-230 

236 

237 

271 

238 

204 

248 

177 
297-299 
245-246 


V3 


w 


232-233 

256-257 

234-251 

210-227 

252 

247 

253 

250 

254-255 

242-243 

256 

244 

257 

254 

258 

253 

259 

228 

260 

255 

261 

241 

262-263 

239-240 

264 

70 

265 

316 

266-267 

258-259 

268-273 

262-268 

274-275 

272-273 

276 

Spur.  ?  5 

277 

Ann.  283 

278 

274 

279 

275 

280-281 

276-277 

282 

279  . 

283 

278 

284 

281 

285 

280 

286 

282 

287-289 

284-286 

290 

269 

291 

293 

292-293 

294 

294 

295 

295 

287 

296 

289 

297 

288 

298 

290 

299 

291 

300 

307 

301 

296 

302 

646 

303-308 

300-305 

567 


ENNIUS 

V3 

W 

V3 

w 

309 

540 

367-369 

363-365 

310 

306 

370-372 

360-362 

311 

Spur.  ?  4 

373 

209 

312-313 

Ann.  313-314 

374-375 

388-389 

314 

315 

376 

vide  p.  434 

315 

308 

377 

Ez  inc.  ecr.  10 

316 

312 

378 

Ann.  369 

317-318 

320-321 

379 

551 

319-320 

318-319 

380 

370 

321-322 

310-311 

381-383 

366-368 

323 

317 

384r-385 

372-373 

324 

309 

386 

374 

325 

270 

387-388 

375-376 

326-327 

322-323 

389 

377 

328 

324 

390 

n.  p.  141 

329 

325 

391-392 

Ann.  378-379 

330 

catal. 

393 

380 

331 

Ann.  326 

394-395 

381-382 

332-333 

337-338 

396 

383 

334 

331 

397 

384 

335-337 

327-329 

398-399 

385-386 

338 

330 

400 

491 

339 

332 

401-408 

409-416 

340-342 

339-341 

409 

387 

343-345 

333-335 

410 

390 

346-347 

336 

411-412 

393-394 

348 

345 

413 

392 

349-350 

343-344 

414 

423 

351 

342 

415 

417 

362 

352 

416-417 

425-426 

353 

Spur.  ?  23 

418 

424 

354 

n.  p.  7 

419 

371 

355 

Ann.  346 

420 

398 

356-357 

347-348 

421 

397 

358-359 

349-350 

422 

422 

360^361 

354-355 

423 

396 

362 

353 

424 

395 

363 

366 

425 

391 

364 

357 

426 

catal. 

365 

351 

427 

Ann.  405 

366 

359 

428 

408 

568 


CONCORDANCE  I 


V3 

429 

430 

431 

432 

433 
434-435 
436-437 

438 

439 

440 

441 

442 
443-445 
446-447 
448-449 
450-452 

453 

454 

455 

456 
457-458 

459 

460 
461-462 

463 

464 
465-466 
467-468 

469 
470-471 
472-473 

474 
475-476 

477 

478 

479 

480 

481 

482 

483 
484-485 


w 

407 

406 

399 

418 

400 
401-402 
403-4^04 

203 

429 

427 

428 

433 
430^32 
434-435 
514-515 
436-438 

439 

440 

555 

Spur.  ?  8 

Ann.  450-451 

487 

455 
419-420 

462 

463 
471-472 
458-459 

480 
Ex  inc.  scr.  3-4 
J/irt.  501-502 

513 

calal. 

Ann.  148 

442 

447 

441 

446 

537 

538 
443-444 


■\p 


w 


486 

445 

487 

531 

488 

542 

489 

564 

490 

565 

491 

292 

492 

533 

493 

485 

494 

486 

495 

524 

496 

543 

497-498 

534-535 

499 

539 

500 

467 

501-502 

468^69 

503 

358 

504 

249 

505 

490 

506 

492 

507 

493 

508 

483 

509 

Ex  inc.  acr.  22 

510 

Ann.  498 

511 

552 

512 

460 

513 

550 

514-518 

517-5?1 

519-520 

499-500 

521-522 

260-261 

523 

— 

524 

544 

525 

484 

526 

Plays  395-396 

527 

Ann.  454 

528 

Ex  inc.  scr.  7 

529 

Spur.  ?  30 

530 

Ann.  488 

531 

421 

532 

479 

533 

Spur.  ?  38 

534 

Ann.  530 

569 


ENNIUS 

V3 

W 

V8 

w 

536 

554 

587 

509 

536 

553 

588 

Ex  inc.  scr.  19 

537 

529 

589 

Ann.  497 

538-539 

481-482 

590 

catal. 

540 

457 

591-592 

Ann.  522 

541 

Spur.  ?  11 

593 

656 

542-543 

Ann.  452-453 

594 

561 

544 

494 

595 

662 

545 

657 

596 

636 

546 

470 

597 

623 

547-548 

Ex  inc.  scr.  8-9 

598 

Ex  inc.  scr.  26 

549 

Ann.  478 

599 

Ann.  473 

550 

489 

600 

560 

551-552 

504-505 

601 

496 

553 

516 

602 

catal. 

554 

510 

603 

calal. 

555 

456 

604 

catal. 

556 

563 

605 

catal. 

557 

559 

606 

vide  pp.  442-3 

558 

558 

607 

Ann.  512 

559 

476 

608 

503 

560 

549 

609 

Spur.  ?  13 

561^562 

547-548 

610 

Spur.  ?  44 

563-564 

Ex  inc.  scr.  12- 

611-612 

Ex  inc.  scr.  20 

13 

613 

Ann.  153 

565 

Ann.  477 

614-615 

— 

566 

532 

616 

S'pur.  ?  28 

567 

545 

617 

Spur.  ?  25 

668 

Spur.  ?  37 

618 

Spur.  ?  19 

569 

Ann.  541 

619 

Spur.  ?  18 

570 

495 

620 

Spur.  ?  12 

571 

511 

621 

Spur.  ?  24 

572 

507-508 

622 

— 

573 

Spur.  ?  27 

623 

Spur.  ?  3 

574-577 

Spur.  ?  33-36 

624 

Spur.  ?  39 

578 

Ann.  461 

625 

Spur.  ?  26 

579 

Ex  inc.  scr.  21 

626 

Spur.  ?  31 

580 

Ann.  449 

627 

— 

581 

448 

628 

Ex  inc.  scr.  15 

582-583 

Ex  inc.  scr.  18 

584-586 

Ann.  464-466 

570 


CONCORDANCE   I 


Scenica 

1-3 

4 


10-11 

12 
13-14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 
22-26 
27-33 

34 
35-^6 
47-48 

49 

50 

61 

52 

53 
54-68 
69-71 
72-75 
7fr-77 

78 

79 
80-81 

82 

83-84 

85-91 

92-99 

100-101 

102 

103 

104 


w 

Plays 

1-3 

4-5 

13 

6 
10-12 
16-17 

7-9 
14-15 

18 

19 

20 

22 

21 

23 

24 
26-29 
30-36 

37 
38-^9 
50-51 

53 

52 

54 

55 

56 
57-72 
73-75 
76-79 
80-81 

82 

85 
83-84 

93 

88-89 

94-100 

101-108 

91-92 

90 

110 
86-«7 


V3 

w 

105 

109 

106 

112 

107-110 

113-116 

111 

111 

112-113 

117-118 

114 

121 

115 

120 

116 

122 

117 

119 

118-119 

123-124 

120 

126 

121 

127 

122 

125 

123-127 

128-132 

128 

133 

129 

136 

130 

139 

131-132 

134-135 

133 

137 

134 

138 

135-136 

140-141 

137-138 

142-143 

139 

144 

140 

145-146 

141-144 

150-153 

145-146 

147-148 

147 

149 

148 

154 

149 

155 

150 

156 

151-155 

157-161 

156 

162 

157 

163 

158-159 

164-165 

160 

166 

161-172 

169-181 

173 

167 

174 

168 

175 

182 

176 

183 

177 

187-188 

571 


ENNIUS 

V3 

W 

V3 

178 

192 

257-258 

179 

191 

259-261 

180 

193 

262-263 

181 

196 

264-265 

182-183 

194-195 

266-272 

184 

189 

273 

185 

197 

274-275 

186 

198 

276-277 

187 

199 

278 

188-189 

200-201 

279 

190-192 

184-186 

280 

193 

190 

281 

194 

(ante  202) 

282-283 

195 

202 

284-286 

196 

203 

287-288 

197-198 

204-205 

289-290 

199-201 

206-208 

291 

202 

209 

292 

203-204 

210-211 

293 

205 

212 

294 

206 

213 

295 

207 

214 

296 

208 

215 

297 

209 

219 

298 

210 

216 

299 

211-212 

217-218 

300-303 

213-214 

220-221 

304-305 

215-218 

222-225 

306 

219-221 

226-228 

307 

222-223 

229-230 

308 

224 

231 

309 

225-227 

232-234 

310 

228-229 

235-236 

311 

230-231 

237-238 

312-314 

232 

239 

315 

233 

240 

316-317 

234-241 

241-248 

318 

242-244 

249-251 

319-323 

245 

252 

324 

246-254 

253-261 

325-326 

255-256 

262-263 

327 

572 


CONCORDANCE  I 


V3 

328 

329 

330 

331 

332 

333 
334-335 

336 
337-338 

339 

340 

341 
342-343 

344 

345 
346-347 

348 
349-351 

352 

353 
354-356 
357-358 

369 

360 

361 
362-365 

366 

367 

368 

369 
370-371 

372 

373 

374 

375 

376 

377 

378 

379 

380 

381 


w 

338 
catal. 

339 

340 

343 

342 
347-348 

344 
345-346 

341 

349 

354 
371-372 

373 

351 

350 

355 
358-360 

361 

362 

363-365 

356-357 

vide  p.  352 

Plays  352 

353 
366-370 

376 

374 
377-378 

375 
379-380 

381 

382 

383 

384 

400 
(post  ^00) 

404 

401 

386 

387 


V3 

382 

383 
384-385 
386-387 
388-389 
390-391 
392-393 

394 

395 

396 

397 
398-400 

401 

402 

403 
404-405 

406 

407 

408 

409 

410 

411 
412-413 

414 

415 

416 
417-418 

419 

420 

421 

422 

423 

424 

425 

426 

427 

428 

429 

430 


w 

398 

397 

423 

418 
424-425 
392-393 
408-409 

331 

407 

394 

415 
412-414 

388 

410 

389 
402-403 
390-391 

411 

417 

416 

419 

421 
405-406 

385 

426 

420 

399 

431 

433 

429 

432 

428 

430 

434 

436 

435 

437 

427 

422 


573 


ENNIUS 


V3 

Saturae 
1 

2 

3-4 

5 

6-7 

8-9 
10-11 
12-13 
14-19 

20 
21-58 
59-62 

63 

64 

65 

66 
67-68 

69 

70 
Varia,  Scipio 

1-2 

3 

4-5 

6-8 

9-12 

13 

14 

Varia,  Epi- 

grammata 

15-16 

17-18 

19-20 

21-22 

23-24 

Varia,  Sota 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 


w 

Satires 

1 

2 

3-4 

5 

6-7 

8-9 

10-11 

12-13 

14-19 

post  31 

vide  pp.  388-9 

Sat.  28-31 

22 

21 

20 

24 

25-26 

23 

27 

Scipio 

10-11 

7 

8-9 

12-14 

1^ 

5 

6 

Epigrams 
7-8 
9-10 
5-6 
1-2 
3-^ 
Solas 

2 

1 

3 

4 

5 


V3 

Vatia, 

Protrepticiis 

30 

31-33 

Varia, 

Hedyphagetica 

34-44 

Varia, 

Epicharmiis 

45 

46 

47 

48-50 

•  51 

52-53 

54-58 

59 
Varia, 
Euhemerus 
60-61 
62-63 
64-82 
83-86 
87-97 

98 
99-106 
107-108 
109-112 
113-115 
116-131 
132-141 
142-145 

146 
Incerta 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


Ex  inc.  scr.  1 
catal. 

Ex  inc.  scr.  2 
Ex  inc.  scr.  33 
Ex  inc.  scr.  o 
Ex  inc.  scr.  23 
Ex  inc.  scr.  14 


574 


ENNIUS 


yz 


W 


V3 


w 


8 

Ex  inc.  scr.  31 

33 

n.  p.  331 

9 

Ex  inc.  scr.  16 

34 

catal. 

10 

Ex  inc.  scr.  17 

35 

catal. 

11 

Ex  inc.  scr.  25 

36 

catal. 

12 

Ex  inc.  scr.  28 

37 

catal. 

13 

Ex  inc.  scr.  29 

38 

caicU. 

14 

Ex  inc.  scr.  36 

39 

Ex  inc.  scr.  35 

15 

Ex  inc.  scr.  27 

40 

Ex  inc.  scr.  30 

16 

Ex  inc.  scr.  24 

41 

catal. 

17 

catal. 

42 

catal. 

18 

Ex  inc.  scr.  32 

43 

post  ex  inc.  scr. 

19 

catal. 

32 

20 

catal. 

44 

post  ex  inc.  scr. 

21 

Ex  inc.  scr.  34 

11 

22 

catal. 

45 

— 

23 

catal. 

46 

catal. 

24 

vide  p.  434 

47 

Spur.  ?  32 

25 

catal. 

48 

catal. 

26 

catal. 

49 

catal. 

27 

ctUal. 

50 

ratal. 

28 

caiai. 

51 

catal. 

29 

catal. 

52 

Spur,  i  42 

30 

— 

53 

Ex  inc.  set.  11 

31 

catal. 

32 

post  ear  inc.  scr. 
17             i 

EN> 
Concorc 

flUS 
atice  II 

W 

V3 

W 

V3 

Annals 

Annalts 

11-12 

13-14 

1 

1 

13 

15 

2-3 

3-i 

14 

16 

4 

5 

15 

17 

5 

6 

16-17 

30-31 

6 

8 

18-19 

18-19 

7-10 

10-12          ' 

20 

21 

575 


ENNIUS 

w 

V3 

W 

21 

22 

110 

22-23 

20 

111 

24 

23 

112-113 

25 

24 

114-115 

26 

25 

116 

27-28 

26^7 

117-121 

29 

28 

122 

30 

34 

123 

31 

33 

124 

32-48 

35-51 

125-126 

49-50 

52-53 

127-129 

51 

54 

130 

52 

55 

131 

53-54 

56-57 

132 

55 

59 

133 

66 

58 

134 

57 

60 

135 

58 

61 

136 

59 

29 

137 

60-61 

62-63 

138 

62 

64 

139 

63-64 

65-66 

140 

65 

69 

141-142 

06-67 

M67] 

143 

67-69 

67 

144 

70 

264 

145 

71 

68 

146-147 

72-74 

70-72 

148 

75-76 

73-74 

149 

77 

75 

150 

78 

32 

151-152 

79 

102 

153 

88-100 

77-96 

154 

101 

97 

156 

102-103 

99-100 

156 

104 

76 

157 

105 

98 

158 

106 

vide  v.,  p.  16 

159 

107 

Ann.  101 

160-161 

108 

109 

162 

109 

105 

163 

576 


CONCORDANCE   II 


W 


V» 


w 


V3 


164 

161 

248 

225 

165 

162 

249 

504 

166 

163 

250 

253 

167 

166 

251-252 

164-165 

168 

172 

253 

258 

169 

171 

254 

257 

170 

167 

255 

260 

171 

173 

256-257 

232-233 

172 

178 

258-259 

266-267 

173 

174 

260-261 

521-522 

174-176 

179-181 

262-268   i 

268-273 

177 

226 

269 

290 

178 

177 

270 

325 

179 

182 

271 

222 

180 

186 

272-273 

274-275 

181-185 

187-191 

274 

278 

186-193 

194-201 

275 

279 

194-195 

202-203 

276-277 

280-281 

196 

204 

278 

283 

197 

207 

279 

282 

198-199 

205-206 

280 

285 

200-202 

208-210 

281 

284 

203 

438 

282 

286 

204 

224 

283 

277 

205 

211 

284-286 

287-289 

206 

-212 

287 

295 

207-208 

175-176 

:     288 

297 

209 

373 

289 

296 

210-227 

234-251 

290 

298 

228 

259 

291 

299 

229-230 

218-219 

292 

491 

231-235 

213-217 

293 

291 

236 

220 

294 

292 

237 

221 

295 

294 

238 

223 

296 

301 

239-240 

262-263 

297-299 

227-229 

241 

261 

300-305 

303-308 

242-243 

254-255 

306 

310 

244 

256 

307 

300 

245-246 

230-231 

,1     308 

315 

247 

i     252 

1^     309 

324 

577 


ENNIUS 

w 

V3 

w 

310-311 

•  321-322 

375-376 

312 

316 

377 

313-314 

312-313 

378-379 

315 

314 

380 

316 

265 

381-382 

317 

323 

383 

318-319 

319-320 

384 

320-321 

317-318 

385-386 

322-323 

326-327 

387 

324 

328 

388-389 

325 

329 

390 

326 

331 

391 

327-329 

335-337 

392 

330-331 

338, 334 

393-394 

332 

339 

395 

333-335 

343-345 

396 

336 

346-347 

397 

337-338 

332-333 

398 

339-341 

340-342 

399 

342 

351 

400 

343-344 

349-350 

401-402 

345 

348 

403-404 

346 

355 

405 

347-348 

35&-357 

406 

349-350 

358-359 

407 

351 

365 

408* 

352 

352 

409^16 

353 

362 

417 

354-355 

360-361 

418 

356 

363 

419-420 

357 

364 

421 

358 

603 

422 

359 

366 

423 

360-362 

370-372 

424 

363-365 

367-369 

425-426 

366-368 

381-383 

427 

369 

378 

428 

370 

380 

429 

371 

419 

430-432 

372-373 

384r-385 

433 

374 

386 

434-435 

578 


CONCORDANCE  II 


W 

436-^38 

439 

440 

441 

442 
443-444 

445 

446 

447 

448 

449 
450-451 
452-453 

454 

455 

456 

457 
458^59 

460 

461 

462 

463 
464-466 

467 
468-469 

470 
471^72 

473 

474 

475 

476 

477 

478 

479 

480 
481^82 

483 

484 

485 

486 

487 


V3 

450-452 

453 

454 

480 

478 
484-485 

486 

481 

479 

581 

580 
457-458 
542-543 

527 

460 

555 

540 
467^68 

512 

578 

463 

464 
584-586 

500 
501-502 

546 
465-466 

599 

170 

160 

559 

565 

549 

532 

469 
538-539 

508 

525 

493 

494 

459 


W 

488 

489 

490 

491 

492 

493 

494 

495 

496 

497 

498 
499-500 
501-502 

503 
504-505 

506 
507-508 

509 

510 

511 

512 

513 
514-515 

516 
517-521 

522 

523 

524 

525 
526-528 

529 

530 

531 

532 

533 
534-535 

536 

537 

538 

539 

540 


V3 

530 

550 

505 

490 

506 

507 

544 

570 

601 

589 

510 
519-520 
472-473 

608 
551-552 

168 

572 

687 

554 

571 

607 

474 

448-449 

553 

514-518 

591-592 

597 

495 

127 

183-185 

537 

534 

487 

566 

492 

497-498 

596 

482 

483 

499 

309 


579 


P  P  li 


ENNIUS 

w 

V3 

w 

541 

569 

20 

542 

488 

21 

543 

496 

22 

544 

524 

23 

545 

567 

24 

546 

302 

25-29 

547-548 

561-562 

30-36 

549 

560 

37 

550 

513 

38^9 

551 

379 

50-51 

552 

511 

52 

553 

536 

53 

554 

535 

54 

555 

455 

55 

556 

593 

56 

557 

545 

57-72 

558 

558 

73-75 

559 

557 

76-79 

560 

600 

80-81 

561 

594 

82 

562 

595 

83-84 

563 

556 

85 

564 

489 

86-87 

565 

490 

88-89 

90 
91-92 

93 

94-100 

101-108 

109 

Plays 

Scenica 

110 

1-3 

1-3 

111 

4-5 

4 

112 

6 

6 

113-116 

7-9 

12 

117-118 

10-12 

7-9 

119 

13 

5 

120 

14-15 

13-14 

121 

16-17 

10-11 

122 

18 

15 

123-124 

19 

16 

125 

580 


CONCORDANCE  II 


w 

126 

V3 

120 

127 

121 

128-132 

123-127 

133 

128 

134-135 

131-132 

136 

129 

137 

133 

138 

134 

139 

130 

140-141 

135-136 

142-143 

137-138 

144 

139 

145-146 

140 

147-148 

145-146 

149 

147 

150-153 

141-144 

154 

148 

166 

149 

166 

150 

157-161 

151-155 

162 

156 

163 

157 

164-165 

158-159 

166 

160 

167 

173 

168 

174 

169-181 

161-172 

182 

175 

183 

176 

184-186 

190-192 

187-188 

177 

189 

184 

190 

193 

191 

179 

192 

178 

193 

180 

194-195 

182-183 

196 

181 

197 

185 

198 

186 

199 

187 

w 


V3 


200-201 

188-189 

202 

195 

203 

196 

204^205 

197-198 

206-208 

199-201 

209 

202 

210-211 

203-204 

212 

205 

213 

206 

214 

207 

215 

208 

216 

210 

217-218 

211-212 

219 

209 

220-221 

213-214 

222-225 

216-218 

226-228 

219-221 

229-230 

222-223 

231 

224 

232-234 

225-227 

235-236 

228-229 

237-238 

230-231 

239 

232 

240 

233 

241-248 

234-241 

249-251 

242-244 

252 

245 

253-261 

246-254 

262-263 

255-256 

264-265 

257-258 

266-268 

259-261 

269-270 

262-263 

271 

273 

272-273 

264-265 

274-280 

266-272 

281 

279 

282-283 

274-275 

284-285 

276-277 

286 

278 

287 

280 

288 

281 

581 


ENNIUS 

w 

Y^ 

w 

289-290 

282-283 

351 

291-293 

284-286 

352 

294-295 

287-288 

353 

296-297 

289-290 

354 

298 

291 

355 

299-300 

295 

356-360 

301 

292 

302 

294 

361 

303 

293 

362 

304 

296 

363-365 

305 

297 

366-370 

306 

298 

371-372 

307 

299 

373 

308-311 

300-303 

374 

312-313 

304-305 

375 

314 

308 

376 

315 

307 

377-378 

316 

306 

379-380 

317 

309 

381 

318 

310 

382 

319-322 

312-314 

383 

323 

311 

384 

324 

315 

385 

325-326 

325-326 

386 

327 

324 

387 

328-329 

316-317 

388 

330 

318 

389 

331 

394 

390-391 

332-336 

319-323 

392-393 

337 

327 

394 

338 

328 

395-396 

339 

330 

397 

340 

331 

398 

341 

339 

399 

342 

333 

400 

343 

332 

401 

344 

336 

402-403 

345-346 

337-338 

404 

347-348 

334-335 

405-406 

349 

340 

407 

350 

346-347 

408-409 

58= 


CONCORDANCE   II 


W 


V3 


w 


V3 


410 

402 

20 

65 

411 

407            1 

21 

64 

412-414 

39^^00       ! 

22 

63 

415 

397           ! 

23 

69 

416 

409 

24 

66 

417 

408 

25-26 

67-68 

418 

386-387 

27 

70 

419 

410 

28-31 

59-62 

420 

416 

Scipio 

Varia  ;  Scipio 

421 

411 

1^ 

9-12 

422 

430 

5 

13 

423 

384-385 

6 

14 

424-425 

388-389       1 

7 

3 

426 

415 

8-9 

4-5 

427 

429 

10-11 

1-2 

428 

423 

12-14 

6-8 

429 

421 

Epigrams 

Varia  ; 

430 

424 

Epigrammala 

431 

419 

1-2 

21-22 

432 

422 

3-4 

2^-24 

433 

420 

5-6 

19-20 

434 

425 

7-10 

15-18 

435 

427 

Sotag 

Varia  ;  Soia 

436 

426 

1 

26 

437 

428 

2 

25 

3 

27 

4 

28 

5 

29 

ExhortaHon 

Varia  ; 
Protrepticus 

1-3 

31-33 

Satires 

Saturae 

Ddikateaaen 

Varia  ; 

1 

1 

Hedyphagetica 

2 

2 

1           1-11 

34-44 

3-t 

3-4 

Efncharmus 

Varia  ; 

5 

5 

Epicharmus 

6-7 

6-7 

1 

45    • 

8-9 

8-9 

2 

46 

10-11 

10-11 

3 

47 

12-13 

12-13 

i            4-6 

48-50 

14-19 

14-19 

I              7 

51 

583 


ENNIUS 

w 

V3 

w 

V3 

8-9 

52-53 

26 

Ann.,  598 

10-14 

54-58 

27 

15 

Euhemetiis 

Varia  ; 

28 

12 

Euhemerus 

29 

13 

1-4 

60-61 

30 

1 

40 

5-7 

62-63 

31 

8 

8-38 

64-82 

32 

18 

39-^5 

83-86 

33 

4 

46-63 

87-97 

34 

21 

64-65 

98 

35 

39 

66-77 

99-106 

36 

14 

78-80 

107-108 

Spur.  ? 

81-87 

109-112 

1 

— 

88-92 

113-115 

2 

Ann.  169 

93-118 

116-131 

3 

Ann.,  623 

119-133 

132-141 

4 

Ann., 311 

134-138 

142-145 

5 

Ann.,  276 

Ex  incertis 

6-7 



scriptis 

8 

Ann.,  456 

1 

Incerta,  1 

9-10 



2 

Incerta,  3 

11 

Ann.,  541 

3-4 

Ann.,  470-471 

12 

Ann.,  620 

5 

Incerta,  5 

13 

Ann.,  609 

6 

Ann.,  9 

14 



7 

Ann.,  528 

15 



8-9 

Ann.,  547-548 

16-17 

— 

10 

Ann.,  377 

18 

Ann.,  619 

11 

Incerta,  53 

19 

Ann.,  618 

12-13 

Ann.,  563-564 

20 

vide  v.,  p.  33 

14 

Incerta,  7 

21-22 

Ann.,  192-193 

15 

Ann.,  628 

23 

Ann.,  353 

16 

Incerta,  9 

24 

Ann.,  621 

17 

Incerta,  10 

25 

Ann.,  617 

18 

Ann.,  582-583 

26 

Ann.,  625 

19 

Ann.,  588 

27 

Ann.,  573 

20 

Ann., 611-612 

28 

Ann.,  616 

'    21 

Ann.,  579 

29 



22 

Ann.,  509 

30 

Ann.,  529 

23 

Incerta,  6 

31 

Ann.,  626 

24 

Incerta,  16 

32 

Incerta,  47 

25 

Incerta,  11 

33-36 

Ann., 

574-577 

584 


CONCORDANCE   II 


w 

V3 

W 

V3 

37 

Ann.,  568 

41 

vide  v.,  p.  16 

38 

Ann.,  533 

42 

Incerta,  52 

39 

Ann.,  624 

43 

Ann.,  2 

40 

Ann.,  103 

44 

Ann.,Q\0 

CAECILIUS 

Concordance  I 

RiBB.  2-3 

W 

RiBB.  2-3 

w 

1 

2 

41 

37 

2 

5 

42-43 

40-41 

3 

1 

44-45 

38-39 

4 

3 

46 

42 

5 

4 

47-48 

43-44 

6 

6 

49 

48 

7 

7 

50 

47 

8 

8 

51-52 

45-46 

9-10 

9 

53 

49 

11-12 

12-13 

54—55 

50 

13 

11 

56 

51 

14 

10 

57-58 

52-53 

15 

16 

59-60 

54-55 

16 

14 

61 

56 

17 

15 

62-63  (64) 

57-58 

18-19 

17 

(64>-65 

59-60 

20-21 

18 

6ft-67 

62-*3 

22-24 

19-21 

6»-69 

68-70 

26 

22 

70 

64 

26 

23 

71 

61 

27 

24 

72 

65 

28-29 

25-26 

73 

66 

30-31 

27-28 

74 

67 

32 

29 

75 

76 

33 

30 

76 

73-74 

34-35 

31-32 

77 

75 

36 

33 

78 

78 

37-38  (39) 

34-35         , 

79-80 

81-82 

40 

36            1 

81 

85 

585 


CAECILIUS 

RiBB.  2-3 

W    •      1 

RiBB.  2-a 

82 

71 

139-140 

83(-84) 

86 

141 

85 

87 

1411 

86 

72 

142-157 

87 

84 

158-162 

88 

83 

163 

89 

77 

164-165 

90 

79 

166 

91 

80 

167 

92 

88 

168 

93 

89 

169-172 

94-95 

91-92 

173-175 

96(95)-97 

94-96 

176 

98 

97 

177 

99 

90 

178-179 

100 

93 

180 

101-102 

98 

181-182 

103 

99 

183 

104-105 

100-101 

184 

106-107 

102-103 

185 

108-109 

104-105 

186-187 

110 

106 

188 

111-112 

107 

189 

113 

108 

190 

114 

109 

191 

115 

110 

192 

116 

111 

193-194 

117 

112 

195 

118 

113 

196 

119-120 

114 

197-198 

121 

115-116 

199-209 

122-123 

120 

210 

124-125 

124-125 

211-214 

126-128 

121-123 

215 

129-130 

221-222 

216 

131 

223" 

217 

132-133 

117-118 

218-219 

134 

119 

220 

135 

126 

221-222 

136-137 

128-129 

223 

138 

127 

224-225 

586 


CONCORDANCE   I 


RiBB.  2-3 

226 

227 

228 

229 
230-242 
24^244 
245-246 

247 

248 

249 

250 

251 

252 

253 
254-255 
256-257 

258 
259-263 

264 

265  ed. 

266 

267 


w 

211 

217 

218 
219-220 
224-235 
236-237 
251-253 

256 
post  255 

259 

267 

260 

254 

245 

246 
243-244 

261 
238-242 

257 

279 

255 

247 


RiBB.  2-3 

268 

269 

270 
271-272 
273-274 

2741 

275 
276-278 

279 

280 

281 

282 

283 

284 

285 

286 

287 

288 

289  ed.« 
290-291 

291  1 
292-293  ed.' 


w 

248 
250 
249 

266 
265 

270 

275 
262-264 

273 

268 

276 

269 
post  269 

271 

272 
catal. 
catal. 
catal. 

280 

258 

274 
277-278 


w 


3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 


CAECILIUS 
Concordance  II 


RiBB.  2-3 

3 
1 
4 
5 
2 
6 
7 
8 
9-10 
14 
13 


W 

12-13 
14 

15 

16 

17 

18 
19-21 

22 

23 

24 
25-26 


RiBB.  2-3 
11-12 

16 

17 

15 
18-19 
20-21 
22-24 

25 

26 

27 
28-29 


587 


CAECILIUS 

w 

RiBB.  2-3 

w 

27-28 

30-31 

84 

29 

32 

85 

30 

33 

86 

31-32 

34-35 

87 

33 

36 

88 

34-35 

37-38  (39) 

89 

36 

40 

90 

37 

41 

91-92 

38-39 

44-45 

93 

40-41 

42-43 

94-96 

42 

46 

97 

43-44 

47-48 

98 

45^6 

51-52 

99 

47 

50 

100-101 

48 

49 

102-103 

49 

53 

104-105 

50 

54-55 

106 

51 

56 

107 

52-53 

57-58 

108 

54-55 

59-60 

109 

56 

61 

110 

57-58 

62-63  (64) 

111 

59-60 

(64)-65 

112 

61 

71 

113 

62-63 

66-67 

114 

64 

70 

115-116 

65 

72 

117-118 

66 

73 

119 

67 

74 

120 

68-70 

68-69 

121-123 

71 

82 

124-125 

72 

86 

126 

73-74 

76 

127 

75 

77 

128-129 

76 

75 

130-131 

77 

89 

132 

78 

78 

133 

79 

90 

134-135 

80 

91 

136-150 

81-82 

79-80 

151-155 

83 

88 

156 

588 


CONCORDANCE  II 


W  - 

157-158 
159-160 

161 

162 
163-166 
167-169 

170 

171 

172 

173 

174 

175 

176 
177-178 

179 

180 

181 

182 
183-184 

185 

186 
187-188 
189-199 

200 
201-204 

205 

206 

207 

208 
209-210 

211 
212-213 
214-215 

216 

217 

218 
219-220 


RlBB.  2^ 

164-165 

168 

167 

166 
169-172 
173-175 

176 

177 
178-179 

180 

183 

185 

184 
186-187 

188 

190 

191 

192 
193-194 

195 

196 
197-198 
199-209 

210 
211-214 

215 

216 

217 
218-219 
221-222 

226 
224r-225 

223 

220 

227 

228 

229 


w 


RiBB.  2-3 


221-222 

129-130 

223 

131 

224-235 

230-242 

236-237 

243-244 

238-242 

259-263 

243-244 

256-257 

245 

253 

246 

254-255 

247 

267 

248 

268 

249 

270 

250 

269 

251-253 

245-246 

254 

252 

255 

266 

256 

247 

257 

264 

258 

290-291 

259 

249 

260 

251 

261 

258 

262-264 

276-278 

265 

273-274 

266 

271-272 

267 

250 

268 

280 

269 

282 

270 

274  1 

271 

284 

272 

285 

273 

279 

274 

291  1 

275 

275 

276 

281 

277-278 

292-293  ed.» 

279 

26oed.« 

280 

289  ed.» 

589 


INDEX 


(The  numbers  refer  to  pages) 


ftbnueo  102,  563 

ibscondit  482 

A.bTdus  41)8-9 

acanthus  564 

icamae  408 

^cbaeans  227,  249 

A.cheru8ia,  Acheron  254-5,  310-1 

ichiUes    218  ff.,    253,    272-7,    283-7, 

29I>-1,  307,  309,  341-2 
ichivi  226,  282-3,  292-3 
»cri3  (nom.  masc.)  132 
Bkdgretua  440 
iditavere  380 
i.drastua  228-9,  328 
Adriatic  359 
A.eacus67,  lol,  338-9 
iegeus  323 
ieeisthus  357 

Aelius  (C.)  Teucrus  144,  146-7,  153-7 
Aelius  (Seitus)  I'aetus  I2i>-1 
Aelius  (T.)  PaHtusl47 
AeniUius  (L.)  Barbula  69 
A.emiliu3  (L.)  Paollus  95,  101  ff. 
&.eniilias  Lepidns  149 
Aemilius  Eegillus  139 
ieneas,  8  ff.,  28,  287,  428-9 
ienus  408-9 
A.eolu3  326-9 
A.esculapiu8  278-9 
Aesopus  280-1 
Aetolia(n8)  xx,  143,  358-9 
Africa  114-5,  386-7,  394-5,  409 
Agamemno(n)  218,  221,  274-5,  284-5, 

98  ff.,  3iX»  ff.,  344-5,  347,  437 
agea  200-1 
Aias  see  Ajas 
Ajax   221,   223,   226  fl.,   276-7,   287, 

337  ff. 
Alba,  Albani  9,  28,  45,  50-1,  44ft-7; 

Albai  LoDgai  31 


Alcmeo,  Alcmaeon  228  ff. 

AJeiander  (Paris)  234  ff.,  279 

aliquantisper  482 

Alphesiboea  232 

altivolantum  30 

amantom  550 

ambactiis  562 

Ambivius  Turpio  xxvii-viii 

Ambracia  n,  143-4,  358-9,  408-9 

Ambracia  (poem),  xx,  xxy,  358-61 

Amphjaraos  228-9 

Amuliua  19,  33 

Amyntor  330  ff. 

Anchises  8-11  (Anchisen  8) 

Ancus  Marchis  50-1,  54-5 

Andromacha,  Andromache  244  ff.,  291 

Andromeda  254  H 

aiiguivilloai(?)  376 

Anienem  562 

Annals  xxv,  2  ff.,  430  fl. 

ansatae  58,  62 

AntUochus  284-5 

Antiochus  III  127,  134-7,  209 

anuis  292 

Anxiir  61 

aplustre  563 

ApoUo    23,    67,    229,    232-5,    240-1, 

269-71,  342-3,  350-1 
Appius  see  Claudius 
apricuium  408 
araneae  442 
Arcadia  229,  231 
arcessier  548 
Archestratus  406-7 
Areopagitae  272 ;  Arcopagns  272 
Ares  272 
Aigeos  42 

Argives,  ArgiTi  275,  281,  312-3,  334-5 
Argo  312-3 
Argos  259,  307,  343 
argutaner  333 
Arimaspi  393 

591 


INDEX 


Aristarchus  218-9 

armentas  442 

Arsinoe  232-3 

Asia  137, 139,  193 

Assaracus  8,  9 

Astyanas  247-9 

Athamas  260-1 

Athena  226-7,  268  ;  see  Minerva 

Athens  204-5,  311,  323-5 

Atlas  21 

Atlas,  Mt.  444-5 

Atreus  346  ff. 

Attic,  Attica  542-3,  550 

aucupant  322 

audibia  362 ;  audibo  564 

augificat  252 

auguro  326 

Aulacia  418-9 

AureUus  Cotta  120-1 

Ausculum  75,  77 

auspicant  518 

Automedon  283 

Aventine  xviji-ix,  29-31 

axim  118 

Azov  401 


B 


Bacchus  260-1,  377 

balneae  504 

bardum  550 

bellicrepa  34 

bellipotentes  00 

bellosum  560 

Beneventum  77,  94 

bipatentibus  20 

blanditie  490 

bombus  564 

bovantes  174 

brabium  (?)  348-9 

Brachyllaa  129 

bradys  148 

Bromius  260 

Brages  282 

Bmgio,  Bragian  276-7,  283 

Brundlsium  xviii,  xxili,  202,  408-9 

Bnittace  202 

Brattian  203 

Burrus  64,  100-1,  454-5;  see  Pyrrhus 

buxum  86 

buxos  442 


Caecilius  Statius,  life  xxiii,  xxvii  fl. ; 
works  467  ff. 


Caecilius  (or  Caelius)  Teucras  see  Aelius 

Teucrus 
cael  (for  caelum)  460-1 
Caelus  12,  418-9,  422-4 
caementae  368 
Calchas  309,  339 
Callinicus  159,  161 
calvaria  408 
Camenas  462 
CamiUus  177 
Campani,  446-7 
Campi  Magni  398-9 
canes  (Jem.  sing.)  432 
Cannae  78,  10(1-5 
Canusium  105 
capessere  16 
Capua  107,  109 
Capys  8,  9 

carinantes,  carlnantibus  436-7 
Carthage  65,  78  £E.,  159;  New  0.  164 
casci  12 

Cassandra  234-5,  240  ff. 
Cassiepeia,  Cassiope  254 
cassita  388 
cata  182,  458 
Cato  see  Porcius 
Caupuncula  360-1 
celere  (adv.)  384;   cele  is  (nom.  sing. 

fern.)  480 
celerissimus  170,  194 
Cepheus  254 
Cerberus  377 

cere  comminuit  brum  450-1 
Ceres  324-5,  412-3,  418-9 
cette  322 
Charopus  121-3 
Cineas  73,  75 
Cisseis  29tJ-l 
Cisseus  234-5,  291 
claudeat  480 
Claudius  (Appius)  Caecua   72-3,   75; 

Caudex  86-7 
Claudius  (C.)  Pulcher  157 
Claudius  Marcellus  95 
Claudius  Nero  111 
cluebat358;   cluebunt2;   cluo  454 
Clupea  408-9 

Clytaemnestra  301,  306-7,  347 
Cnossus  429 
coclites  392 
coepiam  498 
cohus,  cohum  210 
Colchis  312-3,  320-1 
collua  486 
comedies  360-3,  378  ff.,  468  ff. 


592 


INDEX 


commemoramentam  526 

commiaereacite  288 

compitum  542 

concordis  (nom.  sin^.')  506 

conqae  fricati  (?)  34 

consipta  330;  conaiptum  331 

contra  172-3,  436-7 
J.    convestirier  272 

convivat  182 

Corcyxa  408-9 
,^  Corinth  311,  314-5 

ComeUus  (M.)  Cethegus  112-3;    see 
also  Scipio 
,    corpora'-et  256 

corpulentus  563 

Coriica  65,  87 
'    Cotta  12IJ-1 
i       Cotys  161 

cracentes  182 
j     crebrisuro  563 
,.      Creon  316-7,  319 
f       Cresphontes  262  ft.,  356 
„ii  Cretans,    Cretensium,    Crete    422-3, 
428-9 

criminat  386 

Cumae  408-9 

canctato  360 

conctent  284 

cupjenter  330 

Curetes  428-9 

Guriatii,  Curii  44  £f.,  197 

Curius,  M'.  78-9 

Cyclops  114-5 

Crnoecephalae  123-5 

Cyprus  402-3,  430-1,  508-9 


D 

Danai288 
dannnt  528 
Dardaniis  128 
Dardanus  129 
debU  114 
Decius  Mus  75 
decoUes  510 
degrumari  102  (163) 
deintegravit  550 
Deiphobus  238-9 
delicat  512 
Delphi  351 
de  me  hortatur  136 
■*  Demetrius  of  Pharoe  95 ;    D.  son  of 
Philip  127 


depopulat  472 
deque  totondit  196 
derepente  286 
destituit  534 
dialO,  18;  die  40 
dibalare  554 
Dido  98 
Diomedes  221 
do  (for  domom)  460-1 
dueUis  178 
dulcitaa  540 
duriter  334,  484 


edim  474 

edolavi  307,  436-7 

Egeria  43 ;  Egeriai  42 

eliminas  312 

elopem  408 

Empedocles  97,  348-9.  433 

endo  400,  460-1 ;  see  indu 

Ennius,  life  xvii  £E. ;  works  1  S. 

Ennius  (grammarian')  xivl 

enodari,  346 

Ephesos  134 

Epicharmus  410-1 

Epicharmus  (poem)  sxi,  6-7,  410  ff. 

epigrama  398-^03 

Epims,  351 

Epulo  148,  157 

eques  94-5,  160 

equitatus  194 

Erechtheus  204-7 

Eriboea  337 

Eriphyle  228-9 

erumna  564 

Ethiopia  252 

Etruria,  Etruscans  56-8 

euax  188 

Eohemerus  414 

Euhemerus  (poem)  ni,  13,  414  fl. 

eumpse  478 

Europa,  Europe  204-5 

Eurypylus  278-81 

evenat  294 

evitari  252 

exanclando  268;   ezanclari  248 

eierugit  208 

expassom  536 

expectorat  230 

expedibo  270 

explebant  202 

extetulisses  320 


593 


ENNIUS 


Q  Q 


INDEX 


Fabius  Maximus  Cunctator  95,  100-1, 

106  7,  132-3,  149 
Fabius  Maximus  Rullianus  95 
Fabricius  71 
face  {from  facio)  10 
facessite  270;   facessunt  18 
facilloreis  56-1 
falarica  184 
famul  116 

faxim  334 ;  faxit  402 
festra  563 
Festus  xi ;  passim 
fici  26 

ficus  Ruminalis  26-7 
fidus  (Jor  foedus)  564 
flere  6-7 

filiis  {for  flliabus)  258 
flaminea  44-5 
Flaminia,  via  93 
Flamininus  see  Quinctius 
Flaminius  93 
floces  532 
fortunatim  38 
Fregellae  63 
frandes  86 ;  frus  460-1 
frux  116,  150 
fuat  282 

FulTius,  (  naeus  89 
Fulvius  (M.)  Nobilior  xx,  xxi,  xxt,  95, 

143,  149,  358-9,  435 
Fulvius  (Q.)  Nobilior  xx-xxi,  435 
Furies  229,  243 
futtile  334 


G 


GaUia  120;  seeQaai 

gau  {for  gaudiurn)  460-1 

Gaul(8)  xivii,  63,  66,  90,  92-3,  111, 

121,  177 
gerrae  534 
Gibraltar  205 
Glabrio  137 
Glauca  420-1 
glaucum  408 
gluma  562 
gnoscit  564 
Gnossus  428 
Gracchus,  Tiberius  158 
gracilentum  90 
Graecia  120,  336 ;  see  Greece 
Graecus  128,  276,  414-5 


Graium  54 ;  Graius  68,  128 

grammonsis  550 

gravidavit  542 

Greece  121  fl.,  158,  193,  337 

Greeks  126,  128,  247,  277,  415  etc. 

guttatim  296 


halitantes  284 

Hamilcar  Rhodanus  100 

Hannibal  xxv,  66,  85, 90,  95  ff.,  134-7, 

145,  209,  396-7 
Hasdrubal  105 
hebem  500,  562 
Hector    244-5,    248-9,    250-1,    253, 

272  ff.,  276,  280-1,  283-7 
Hecuba  234-7,  242-3,  247,  290  ff. 
Hedyphagetica  406-11 
hehae  368 
heia  196 
Helen  304-5 
Helenus  221 
Helicon  3,  7 
Hellen  327 

Hellespont  136-7,  141 
Heraclea  71 
Herem,  Here  36-7 
HersUia  37,  39 
Hesione  337 
Hesperia  12 
hietans  556 
Hippodamea  352-3 
Histrians   144—5,  164-5;    see  letrian 

War 
Homer  2  ff. 
homonem  50 
Hora  38-9 

Horatii,  Horatius  44  ff.,  197 
Horatius  Cocles  18 
horitatur  122 
horitur  156 

hortatur  (de  me  h.)  136 
hostibitis  286-7 
Hostilius,  Tullus  45-6,  49,  51 
hostlmentum  264 
Hyginus  xiv-xv 
Hyperion  210-1 


iactarier  248 
ignotus  260-1 
Ilia  14  S. 
lUyrians  91,  111 


594 


INDEX 


I    ;!nmemori8  {nom.  sing.)  -178 
I    incursim  484 
'  indalbabat  7&-7 
indotuetur  26 
'  indu  80, 160 
induperantam  152 
induperator  30,  118,  122,  17S 
indaTolaus  158 
ineptjtado  488 
_  inferctis  388 
tjnibi  532 
inlex  488 
inriderier  492 

insece,  inseque  118:  inaeiit  563 
Insubriau  ssvii 
iteramna  Lirenas  65 

(nom.)  480 
ihigenia  298-9,  305,  310-1 
ipsei  284 
iracunditer  498 
Istrian  War  144^59 
Itali,  Italy  2,  13,  69,  119,  422-3,  449 
itiner  346 
Iup(p)iter  see  Jupiter 


Jason  311,  313,  321-3 
■  Juno  22-3,  109,420-1 

Jupiter,  Iup(p)iter  20-5,  35,  77,  92, 
168,  288-9,  298-9,  324-5,  338-9, 
348-9,  352-3,  408-9,  414  ff.,  448-9, 
45i>-l,  454-5,  469,  480-1 


aiensibus  86 ;  see  Carthage 
Kv/11)  40^9 


;3«8 

aon(ia)  242-3 
'  498 

I  (rum.)  128,  (ace.)  542 
I  460-1 ;  lamis  442 
pi  143 
1450 
i.  Lotina  12  ff.,  57,  188-9 

176 
■ier206 

atis,  Laurentum  14,  15 
Iverent  248 

atan,  Leucate  118-9 


Liber  376-7 

Libya  204-5 

Licinins(P.)  Crassus  159,  161 

Ucitantur  26 ;  licitari  492 

Liguria  144 

limassis  514 

Liris  65 

Livius  Andronicus  xviii,  xxii,  108-9 

Livius  Salinator  110-1 

locum  (nom.  sinti.)  563 

longiscere,  longiscunt  162 

Luceres  38 

Lucilius  36,  96-7 

Lucretia  59 

luculentitatem  490 

Luna  8—9 ;  Lunai  8 

Lraeus  260 


Macedon,   Macedonian    Wars   119  ff., 

159,  197 
mactassint  344 
mactatos  110 
Maeotis  400-1 
Magnesia  134,  139, 141 
Manilas  (Titus)  Torquatus  63;    his 

son  62 ;  Cn.  Manlius  Vulsi)  144 
manta  480 ;  mantat  500 
Marcellns  457 
Maro  376-7 
Mare  17,  2i>-3,  36-7 
Marsa,  Marsian  448-9 
Massili-  .  .  .  -tanas  464-5 
Massinissa  158-9 
Mavortis  36 
med  242,  410,  472 

Medea  310  ff.;  Mede  320;  Medeai  314 
Mediolanum  ixvii 
Mflanippe  326  ff. 
melannrum  408 
Melo  444-5 
memorvierit  390 
Menelaus  277,  302-5,  311 
mentis  (nom.  sing.)  412-3 
Mercurius,  Mercury  468-9 
Merope  262-3,  265* 
Messapns  rrii,  434-5 
Meesenia  262-3 
Metaurus  111 

Mettoeoque  Fufetioeo  (?)  48-9 
Mettus  (Mettius)  Fufet(t)ius  46,  48-9 
Minerra  270-3 
Mintumae,  MintamenBes  446-7 


qq2 


595 


INDEX 


mirarier  534 

mis  44-5 

iniserete  292 

Mitylene  408-9 

moene  438 

moenimenta  398 

moero  248 ;  moeros  1 36 

momen  212 

moraret  378 

morimur  140 

mu  438;  hv  438 

muriculi  408 

Musa,  Musae,  Muses  2-3,  82-3,  108, 

118,462 
mussabant    68;     mussare    162,    253; 

mussaret  122 ;   musset  378 
muttire  344 
Mycenae  347,  356 
Myonnesus  139 
Myrmidones  288-9 


N 


Naevius  xviii,  xsii,  16,  64,  82-3 

NaT  92-3 

navus  68 

Nemea  328-31 

neminis  266 

Neoptolemus  368-9 

Neptune   246-7,    255,   394-5,   420-1, 

424-5 
Nereus  255,  258-9 
Nerienem,  Nerio  36-7 
Nesactum  157 
Nestor  221,  408-9 
nictentur  492 
Nile  444-5 
ningolus  48 
nitidant  264 
uoctu  (oftZ.)  56,  92 
noenu  162,  540 ;  noenum  (?)  132 
noltis  470 

nomas  276  ^ 

Nonius  ix-xi ;  passim 
nox  (fldv.)  150 
Numa  PompUius  43-5 
Numidae,  Numidians  76,  105,  110 
Numitor  29 


obatus  (?  for  orbatus)  204-5 
obnoxiosae  332-3 


obnoxium  476 

obsidionem  280,  338 

obsipiam  490 

obsorduit  496 

obstipis  150;    obstipo  102;   obstipam 

27,  502 
obstringillant  384 
obvarant  220 
occasus  46,  62,  110 
Oceania  418-9 
Oenomaus  352-3 

oUi  42,  170,  462  j 

Olympia,  Olympic  Games  144-5 
Olympus  2,  3,  424-5,  454-5  I 

opino  474 

opis  400  ;  Ops  418-21,  424-7 
Opscus  106 
opulentitate  532 
Orcus  254-5,  490 
Orestes  268-71 
Ossaiei 
cesiculatim  484 
Ostia  53 


Pacuvius  xxiii 

Paeligna,  Paelignian  448-9 

palm  {f(yr  pal  mis)  296-7 

paluda  96 

Pan  422-3 

Pancliaea  423 

Pancratiastes  362 

pamiibus  406 

parire  6 

Paris  see  Alexander  and  234  2. 

partivit  342 

partum  (Jor  partium)  210 

Parum,  Pares  204-5 

pammper  16-17,  26,  190,  208 

Patroclus  221,  273,  278-87 

Patricoles  278 ;  see  Patroclus 

pauperies  294;  pauperii  532 

pavum  6 

peniculamentum  130,  512 

Pelias  312-3,  320-1 

Pelio,  Pelion  312-3 

Pelopia  356-7 

Pelops  352-3,  356-7 

perbiteret  298 

perduellibus  366 

Pergamum,  Pergama  135,  137,  234-5, 

244-5 
permarceret  198-9 
perpetuassit  118 


596 


INDEX 


Perseus  .57  ff. 

Perseus  (of  ICaoedon)  94, 159,  161 

Phalanna  165 

Phegeus  229,  231,  233 

Phemonoe  454-5 

Philip  V  of  Macedon  118-9,  125, 127 

philologam  562 

Phoenicians  86,  99,  449 ;  tee  Poeni 

Phoenix  221-3,  33U  fl. 

pilatas  384 

pinsibant  376;  pinsunt  124 
■Pizaeam,  Piraeus  554-5 
■naatos  xxii 
IfPicto  42t>-l 

Poeni  84,  98,  104-5,  116-7,  448;  see 
Phoenicians 

poetor  39<> 

Polydamas  275 

PolVdoros  290-1 

Polymestor  291,  299 

Polyphontes  262-3,  265 

Tolypus  408 

Polyiena  253,  255,  291,  295 

Polyxenidas  139 

PompiliDS,  Noma  43-5 

x)pnJatim  514 

jorcet  342 

Porcius  Cato  rviii,  xxi,  95,  127,  129, 
131,  145 

XHgite  563 

>ortiscaIas  110 

Poeeidon  326 ;  tee  Xepmne 

PostumioB,  (A.)  AJbinus  xxii 

Postumius,  Locios  89 

)Gte  1^;    poQS  376;    potis  est  278, 
373;  poUssont  152 

iateBtiir440 

nraeeepta  406-7 
BOOI  100-1 

onwpete  202-3 

fMaeterpiopter  3t>8 

pwUigMa  praestrinxit  538 

StexiUiea  265-7 

ftMin    8,   9,    234-7,    239  S.,    250-1, 
272-3,  288-91 

?rocalus  39 

■rodinunc  56 

«oeliaat232 

»0giiaziter74 

iwAitumin  324 

iixdetaiias  196-7 

iropagmen  178 

'lopeiatim  526 

'K^inas  386 

vopitiabilis  360 


propritim  3«) 

proterviter  362 

Pntreptiaan  (?)  406-7 

Proeerpina  415 

proeomia  468,  508 

Psophis  229,  231 

publicitos  196,  53'J 

paelli  S4 

pnere  5i>4 

pugnitus  486 

pulchritas  486 

Punic  Ware  64  ff.,  78  f£.,  193,  394  ff. 

patns  244 

PTTThns  65  ff.,  101,  129,  193,  454 


quaesendom  253,  262 

quaesti  {gen.  ting.)  544 

qoamde  33,  46 

qnianam  80,  196 

Qoinctias  CT.)  Flamininus  120-5,  127 

129 
quippe  126,  146 
QoirinuB  38 
qnisqailias  554—5 
qoitur  558 
qnoi  ^} 


B 
rabere498 
Bamnenses  38 
retailer  248 
raienter  246,  514,  bm 
rata8  28 
raTim  500 
reciprocat  258 
rediiuint  663 
remorfoescat  563 
Bemoria  29 
Bemns  17,  27-33,  457 
reperibit  510 
repoetos  563 
RStat  166-7 
ie8titat304 
BhaeU  448-9 
Bbea  424-5 
Bhodiaiisl39 
rimantor  (!')  132 
Bipaean  392-3 
Borne,  Bomans  xriii  S.,  31,  42,  60, 

66  ff.  eU.,  172,  176-7,  180,  182,  198, 

202,  398-9,  434,  446-9 


597 


INDEX 


Romulus  15-7,  27-43,  157 
Rudiae,  Rudini,  Rudian  xvii-xviii 
rumpiae  141 
runata  18G-7 


Sabinae  (poem)  360-1 

Sabini,  Sabines  34  fif.,  361 

saeviter  286 

sagus  180,  440 

Salamis  337 

sale  (?iom.)  138-9 

Salmacis  226-7 

salum  iaa:.)  290-1 

sam  82 

Samnites  63 

sauctioreis  564 

sanguen  40,  294 

sapientipotentes  66 

sapsa  152 

Sardinia  xviii,  65,  87-9,  158 

Sarra  84 

Satires,  Saturae  xxv,  8,  382  ft.,  436  ft. 

Satum(us)  12,  23,  418  ff.,  448-9 

scabrent  256 

Scamander  288-9 

Bcamna  30 

Bcaphonem  548 

schema  488-9,  496 

sciciderit  328 

Scipio  Africanus  xs,  x  xiv-v,  95, 110-7, 

139,  141,  145,  164-5,  387,  394  ff. 
Scipio  Nasica  xix 
Scipio  (poem)  xx,  xxv,  394-9 
Scythia  393 
sed  (for  sine)  80 
Seleucus  IV  135, 137 
Sempronius,  (P.)  Tuditanus  105,  113 
sentinat  468-9 
Seppius  Loesius  109 
Servilius  Geminus  78-81 
Servius  Galba  xxii,  410-1 
Semus  Honoratus  xi-xii 
Servius  Tullius  43,  57,  59 
sibynis  90 

SicUia,  SicUy  81,  87,  428-9 
sicilibus  184 
silicemium  512 
silvai  frondosai  70 
simiUtas  540 
singulatim  500 


sis  54 

Sky  419,  423,  425 

solui  563 

sonit  288;  sonunt  140,  254 

soniti  (gen.  sing.)  474 

Bortiunt  262 

80S  10,  56,  88,  128 

80spe3  563;  sospitem  366 

sospitent  326 

Sola,  Sotas  (poem)  402-5 

Sotades  403 

Spain,  Spanish  131,  144 

speres  (plur.  of  spes)  40,  152 

spiras  186 

spoliantnr  452 

Statins  see  Caecilius 

stlataria  68 

stola  342,  344,  374 

strepiti  274 

suai  122 

subcenturia  (?)  544 

subices  224 

subUmat  322 

subulo  388 

Sulpicius  (P.)    Galba    120;     Serviot 

Galba  xxii,  410-1 
sum  32,  46,  432 
summussi  252-3 
sumpti  (for  sumptus)  530 
superescit  182 
Surrentum  408-9 
Syracuse  165,  410-1,  457 


Talthybius  294-5 
Tanaquil  55,  57 
Tantalus  352-3 
tapete558;  tapetae  563 
taratantara  143 
Tarentum  xviii,  69,  408-9 
Tarquinius  Priscus  56-7,  431 
Tarquinius  Superbus  59 
Tarractna  61 
ted  282 
telamo  444-5 
Telamo(n)  93,  336  ff. 
Telephus  342-7 
Tempe  159 
Terentius  Varro  101 
tcrgus  180 
termo  164-6 
terrai  frugiferai  212 


598 


INDEX 


tesca  376 
tetulisti  18,  496 
Tracer  228-9,  337  ff. 
Thebes  229 
Tr..:iis  306-7 

-:nopvlae  135,  137 
~;tes  219 

-;  rotus  346,  351,  356-7 
thcta  456-7 

Thetis  284-5,  287,  3<;>6-7 
Thrace  144.  377:  Thracians  141,  161 
Thraeca  376 
Thvestes  346  ff. 
Tiber  18-21,  24-5,  52-3 
Tiberinus  18 
Ticinus  102,  186 
Timavus  149,  151 
Titan(ns)  12-3,  261,  418-21 
Titaais  260 
TitieMes  38 
Titus  Talius  36-39 
toleraret  46 
tongent  4i>4 

tonsam  110,  404 ;  tonsas,  tonsis  88 
topper  382-3 
torrus  563 
torviter  32 

totondit  (deque  t.)  196 
trabali  186 
tractatus  43 

tragedies  xxv-vi,  218  ff.,  362  ff. 
trifaci  198 
Trivia  260-1 

Troia  234,  244,  336,  347,  432 
TroT,  Trojans  129,  181,  221,  235,  241, 
244,  247,  282-3,  286,  287,  337,  433 
trao  550 
tuditantes  48 
tullii  228 

Tullins,  SerriuB  43,  57,  59 
Tullns  Hostiiius  45-6,  49,  51 
tomulti  274 
tute  36 
tutolatoe  42 
Tyre  85 


ulciscerem  268 

riixes  276,  292 ;  tee  Ulyases 

Ulvsses    221-3,    227,    253,    255,    271 

292-3,  311 
nrvat  256 

nter  (for  uterus)  502 
Dtrasque  542 


vacant  (?)  288 

vagit  156 

vagore  158 

VaJerius  Laevinus  119 

vallatam  558 

vast^  306 

veges  358 

vei  274 

velitatio  564 

Venus  10,  16-9,  430-1 

verant  136 

vemiliter  546 

Vesper  563 

Vesta  418-21 

Vestina,  Vestinian  448-9 

viai  72 

Tias  (for  viae,  gen.)  160 

Tiden  563 

viere  404 

Villins  (P.)  134 

visceratam  258 

vitulans  238-9 

Votedans  61 

Tolcanns  284-5 

VulacnlnseO 

vulta  174 

vulturus  50 


Xerxes  135, 137 


Zama  ixr,  115-7,  39»-7 


599 


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PINDAR.     Sir  J.  E.  Sandys.     (5th  Imp.  revised.) 
PLATO  :  CHARMIDES.  ALCIBIADES,  HIPPARCHUS, 

THE  LOVERS,  THEAGES,  MINOS  and  EPINOMIS. 

W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
PLATO  :  CRATYLUS,  PARMENIDES,  GREATER  HIP- 

PIAS,  LESSER  HIPPIAS.     H.  N.  Fowler. 
PLATO  :  EUTHYPHRO.  APOLOGY,  CRITO,  PHAEDO, 

PHAEDRUS.     H.  N.  Fowler,     {jth  Imp.) 
PLATO  :    LACHES,  PROTAGORAS,  MENO,  EUTHY- 

DEMUS.     W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
PLATO  :    LAWS.     Rev.  R.  G.  Bury.     2  Vols. 
PLATO  :    LYSIS,  SYMPOSIUM,  GORGIAS.    W.  R.  M. 

Lamb.     {2nd  Imp.  revised.) 
PLATO  :    REPUBLIC.     Paul  Shorey.     2  Vols. 
PLATO:    STATESMAN,   PHILEBUS.     H.   N.   Fowler; 

ION.     W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
PLATO  :   THEAETETUS  and  SOPHIST.    H.  N.  Fowler. 

{2nd  Imp.) 
PLATO  :  TIMAEUS,  CRITIAS,  CLITOPHO,  MENEXE- 

NUS,  EPISTULAE.     Rev.  R.  G.  Bury. 
PLUTARCH  :  MORALIA.    F.C.  Babbitt.    14  Vols.    Vols. 

I.-III. 
PLUTARCH  :  THE  PARALLEL  LIVES.    B.  Perrin.    11 

Vols.    (Vols.  I.,  II.,  III.  and  VII.  2nd  Imp.) 
POLYBIUS.     W.  R.  Paton.     6  Vols. 
PROCOPIUS:     HISTORY    OF    THE    WARS.    H.    B. 

Dewing.     7  Vols.     Vols.  I.-VI.     (Vol.  I.  2nd  Imp.) 
QUINTUS  SMYRNAEUS.     A.  S.  Way.     Verse  trans. 
ST.  BASIL  :    LETTERS.     R.  J.  Deferrari.     4  Vols. 
ST.  JOHN  DAMASCENE  :   BARLAAM  AND  lOASAPH. 

Rev.  G.  R.  Woodward  and  Harold  Mattingly. 
SEXTUS  EMPIRICUS.     Rev.  R.  G.  Bury.     In  3  Vols. 

Vols.  I.  and  II. 

6 


SOPHOCLES.     F.  Storr.     2  Vols.     (Vol.  I.  6th  Imp.,  Vol. 

II.  ^th  Imp.)     Verse  trans. 
STRABO  :    GEOGRAPHY.     Horace  L.  Jones.     8  Vols. 

(Vols.  I  and  VIII.  2nd  Imp.) 
THEOPHRASTUS  :    CHARACTERS.     J.M.Edmonds; 

HERODES,  etc.     A.  D.  Knox. 
THEOPHRASTUS  :     ENQUIRY   INTO   PLANTS.     Sir 

Arthur  Hort,  Bart.     2  Vols. 
THUCYDIDES.     C.F.Smith.     4  Vols.     (Vol.1. 3rd  Imp.. 

Vols.  II.,  III.  and  IV.  2nd  Imp.  revised.) 
TRYPHIODORUS.     Cf.  OPPIAN. 
XENOPHON  :   CYROPAEDIA.     Walter  Miller.     2  Vols. 

{2nd  Imp.) 
XENOPHON  :    HELLENICA,  ANABASIS,  APOLOGY. 

AND  SYMPOSIUM.     C.  L.  Brownson  and  O.  J.  Todd. 

3  Vols.     {2nd  Imp.) 
XENOPHON  :    MEMORABILIA  and  OECONOMICUS. 

E.  C.  Marchant. 
XENOPHON  :    SCRIPTA  MINORA.     E.  C.  Marchant. 


IN    PREPARATION 


Greek  Authors 

ARISTOTLE  :    DE  CAELO,  etc.     W.  C.  K.  Guthrie. 

ARISTOTLE  :  ON  HISTORY,  MOTION  AND  PRO- 
GRESSION OF  ANIMALS.    E.  S.  Forster  and  A.  Peck. 

ARISTOTLE  :  ORGANON.  H.  P.  Cooke  and  H.  Treden- 
nick. 

ARISTOTLE:  RHETORICA  AD  ALEXANDRUM. 
H.  Rackham. 

DEMOSTHENES  :  MEIDIAS,  ANDROTION.  ARISTO- 
CRATES,  TIMOCRATES.     J.  H.  Vince. 

DEMOSTHENES  :  PRIVATE  ORATIONS.  A.  T.  Mur- 
ray. 

DIONYSIUS  OF  HALICARNASSUS  :  ROMAN  ANTI- 
QUITIES.    Spelman's  translation  revised  bv  E.  Cary. 

GREEK  MATHEMATICAL  WORKS.     J.  Thomas. 

MINOR  ATTIC  ORATORS  (ANTIPHON,  ANDOCIDES 
DEMADES,  DINARCHUS,  HYPEREIDES).  K. 
Maidment. 

NONNUS.     W.  H.  D.  Rouse. 


Latin  Authors 

AMMIANUS  MARCELLINUS.     J.  C.  Rolfe. 

S.  AUGUSTINE  :   CITY  OF  GOD.     J.  H.  Baxter. 

CICERO  :   AD  HERENNIUM.     H.  Caplan. 

CICERO:  IN  CATILINAM.  PRO  FLACCO,  PRO 
MURENA,  PRO  SULLA.     Louis  E.  Lord. 

CICERO:  DE  ORATORE.  Charles  Stuttaford  and 
W.  E.  Sutton. 

CICERO  :    ORATOR,  BRUTUS.    H.  M.  Hubbell. 

CICERO  :  PRO  SESTIO,  IN  VATINIUM,  PRO  CAELIO. 
DE  PROVINCIIS  CONSULARIBUS,  PRO  BALBO. 
J.  H.  Freese. 

COLUMELLA  :    DE  RE  RUSTICA.     H.  B.  Ash. 

PLINY  :    NATURAL  HISTORY.     W.  H.  S.  Jones. 

PRUDENTIUS.     J.  H.  Baxter  and  C.  J.  Fordyce. 

SIDONIUS  :  LETTERS  &  POEMS.  E.  V.  Arnold  and 
W.  B.  Anderson. 

VARRO  :    DE  LINGUA  LATINA.     R.  G.  Kent. 


DESCRIPTIVE  PROSPECTUS  ON  APPLICATION 


London  -        .        .        .         WILLIAM   HEINBiVIANN   LTD 

Cambridge,  Mass.  -        -        -  HARVARD   UNIVERSITY   PRE55 


1983   4 


PA       Warmington,  Eric  Herbert  (ed 

2510"     and  tr.) 

A2         Remains  of  old  Latin 

1935 

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